2019 Vol. 25, No. S1

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EVALUATION OF THE METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF FE2+/FE3+ RATIOS OF MAGNETITE FROM QIMANTAG METALLOGENIC BELTS
YI Liwen, LU Anhuai, GU Xiangping, CHI Guoxiang, CAO Li
2019, 25(S1): 1-4. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.001
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Through the determination of Fe2+/Fe3+ ratios of magnetite from the Qimantag metallogenic belt, the quality of five different methods is evaluated. Oxygen as a super light element, affects the determination results of FeO and Fe2O3 observably when direct oxygen measurement method is used. The valence state method, based on Lα and Lβ spectral intensity ratio of Fe, is also unreliable for FeO and Fe2O3 measurements, because it is hard to establish the relationship between Lβ/ Lα (spectral intensity ratio) and Fe2+/Fe3+(content ratio). Relatively, the charge difference method, the surplus-oxygen method and Mssbauer spectroscopy are still the most favorable methods; however, Mssbauer spectroscopy is limited in spatial resolution to ca. 200 mm, obliterating potential zonations in Fe2+/ Fe3+ ratio.
APPLICATION OF PALEOMAGNETISM IN ORE DEPOSIT STUDY
HUANG Xi, ZHENG Yi, CHEN Binghui, WANG Chengming, YU Pengpeng
2019, 25(S1): 5-9. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.002
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Paleomagnetism is a geological methodology focusing on the magnetic parameters and their variation regulation of geomagnetic field during the Earth history. The core is several magnetic minerals in rocks. By measuring preserved remanence and direction, the initial magnetic strength and direction in rock-forming process can be calculated. It constrains paleomagnetic pole position, rock-forming age and geodynamics background. Ore, a special kind of rock in earth evolution, determines source-transport-storage-preserve-change in deposit-forming process by paleomagnetism study. The present study on paleomagnetism of ore deposits mainly focuses on two aspects: (1) Demagnetization parameters of minerals are used to determine the age of magnetization at the time of formation (dating of the ore deposit) (2) Tectonic stress field changes after the formation of the ore deposit are obtained through magnetic fabric data(Ore deposit preservation changes).More importantly, geological facts are the foundation of paleomagnetism of ore deposits. Due to the great influence of geological occurrence and wall-rock alteration on magnetic parameters, caution must be taken in the processing of geomagnetic data of mineral deposits, and the mutual verification with magnetic stratigraphy can make it possible to obtain valuable magnetic parameters, thus providing effective evidence for restricting the genesis of mineral deposits.
CHARACTERISTICS OF METALLOTECTONICS AND ORE-FORMING STRUCTURAL PLANE IN BAIYUN GOLD DEPOSIT, LIAONING
LI Dedong, WANG Yuwang, ZHANG Zhichao, TIAN Ye, ZHOU Guochao, XIE Hongjing, SHI Yu
2019, 25(S1): 10-20. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.003
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The Baiyun gold deposit is one of the largest ore deposits in the Qingchengzi ore concentrated area, Liaoning. Characteristics of metallotectonics and ore-forming structural planes have been studied comprehensively, based on mineral exploration data and field investigation. Active fractures and folds in ore-forming period become the metalotectonic structures. Fractures can be divided into EW-, NW-and NE-ward fractures based on the injected dikes (such as quartz porphyry, granite porphyry, diorite porphyrite and lamprophyre), and fold is the Yaojialing-Tianqiaoling-Lijiapuzi inverted syncline formed by the thrust derived from Indosinian magmatic activities in Qingchengzi area. Ore-forming structural planes can be divided into four types, namely the contact interface between intrusive rock and surrounding rock, interlayer fracture and lithologic contact interface in the stratum, rock fracture or fissure planes and hydraulic fracturing structure planes. Moreover, formation mechanism of these structural planes was discussed. Finally, it is summarized that ore-bearing hydrothermal fluids flowed along different tensile fracture and formed different ore body patterns under the intense pressure from the south to the north.
