2016 Vol. 22, No. 1

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LANDSLIDE SUSCEPTIBILITY ASSESSMENT BASED ON GIS IN BAILONGJIANG WATERSHED, GANSU PROVINCE
DU Guo-liang, ZHANG Yong-shuang, GAO Jin-chuan, SUN Yu-chun, GUO Chang-bao
2016, 22(1): 1-11.
Abstract (200) HTML (69) PDF (9675KB)(24)
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Based on geohazard data collections and field investigations in Bailongjiang watershed, this paper analyzed the statistical relationship of lithology, slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, drainages, faults, vegetation coverage and landslide occurrence. The evaluation index system of susceptibility assessment was established and the landslide susceptibility assessment in Bailongjiang watershed was accomplished by using AHP method. The landslide susceptibility map was classified into four classes: very low, low, moderate, and high. The high landslide susceptibility areas, 13.59% of the study area, were mainly distributed along the faults and Bailongjiang River, and in the regions characterized by presence of soft rocks. The moderate landslide susceptibility areas, covering 27.85% of the study area, were mostly along the main roads and tributaries of the Bailongjiang River. The low landslide susceptibility areas, accounting for 33.09%, had relatively high elevation and vegetation coverage, and there were no faults passing through. The rest were very low landslide susceptibility areas, making up 25.46% of the study area. The results from the evaluation coincided well with the previous landslide occurrence, which could reflect general characteristics of landslide hazard development.
CHARACTERISTICS AND DEFORMATION MECHANISM OF SHUIWAN SEISMIC LOESS LANDSLIDE IN MAIJI, TIANSHUI
LI Hao, YANG Wei-min, HUANG Xiao, LIU Ting, TIAN You, CHENG Xiao-jie
2016, 22(1): 12-24.
Abstract (228) HTML (133) PDF (22047KB)(12)
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Many historical earthquakes happened in Tianshui and its adjacent region, which resulted in seismic loess landslides developing extremely. According to field survey and indoor synthetic analysis, Shuiwan landslide and landslide groups of Liugou belong to typical seismic loess landslides, which are usually performance for large-scale, the sliding surface cutting deeply, thickness greatly, small slope, distributed along zones, appeared in groups and decline in high position and other characteristics. The characteristics above can be used as important symbols of field identification of seismic loess landslides. The slopes involved in Shuiwan landslide and the right bank Liugou landslides are characterized by loess/mudstone slope double layers structure. Under the condition of internal power, it is easy to slip along the loess/mudstone contact surfaces. Under the dynamic circulative loading, shear strength of the landslide rock mass is decreased on one hand. On the other hand it also changes the mechanical status of landslide, and the balance of the slope body is destroyed, which induce landslide happened. So, Shuiwan landslide is still in understable state. In case of an earthquake or heavy rainfall, it is likely to reoccur again. There is a necessary for further research of the disaster model of seismic loess landslide. It will provide a scientific basis for prevention and mitigation disaster of potential meizoseismal area.
DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS AND INDUCING FACTORS OF LOESS LANDSLIDE IN MAIJI MAPPABLE UNIT, TIANSHUI
TIAN You, YANG Wei-min, HUANG Xiao, LIU Ting, LI Hao, XIANG Ling-zhi, CHENG Xiao-jie
2016, 22(1): 25-38.
Abstract (230) HTML (91) PDF (22320KB)(21)
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According to field investigation and lab data statistics, a statistical classification is conducted on 438 loess landslides in which the volume is more than 1×104 m3 in MaiJi mappable unit.It shows that the characteristics of loess landslides are asymmetrical development in space and multiple stages in time. It is mainly reflected in the following ways: the distribution of loess landslides is inhomogeneous in regional, many differences appear in the average thickness of landslide in each region, landslides distribution is banded asymmetrical along the valleys, most landslides develop on the slopes with 15°—30°. Loess landslides in the MaiJi mappable unit are controlled by geological structure, topography and formation lithology. And Loess landslides are majorly induced by rainfall and earthquake.
PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CONDITIONS FOR MINERALIZATION OF THE QINSHAN IRON DEPOSIT IN DATIAN COUNTY, FUJIAN PROVINCE
LIU Nai-zhong
2016, 22(1): 39-47.
