2022 Vol. 28, No. 1

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On research methodology for deformation history of tectonic lithofacies in sedimentary basin and their application
FANG Weixuan
2022, 28(1): 1-21. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222801
Abstract (433) HTML (101) PDF (35037KB)(128)
The coupling pattern between the deformation history of tectonic lithofacies and the sequence of ore (reservoir)-forming in the basin remain as an unsettled scientific issue, for (non-) metals, uranium, coal, oil and gas resources being hosted in the same sedimentary basin. On the basis of tectonic lithofacies mapping and tectonic lithofacies deformation history study, the deformation history of tectonic lithofacies can be classified into six stages: pre-basin formation, basin formation, basin inversion, basin deformation, basin-in magmatic superimposition, and basin supergene. The main results are as follows. Firstly, patterns and combination of snygenetic structure in the basin can be delineated by innovative approach of tectonic lithofacies mapping. The tectonic lithofacies mapping of 12 lithofacies series of cryptovolcanic rock intrusion, volcanic cyptoexplosion-intrusion and volcanic explosion-eruption in the volcanic area helps to delineate the central parts of volcanic edifice, diagenesis and mineralization of volcanic hydrothermal fluid, and sedimentation of volcanic hydrothermal vent. Secondly, the transitional tectofacies zone of basin-mountain-plateau is a tectonic lithofacies zone for fluid migration and storage on a large scale, and also a favorable tectonic lithofacies belt for (non-) metals-uranium-coal-oil and gas resources hosted in the same basin. Foreland basin, intermountain basin, and hinterland basin have different styles of deformation tectonics. The study of tectonic lithofacies and mapping contributes to understand the paleo-geothermal reservoir, the series of reservoir-forming and ore-forming events for the hydrocarbon generation and migration derived from the coal-measure metal-bearing source rocks, etc. Thirdly, basin-in crust-source magma, combination of crust-mantle derived magma, and mantle-derived magma had formed their corresponding magmatic superimposing tectonics and magmatic superimposing diagenetic lithofacies system, respectively. Four coupling structures of magma-tectonics-lithology-hydrothermal fluid existed in the asymmetry dome-shaped complex fold formed by magmatic hunch-up. On the one hand, tourmaline-rich plume tectonics produced by the diagenesis and ore-forming of basin-in magmatic reconstruction-superimposing were typified by hunch-up and rotated fault-fold zone, series of tourmaline alteration facies. On the other hand, CO2-rich plume tectonics produced by basin-in magmatic reworking was characterized by thermal-derived faults, vertical zoning of Fe-Mn-carbonate minerals, and they intergrowth with vertical zoning of siderite skarn, skarnized marble, Fe-Mn carbonate minerals hosted in marble, and marbleization crystalline limestone in sequence.
Application of integrated geophysical method in prospecting: A case study of the magnetite-type IOCG deposits in the Moon Mountain exploration area, Copiapo, Chile
LI Tiancheng, FANG Weixuan, WANG Lei, CHEN Jiale, ZHANG Ping
2022, 28(1): 22-35. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222802
Abstract (311) HTML (119) PDF (14142KB)(75)
Many medium to large magnetite-type IOCG deposits have been found in the Copiapo area of Chile, which is located in the north fragment of the Chilean iron belt on the east side of the coastal mountain belt. The formation of these deposits is closely related to the neutral mafic volcanic rocks in the continental margin arc under the background of ocean subduction and the intrusion center of Early Cretaceous intermediate-acid magmatic rocks intruded in the volcanic sedimentary formation. The metallogenic belt is largely covered by Quaternary gravel layer. Using integrated geophysical methods with metallogenic geological characteristics to locate the concealed deposits (ore-bodies) under the overburden has become a key technology and a practical demand. We conducted an in-depth study of the metallogenic geological characteristics of magnetite-type IOCG deposits in the Copiabo area, and interpreted the preliminary exploration target by aeromagnetic deep-geological interpretation. Combining the interpretation results with the statistical analysis of metallogenic geological-physical parameters of magnetite-type IOCG deposits, a metallogenic geological-geophysical anomaly model of magnetite-type IOCG deposits in the Copiabo area is established. A large concealed magnetite-type IOCG deposit was found and verified by drilling in the deep target area delineated in the Quaternary coverage area of the Moon Mountain exploration area by using the integrated geophysical method.
Mineralization styles and structure-controlled mineralization rules of the Sanhe Pb-Zn Deposit in Inner Mongolia
BI Yaqiang, LI Yongxin, CHEN Wenke, MA Hubiao, YU Chao, FENG Yu, ZHOU Lin, YUE Lei, YANG Zaijing, HU Defeng
2022, 28(1): 36-49. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021131
Abstract (389) HTML (102) PDF (30378KB)(62)
The Sanhe Pb-Zn deposit is studied in this paper through detailed field and underground geological investigations, structural geological surveys, drilling profile analysis combined with petrological and mineralogical analysis of ores and altered wall-rocks. We then discussed the ore-controlling structures and their distribution patterns, the styles of mineralization and alteration, the coupling relation between the mineralization and fault structures. Our results show that the mineralization in the Sanhe deposit show structure-controlled characteristics, and with dominant ore bodies trending NWW, dipping SSW. The extent of the ore-controlling faults can reach hundreds of meters to a few kilometers long, with relative stable occurrence. In the field, the ore-controlling faults occur as altered foliated zones but with tensional breccia veins and druse texture in them, showing a reactivated shear fault signature. NWW- and NNE- trending faults show post-ore deformation characteristics and usually with lamprophyre, syenite porphyry or calcite ±quartz ±fluorite ±clay mineral veins occuring in them. The NNW- and NNE- trending faults and related veins crosscut the mineralized carbonate-quartz veins and NWW-trending faults indicating a post-ore brittle deformation and hydrothermal activity. The post-ore faults and related hydrothermal veins usually occur as branching, bifurcation or irregular shapes and with druse texture in the center of the veins implying a extensional faults. Although the post-ore faults can slightly dislocate the ore bodies and contemporaneous hydrothermal veins, the displacement is negligible for exploration. The alteration around the non-mineralized calcite veins is dominated by clay alteration together with minor disseminated pyrite. Combined the structure-controlled mineralization and the alteration related Pb-Zn minerlization, it is concluded that the NWW-tending faults with silicification, pyritization, chloritization alteration halo, can be used as significant prospecting criteria in the deposit and the neighbouring area.
Metallogenic regularity of Meso-Cenozoic stratabound glutenite-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposits in the southwestern Tianshan Mountains
LIU Zengren, ZHU Hongying, JIA Runxing, SHUAI Lei, TANG Hu
2022, 28(1): 50-66. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222803
Abstract (408) HTML (86) PDF (14271KB)(61)
The southwestern Tianshan Mountains is an important producing area of the Meso-Cenozoic stratabound glutenite-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposits in Xinjiang. Sareke copper mine, Wulagen lead-zinc mine, Huayuan copper mine and Jiashi copper mine are the representative deposits, which all occur in the red bed basin on the edge of the uplift denudation area and are strictly controlled by strata. The lower part of the ore-bearing basin is composed of coal-bearing hydrocarbon-generating rocks, the middle part is well-permeable glutenites as the Cu-Pb-Zn reservoir, and the overlying layer is a sealed cap formed by gypsum rocks and mudstones, showing the ore-forming characteristics of co-enrichment of Cu-Pb-Zn-Uranium-coal-natural gas in the same basin. In this paper, we summarized the sedimentary-tectonic evolution of these ore-bearing basins and the characteristics of ore-bearing layers, and analyzed the ore-controlling conditions and metallogenic characteristics of typical copper, lead and zinc deposits. Combining with comparative analysis, we summarized the regional metallogenic regularity of the Meso-Cenozoic glutenite-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposit, and hold the view that organic matter is closely related to Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization. Moreover, it is inferred that Cu-Pb-Zn-lean ore bodies were formed over the original source layer in the uplift caused by the superimposition of oilfield brine; Cu-Pb-Zn-rich ore bodies were formed by the superimposition of deep-source ore-forming fluids from the Himalayan fault structure. The metallogenic model of the middle Cenozoic stratabound glutenite-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposits in the southwestern Tianshan Mountains provides a basis for the exploration of the known mines in their deep and edge, and also provides guidance for the regional prospecting work.