Abstract (154) HTML (90) PDF (5034KB)(13)
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Based on field investigation, the forming physical and chemical conditions of Qinshan iron deposit in Datian, Fujian were researched by fluid inclusions measurement and hydrogen and oxygen isotope. The homogenization temperature of fluid inclusions was 355.6 ℃, the salinity was 4.4%NaCl and the density was 0.65 g/cm3. Two peaks of homogenization temperature indicated that there were two stage of ore-fluid in the process of mineralization. The earlier stage was close related with the magnetite metallogenisis on the later skarn stage and the depth of about 3 km, the homogenization temperature was 400~420 ℃. The later stage was the Pb-Zn metallogenic stage and the depth of about 1 km, the fluid temperature was 240~280 ℃ and boiling. Raman analysis showed that the ore forming fluids contained little CO2 and CH4. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope data showed that the ore forming fluid mostly was derived from magma, and mixed with lot of meteoric water at later stage. Overall, the Qinshan Iron deposit was interpreted as a hydrothermal skarn deposit.
GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YOUHULUGOU BASALTS IN THE SUTURE ZONE OF THE NORTH QILIAN MOUNTAIN
LI Bing, ZHANG Yao-ling, WANG Chao-qun, HU Dao-gong
2016, 22(1): 48-55.
Abstract (183) HTML (100) PDF (8281KB)(11)
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Geochemical study for the basalt of Youhulugou ophiolite was carried out and discussed its genesis environment. Major and trace element in basalt is one of the representative ophiolite fragments in the suture zone of the North Qilian Mountain. In this study, geochemical study and indicates that the basalts from the Youhulugou ophiolite have N-MORB type characteristics. And according to the REE distribution patterns with no anomaly, the basalts are also similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt. Meanwhile, these basalts are generally depleted in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) of Rb、K and Sr, and high field strength elements (HFSE) are normal, indicating the characteristics of mantle-derived magma from mid oceanic ridge. Tectonic environment discrimination diagrams also suggest that these basalts are typical mid oceanic ridge basalts (MORB). Combined with regional geological characters and geochemical data, we conclude that the Youhulugou basalts represents a part of the dismembered North Qianlian oceanic crust of the era. And the tectonic setting of the North Qilian Ocean was mid-ocean ridge during the late Proterozoic to late Cambrian.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOHAI SEGMENT OF TANLU FAULT ZONE AND YISHU FAULT ZONE
XU Sheng-lin, ANG Jiao-dong, ZHOU Xin-gui, DING Wei-cui, LI Bing, BI Cai-qin, WANG Yu-fang, REN Feng-lou, HUANG Song, HU Wei-jian
2016, 22(1): 56-65.
Abstract (208) HTML (154) PDF (16597KB)(27)
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Based on the high-precision magnetotelluric and seismic profiles, we analyzed several fractures of Weibei hollow which was the connection point of Bohai segment Fault and Yishu Fault Belt. Furthermore, integrated with stratum forming characters, we found these fractures might belong to different fault systems. We analyzed that the fault Fa and Fb were Paleogene normal faults corresponded with the west fault and east fault of the Tan-Lu fault zone. They showed steep or gentle spoon shaped morphology and disappeared in the middle crust. They controlled Cenozoic sedimentation and the cutting site was relatively shallow. Under the Cenozoic normal fault system, there were some Mesozoic faults which was called extensional fault system. The fault F1 and F6 whose fracture surface were overall suberect control Mesozoic sedimentation with other four faults. And their cutting site was relatively deep and extending downward. Integrated with regional tectonic background and Gravity-Magnetic anomaly data, we concluded that the fault F1 and F6 connected southward with Tangwu-Gegou fault and Changyi-Dadian fault and extended northward into the deep part of Bohai Bay Basin. At the same time, these Mesozoic faults constrained clearly the formation and evolution of the shallow Paleogene fault system.
DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROCARBON RESERVOIRS AND PETROLEUM ACCUMULATION PATTERNS IN THE SHAHEJIE FORMATION ON SLOPE OF SHULU DEPRESSION, NORTH CHINA
LIANG Xing-ru, ZHANG Feng, LI Sheng-li, Huang Jie, LIANG Guan-zhong, SUN Ting-ting, YU Ren-jiang, CAO Bin
2016, 22(1): 66-75.