The genesis and ore-controlling regularity of interbedded orebodies controlled by tectonics and lithofacies in Lutangba, Gejiu, Yunnan Province
JIA Runxing, FANG Weixuan
2022, 28(1): 67-77. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222804
Abstract (334) HTML (111) PDF (14066KB)(44)
The Gejiu tin deposit in Yunnan Province is a world-class super-large tin-polymetallic deposit, and the interbedded deposit (cassiterite-sulfide) is one of the important deposit types, but its genesis has been debated. The mineral fabric and geochemical characteristics of the interbedded orebodies of No.10 Ore Group at different levels of the Lutangba section in the Gaosong ore field were systematically studied to further discuss the genesis and provide theoretical basis for deep exploration of this type of deposit. The study results show that there is big difference between primary ore and oxidized ore. In the primary ore of the interbedded orebodies, the metallic sulfides are mainly pyrrhotite, pyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, etc; the gangue minerals are mainly tremolite, fluorite and a few quartz, etc. In the oxidation ore of interbedded orebodies, most cassiterites are reddish-brown and irregular, and a small amount of cassiterite is hypidiomorphic, with a particle size of 0.07~0.3 mm according to the analysis of heavy sand. Comparing the primary ore and oxidized ore at different elevations, we found that the loss of SiO2, A12O3, TiO2, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5 and ignition loss are greater than that of primary sulfide ores in general, except that the content of S and FeO in oxidized ores is less than that of primary ores. The analysis results of the main elements at different elevations of the primary ore show that CaO and P2O5 increase from the bottom to the top, while MgO, S and ignition loss show a wave-like change from small to large and then smaller. In addition, the metallic sulfide in the primary ore has obvious zonation, with copper mineralization in the lower part and zinc mineralization in the upper part. The oolitic colloidal pyrite and pores formed by early high temperature exhalation can be seen in the upper part of the primary ore, while the lower part is mostly automorphic to hypidiomorphic pyrite. We hold the opinion that the interbedded orebodies in Lutangba mainly are related to post-magmatic gasification hydrothermal of the late Yanshanian period, and are obviously controlled by the tectonics and lithofacies. In the Indosinian period, the north-south compression formed multiple interlayer detachment structures between the calcareous dolomite and limestone strata, which are the important ore-hosting structures. The NE faults (such as the Lutangba fault) formed in the late Yanshanian period are the important passable structures. During the post-magmatic gasification hydrothermal transgression through NE faults, gently inclined orebodies were formed in the multiple interlayer detachment structures, and finally, steep inclined orebodies formed in the faults. The widely developed karstification in this area has a great influence on mineralization, which further enlarges the ore-hosting structure formed in the Indosinian period before mineralization, and accelerates the oxidation of interbedded orebody margins after mineralization.
The metallogenic model of the sandstone-type copper deposits in the Kangcun area, Kuqa Basin, Xinjiang
CAI Houan, GAO Haiou, FAN Shijia, XIAO Wenjin, ZHANG Lei
2022, 28(1): 78-89. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222805
Abstract (313) HTML (219) PDF (29790KB)(44)
A series of sandstone-type copper deposits and occurrence distribute in the Kuqa basin, Xinjiang. We carried out a research into the sedimentary environment and metallogenic model of the copper deposits in the Kangcun area based on field surveys. The relationship between the sedimentary environment/facies in the area and the copper mineralization were summarized so as to explore the genesis of mineralization and the metallogenic model. We identified main sedimentary facies types of alluvial fans, fan deltas, and lakes in the Neogene strata, and further identification of five subfacies and seven microfacies were made. Our research results reveal that the genesis of sandstone-type copper mineralization is related to the sedimentary environment, and the mineralized bodies are mainly distributed in fan delta plain facies and fan delta front facies. Detrital zircon dating results of two samples are 427.4±6.6 Ma, 387.3±3.3 Ma and 424.6±2.3 Ma, 279.9±6.8 Ma respectively. It indicates that the source of the copper-bearing sandy conglomerate in the Miocene Jidike Formation (N1j) is mainly from the strata and magmatic rock products formed by the geological evolution during the Late Silurian to Early Permian. The mineralization in the Kangcun area belongs to the sandstone-type copper mineralization. The deep copper enrichment is TSR-type mineralization, and the surface mineralization is caused by the surficial and underground brine. The copper mineralization in the Kangcun area was formed after the diagenesis of Neogene sandstone. It is epigenetic enrichment, and is mainly controlled by fault structure and epigenetic brine in the Late Neogene.