Abstract (134) HTML (62) PDF (13639KB)(10)
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Based on the analysis of petroleum accumulation conditions in the Shulu slope, the south part of JiZhong sub-basin, North China, the hydrocarbon reservoir distribution laws and petroleum accumulation patterns in the Shahejie Formation of the study area are discussed. The results show 4 major different types of petroleum trap in the Shulu slope. The petroleum accumulation elements and patterns are different in the north, middle, and south part of the slope. Meanwhile, distribution characteristics and types of hydrocarbon traps are also different in the inner and the outer belts of the slope. As one of important petroleum accumulation regions, the Xicaogu structure, in the middle part of the slope, has perfect petroleum accumulation conditions with large-scale petroleum reservoirs. Fault blocks formed by deep and large scale faults which linked reservoirs and hydrocarbon source rocks are considered to be the most profitable belts for preferential petroleum accumulation.
CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTROLLING FACTORS OF FRACTURES IN RESERVOIRS OF XUJIAHE FORMATION IN ZITONG AREA, SICHUAN BASIN
MIAO Feng-bin, ZENG Lian-bo, ZU Ke-wei, GONG Lei
2016, 22(1): 76-84.
Abstract (136) HTML (66) PDF (6489KB)(18)
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Based on the data of outcrops, cores, thin sections and experimental analysis, the development characteristics and controlling factors of fractures in tight sandstone reservoirs of Xujiahe Formation in Zitong Area, Sichuan Basin were analysed and interpreted. There are three types of fractures, i.e. tectonic fractures, diagenetic fractures and fractures related to abnormal high pressure of fluid in the tight sandstone reservoirs. Among them, the tectonic fractures are the main part. There are main three sets fractures of nearly EW, nearly SN and NW-SE orientations. The fractures in study area have an average density of 0.56/m and are mostly confined within the single layer. In the plane, fractures density decreases along the Lao Guanmiao-Wen Xingchang-Zhe Bachang area. While, the fractures of T3x4 are most developed. The proportion of effective fracture is the lowest around the Lao Guanmiao area and increases along the direction of NW to Zhe Bachang area. The distribution of these fractures in study area were controlled by such factors as the lithology, layer thickness, structures and abnormal high pressure of fluid. Sandstone with fine particle and thin layer are favorable for fractures development. Where near the faults and the high part of the structure also are the favorable areas for tectonic fractures development. The control action of faults on the forming and distribution of fractures plays a dominant role. Moreover, the abnormal high pressure of fluid is beneficial to the development of fractures, especially for the extension fractures, the fractures density in abnormal high pressure belts increases significantly. The abnormal high pressure also causes some fractures which were closed in early stage to open and plays important roles in increasing the extent of mineral filling and corrosion increases of fractures.
THE IDENTIFICATION AND 3D MODELING OF INTERBEDS OF THICK OIL LAYER IN THE SHU 1 DISTRICT OF LIAOHE OILFIELD
ZHAO Lei, KE ling, LI Shi-xiong, WANG Hong-tao, YIN Bin-hao
2016, 22(1): 85-92.
Abstract (193) HTML (96) PDF (9745KB)(35)
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In regards of the thick oil reservoir of the Shuyi block in Liaohe oilfield, the interlayer is divided into five types as mud interbed, mud barrier, physical interbed Ⅰ, physical interbed Ⅱ, physical interbed Ⅲ, combining core and logging data. And the classification standards of those five types are defined. Based on the sedimentary environment of this region, the distribution characteristics and rules are analyzed. Under the condition of close-spaced well network, the distribution of the interlayers is random simulated and the lithofacies 3D model is established, which qualitatively reveals the space distribution in vertical profile and horizontal plane. This is significant in the remaining oil distribution research and the oilfield development planning.
LiDAR TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATION AND PROSPECT IN GEOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT
MA Xiao-xue, WU Zhong-hai, LI Jia-cun
2016, 22(1): 93-103.
Abstract (232) HTML (76) PDF (14524KB)(28)
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Based on the composition and fundamental of LiDAR, we summarize its application status and progress in the field of geology, such as geological disasters, active faults, glaciers and coastline mapping, and prospect its application in the future. LiDAR system includes three technologies: laser, GPS and inertial navigation systems, which make a breakthrough in spatial mapping technology following GPS, it obtains three-dimensional information on ground targets quickly and accurately. As a new remote sensing technology, LiDAR will have great development in automatically extracting the landslides and the micro geomorphology structure information of faults. In addition, LiDAR will be widely used in terrain classification, coastal zone investigation and the study on biological diversity in intertidal coastal zone in the future.
SIMULATION MODELING AND SAMPLE SIZE EFFECT ANALYSIS FOR GRAVEL SOIL TRIAXIAL TEST
DONG Hui, LUO Xiao, LUO Zheng-dong, WANG Zhi-chao
2016, 22(1): 104-113.
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Based on the size effect in the gravel soil physics experiment, mechanical properties of the stress-strain, the strain, the cohesive force and inner friction angle of gravel soil was analyzed using discrete element theory and indoor triaxial test. The results showed that the proposed block generated law could realize the simulation of the crushed stone much more. The stress strain curves were almost unanimous (2% strain) at different diameter and height, but the rear part of the curve changes greatly, the smaller the diameter and height, the lower confining pressure stress, the more obvious softening phenomenon. The residual stress was constant after diameter 250 mm, height 350 mm. The peak stress increased with a linear growth rate of 25% with the sample diameter, but nonlinear growth along with the increase of height, when less than 200 mm, the high growth rate was 11.9%, and 28.9% after 200 mm. Damage body strain values were first increasing then decreasing, at the same time cohesive force increases of the linear growth with the diameter and in friction angle was reduced, but rule was just the opposite at different height.
3D IN-SITU CRUSTAL STRESS MEASUREMENT AND ITS APPLICATION TO UNDERGROUND WATER-SEALED OIL STORAGE CAVE ENGINEERING
GUO Shu-tai, CUI Shao-dong, WANG Cheng-hu, MENG Jing, TAN Cheng-xuan
2016, 22(1): 114-124.
Abstract (179) HTML (120) PDF (2735KB)(23)
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Underground water-sealed oil storage cave is a complex underground project. 3D in-situ crustal stress measurement in the constructing process, which can be used to test and re-check for the design scheme of cave excavation and support, is advantageous to the design optimization and the construction. In-situ crustal stress measurements by hydrofracturing method in drilling boreholes along a three dimensional Cartesian coordinate system are conducted, and then the reliable 3D crustal stress magnitudes and directions are calculated from those measuring results. This 3D results examined the in-situ measurements at surveying stage used for designing, and verified the rationality of the design and construction scheme. In addition, the stability of surrounding rock of underground water-sealed oil storage cave was further assessed using the 3D results.
THE METHOD AND APPLICATION OF CENTRIFUGAL MODELING TO VERTICAL STRIP DRAINS IN SOFT FOUNDATION
WANG Cun, HOU Yu-jing, LIU Guo-bao, PENG Ren
2016, 22(1): 125-134.
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Centrifuge model tests were carried out to simulate the construction and operation of the dike on a soft soil foundation by using the geotechnical centrifuge in IWHR. The vertical strip drains in the foundation were simulated by a kind of model cylinder vertical drains, based on the principle of same consolidation degree in the foundation in average for both type of drains. During the model tests, the construction processes were simulated by loading dike materials layer by layer when the centrifuge stops running. Laser displacement sensors and the pore pressure transducers were installed for model measurement of settlement and pore pressure variation during tests. Based on the measured data, the final settlement of the dike was estimated by using experience hyperbolic method. And the consolidation degree of the foundation over time was also calculated, which indicates the average consolidation of the sludge and the sand under the dike. Comparing the consolidation degree of the soft foundation from the results of pore water pressure and that of the theoretical calculation, it shows that the simulation method of vertical strip drains presented in this paper is feasible and acceptable. The comparison of the model test results with that of theoretical calculation indicates that the strip drain simulation method described in this paper is acceptable.
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MAGNETIC STRATA DEVELOPED IN THE LATE CENOZOIC BASINS IN THE SOUTHERN TIBET PLATEAU AND ITS ADJACENT AREAS
HE Lin, WU Zhong-hai, HA Guang-hao, ZHANG Hai-jun
2016, 22(1): 135-151.