Geochemical features of the Zoujiashan and Shazhou uranium ore deposits in the Xiangshan area, Jiangxi, China: Implications for hydrothermal source
YAO Hongxin, GUO Tao, ZHU Suizhou, SHI Lihu, CHU Zhaobo, LI Lingbin, TAO Zhu, LI Xinnian
2022, 28(1): 90-100. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020040
Abstract (216) HTML (60) PDF (14157KB)(42)
This article presents a geochemical analysis of the major and trace elements in the wall-rocks and ores at different elevations in the Zhoujiashan and Shazhou ore deposits of the Xiangshan uranium orefield. Combining the analysis results with alteration characteristics of the deposits, we aims to understand the source of ore-forming materials and fluids. The variation trend of the typical major elements shows that the Xiangshan orefield has obvious vertical alteration zonings. The alteration rocks exposed in the shallow part of the Zoujiashan deposit mainly show alkaline alteration, while those exposed in the Shazhou deposit mainly show acidic alteration, which confirms the alteration characteristics of "alkaline alteration in the north and acidic alteration in the west" in the Xiangshan area. Correlation analysis and Q-type cluster analysis of the trace elements in the two deposits show that the geochemical characteristics of the two deposits are similar. Mo, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, La and Ba are closely related to mineralization. The above two analysis together with the study on loading relations of orthogonal factors reveal that the ore-forming hydrothermal fluids of the two deposits are derived from the same deep fluid. Moreover, the loading relations analysis of orthogonal factors also shows that rhyolite is strongly correlated with ore, suggesting that ore-forming materials are most likely derived from rhyolite magma.
A study on tectonic geomorphology and landscape ecological pattern in the Kangsu area, Wuqia, Xinjiang
WANG Lei, FANG Weixuan, LU Jia, LIU Zengren
2022, 28(1): 101-112. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222808
Abstract (404) HTML (94) PDF (29325KB)(64)
The Kangsu area is located in the basin-mountain coupling zone formed by the alluvial action of the West Kunlun Mountains and the Southwestern Tianshan Mountains. Its tectonic landforms show significant characteristics of mountain-plain distribution pattern. Our study aims to explore the causes of the tectonic landforms and the evolution rules. Based on "3S" technology, we carried out a tectonic geomorphic mapping to classify the landscape ecological types and study the impact of tectonic geomorphology on the landscape ecological patten in this region. We then sorted out five landscape classes using vertical mountain-plain tectonic landforms as an indicator and six landscape types using land-use type and vegetation cover as indicators. Then we further classified the study area into twenty-three landscapes according to natural ecosystems (snow mountains, grasslands, rivers) and artificial ecosystems (farmlands, towns, industrial mines). Our findings show that the overall Kangsu area forms a basin-mountain-plain inlaid tectonic landscape ecological pattern with rivers as corridors and five landscapes, namely mountains, plains, towns, industrial mines, farmlands, as patches. The tectonic movements caused by the uplift of mountains and plateaus as well as the continuous erosion of the Kizilsu River and the Kangsu River directly affect the evolution of the landscape and ecological pattern of the Wuqia-Heiziwei-Mayikake area.
Meso-Neoproterozoic tectono-thermal evolution in the northern margin of North China Craton: Constraints from zircon (U-Th)/He ages
LI Chenxing, CHANG Jian, QIU Nansheng, LI Meijun, XIAO Hong
2022, 28(1): 113-125. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021042
Abstract (360) HTML (72) PDF (7402KB)(70)
Due to the complicated tectonic and sedimentary history and the lack of effective paleo-thermal indicators, the Meso-Neoproterozoic thermal history of the Yanliao rift zone in the northern margin of the North China Craton is ambiguous, which causes the maturation evolution of ancient source rocks controversial. In this study, zircon (U-Th)/He dating is used to study the tectono-thermal evolution of the Yanliao rift zone since the Mesoproterozoic, and we also analyzed the maturation evolution stages of two sets of Mesoproterozoic source rocks. The single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He ages from the Meso-Neoproterozoic strata in the Yanliao rift zone are all younger than the corresponding stratigraphic ages and therefore recorded the thermal information in the past. Moreover, the single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He ages of the Neoproterozoic Longshan formation show a negative correlation with the effective uranium concentration. The forward and inverse coupling simulation revealed that the Yanliao rift zone experienced two rapid cooling events of 440~320 Ma and 220~0 Ma, probably related to the collision between the Bainaimiao island arc and the northern margin of the North China Craton and the subduction of Mongolia Okhotsk oceanic crust below the eastern North China Craton, respectively. In addition, the formation temperature variations at the end of Ordovician and the end of Triassic had an important influence on the maturation evolution of Mesoproterozoic source rock.