Abstract (196) HTML (118) PDF (4045KB)(17)
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The sedimentary strata among the late Cenozoic extensional rift basins with direction south-north or northeast records some important information about the uplift process of the Tibet plateau in southern Tibet and neighboring areas. Magneto stratigraphy is an important method to define the formation and evolution of the late Cenozoic basins. In this paper, we combed and analyzed the magnetic strata research results about the Zhada basin, Thakkhola basin in Nepal, Gyirong-Oma basin and Wuyu basin systematically. In southern Tibet and neighboring areas, we found two distinct sedimentary change events in the south-north basins since they emerged by the comparison and analysis on the geological events represented by the paleomagnetic chronological. The first is that all the basins began to receive deposits between 10.6~8.1Ma; and the second is that the basins began to die between 3.5~2Ma continuously. Moreover, the plateau have two obvious climate changes events at about 8Ma and 3Ma respectively by the summary on the climate change. Therefor the sedimentary and climate changes are near simultaneous. Besides, the ages of the Hipparion fossil in the Zhada basin, Gyirong-Oma basin and Datee basin are between 6.5~7Ma, also with nearly simultaneous. We thought that perhaps there were two relative strong uplift stages on the plateau in 10.6~8.1Ma and 3.5~2Ma by contacting with the overall evolution of the Tibet plateau. At the same time, we raised some questions exiting in the research about the magnetic strata of the late Cenozoic basins in the southern Tibet plateau neighboring areas and gave solutions. And, we offered some proposals for future research about magnetic stratigraphy in this region.
EXTRACTION OF TECTONIC GEOMORPHOLOGIC PARAMETRES BASED ON DEM AND ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCE ON TECTONIC ACTIVITY ABOUT LANGSHAN MOUNTAIN, INNER MONGOLIA
LIU Xiao-tong, ZHANG Xu-jiao, YE Pei-sheng, HE Ze-xin, FU Lian-zhen, JIA Li-yun, HE Xiang-li
2016, 22(1): 152-161.
Abstract (212) HTML (138) PDF (7595KB)(11)
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This paper extracted the drainage basins of 15 rivers on the southeast slope of Langshan Mountain and narrowly calculated their HI values using ArcGIS10.0 based on 30 meter resolution DEM data, then analysed the tectonic activities and geomophological evolutions in this region. The results showed that the HI values of 8 rivers were between 0.3 and 0.6, indicating that these rivers were in their mature stage; the HI values of 7 rivers were greater than 0.6, stating clearly that these rivers were in their juvenile stage. Moreover, there were no rivers in old age. The HI values of V1~V14 changed gently, with the tectonic movement first increasing and then decreasing. The area-altitude points of V14~V22 changed tempestuously, especially rivers V14~V19, which showed a clear upward trend and the river eroded remnant volume increased in the result the tectonic activity decreased. HI values the rivers north of V19 continued to decline, and its tectonic activity increased. The Langshan Mountain was suggested in enhanced-weakening-enhanced diversity state of motion from the southwest to the northeast with the conclusion of previous work in tectonic geomorphology of the consistent results.
REVIEW ON THE LOWER BOUNDARY OF QUATERNARY IN CHINA
JIA Ting, WANG Yong, PU Qing-yu, CHEN Bao-guo
2016, 22(1): 162-177.
Abstract (227) HTML (122) PDF (1128KB)(15)
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Lower Boundary of Quaternary period, the boundary of Quaternary and Neogene, is an important basic problem of the stratigraphic and Quaternary study's. Although currently Quaternary research in China tend to the limit of 2.4~2.6Ma, but there is still have different views. This paper briefly reviews the history of the Chinese Quaternary research, focusing on the research history, current situation and problems in Northern China, the Yellow River Basin, Southwest China, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Tibet area. The aim of paper is to give thereadera clearer understanding of China Quaternary boundary. As well as we introduced the main contribution of the South China Sea sediments and loess stratigraphic section. Finally, explained the shortcomings and the solution of lower boundary of Quaternary period in China by the process of establishing Nihewan stage.
LANDSCAPE CHARACTERISTICS AND AESTHETIC VALUE OF ZHULINPU STONE FOREST IN ZHENGFENG
LU Zheng-yan, BAI Chao-yi, LIAN Xiao-ying
2016, 22(1): 178-184.
Abstract (295) HTML (79) PDF (9038KB)(19)
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Geological background, landscape formation and landscape characteristic of Zhulinpu stone forest in Zhengfeng were introduced and its aesthetic value was discussed based on in-situ investigation. Zhulinpu stone forest was located at phase transition in Aolun Age of the lower Triassic. As a typical example of Trassic karst stone forest in Guizhou, the Zhulinpu stone forest had aesthetic value in terms of surface morphology, spatial structure and landscape grouping. The newfound Double-Breast Mountain and the existed Mountain, both dolomite of Anshun Formatin, were undivided parts of Zhulinpu stone forest.