Petrogenesis and tectonic significance of Late Permian-Middle Triassic granitoids in Guobaoshan, eastern section of the eastern Tianshan mountains: Constraints from geochronology and geochemistry
HE Xinyu, FANG Tonghui, BO Hetian, LIU Haipeng, ZHANG Zhongyi, XIAO Wenjin
2022, 28(1): 126-142. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222807
Abstract (372) HTML (110) PDF (29830KB)(54)
The eastern Tianshan-Beishan area is one of the important metallogenic belts in China, but the Late Permian-Middle Triassic tectonic evolution still remains a controversial issue. The Guobaoshan area is located in the eastern section of the eastern Tianshan mountains. Five kinds of Late Permian-Middle Triassic granitoids are exposed in this area, namely granodiorite, monzonitic granite, quartz syenite, syenogranite and amazonite granite. These granitoids are generally rich in silicon and alkali. Granodiorite, monzonitic granite and quartz syenite are characterized by the enrichment of potassium and magnesium, showing LREE enriched REE patterns (LREE/HREE=0.86) with weakly negative Eu anomaly, while syenogranite, being similar to sodic and ferrous amazonite granite, is characterized by a "sea-gull" REE pattern and significant negative Eu anomaly (δEu=0.03), as well as enrichment of Ta and Rb. The 206Pb/238U surface ages of zircons of granodiorite are concentrated in the range of 255~250 Ma, which are earlier than that of amazonite granite. Both syenogranite and amazonite are typical A-type granite and formed in intra-plate environment, but the other granitoids are Ⅰ-type granite and formed in post-collision tectonic setting. There is no genetic relation between two groups of granitoids and they belong to different magma series. The Guobaoshan area was still in the post-collision tectonic setting during 255~250 Ma, and switched to the intra-plate environment before 247 Ma.
Comparative study of multi-source remote sensing data for regional geologic mapping at 1: 50, 000 scale in the Hala'alate Mountains, west Junggar
CHENG Sanyou, WANG Xi, LI Yongjun, WANG Ran
2022, 28(1): 143-154. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021035
Abstract (305) HTML (123) PDF (48820KB)(62)
Regional geological mapping at 1:50, 000 scale was carried out in the Urho area of the Hala'alate Mountains in west Junggar, Xinjiang. Based on field investigation and referring to the regional geological survey and previous research results in recent years, we made a detailed remote sensing interpretation and analysis on the stratigraphic units, small and medium-sized geological bodies (dikes, small rock bodies, craters) and geological structures of the Hala'alate Mountains, and conducted detailed remote sensing field survey verifications. Following findings are revealed by the study results. In the process of making remote sensing image base map, the color space HSV transform fusion method is used to fuse SPOT5 high-precision remote sensing image data and ETM image data, and the fused image maintains the consistency of spectral information; SPOT5 1~4 of PC (principal component) 1, 2 and 3, ETM 1~7 of PC1, 2 and 3, ETM 1~7 of PC 6, 5, and 4 are processed into pseudo color synthetic images, respectively. After principal component transformation, the false color composite image concentrate on the multispectral information useful for regional geological survey and eliminate noise information. It improves the information content and interpretation complexity of remote sensing image base map. The combination of various detailed geological data collected in the field with Quickbird high-precision remote sensing images can accurately and quickly delineate the geological boundary, significantly improving the accuracy of structural and geological body boundary delineation. The results of comprehensive remote sensing interpretation of multi-source remote sensing data well guide the field geological survey work in the Urho area of the Hala'alate mountains in west Junggar, Xinjiang, and high-resolution remote sensing images play a key role in the accurate interpretation of small and medium-sized geological bodies in the geological survey of the region.