STRUCTURAL ORE-CONTROLLING CHARACTERISTICS AND FAVORABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE KALAMAILI GOLD ORE BELT IN EAST JUNGGAR
HAN Qiong, ZHAO Tongyang, ZHENG Jiaxing, SUN Yaofeng
2019, 25(S1): 21-26. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.004
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The Kalamaili gold ore belt in East Junggar is one of the important metallogenic belts in Xinjiang, and more than 100 gold deposits (points) have been discovered. The fault structure in the area is extremely developed. The main fault structures include the Kalamaili deep fault, the Qingshui-Sujiquan fault and the Kupu large fault. The secondary faults derived from the large fault are widely developed and closely related to gold mineralization. Based on previous studies and mathematical statistics, using the remote sensing interpretation technology, the structural ore-control characteristics of the Kalamaili gold ore belt are summarizes and a preliminary advantage analysis is conducted. The results show that the NW-NWW fault is an extremely favorable ore-controlling structure in the metallogenic belt, which controls the distribution of the metallogenic belt, and the secondary faults and derived faults associated with it are the ore-bearing structures, controlling the deposit (Point) location. The ore-controlling effect of NE-NEE and NE on gold mines is not obvious. Gold deposits (points) are mostly distributed in the density zone of 5~15/100 km2. The peak density of the linear structure intersection point is 25/100 km2. As the density value increases, the gold deposits (points) decrease.
STUDY ON THE STRUCTURAL ORE-CONTROLLING LAWS IN THE LEAD-ZINC-SILVER POLYMETALLIC RE-CONCENTRATING AREA OF XIDAMINGSHAN, GUANGXI, SOUTH CHINA
LU Ganqiang, FANG Fusheng, HU Xinyao, YU Shuqing, MAO Cheng'an
2019, 25(S1): 27-31. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.005
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The lead-zinc-silver polymetallic ore concentration area of Xidamingshan is an important polymetallic metallogenic area in Guangxi. So far, several large-medium-scaled endogenous metal deposits have been discovered. However, this area still has great potential for prospecting. The structural ore-controlling laws of the Xidamingshan ore-concentrating area were systematically summarized and the following understandings were obtained: (1) The Xidamingshan ore-concentrating area represents three-order structural ore-controlling characteristics. (2) The intersection part of northeast-oriented and nearly east-west-oriented structures play an important role in controlling the formation of polymetallic deposits. (3) The fault flat in the shallow part of fault is the favorable enrichment area for lead-zinc-silver polymetallic ore deposits and part of the orebody represent obvious lateral extensional law towards SE direction.
TECTONIC DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS AND ORE-CONTROL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SANJIASHAN DUCTILE SHEAR ZONE IN BEISHAN OROGENIC BELT, XINJIANG
ZHENG Jiaxing, ZHAO Tongyang, HAN Qiong, SUN Yaofeng, CAO Jiangyu, CHEN Ye
2019, 25(S1): 32-38. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.006
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To further investigate the tectonic movement and ore-controlling significance of the Sanjiashan ductile shear zone on the northern margin of the Beishan orogenic belt, on the basis of fully collecting the results of previous work, through carrying out the systematic field geological surveys, the spatial distribution, material composition and mechanical properties of the ductile shear zone are basically identified. After the analysis of the macroscopic and microstructural deformation characteristics of the typical tectonic phenomena, combined with the metamorphic characteristics and shearing of the stratigraphic shear zone, the characteristics of the in-band rock combination, it is considered that the Sanjiashan ductile shear zone belongs to the middle—shallow tectonic facies and generally reflects the characteristics of thrust—left—slip. Combined with the gold deposits in the lead-zinc deposits and ductile shear zones of the Precambrian metamorphic basement discovered in the belt, it is believed that the ductile shear zone plays an important role in the activation of the Precambrian metamorphic crystalline basement and the transformation of the Paleozoic volcano-sedimentary caprock, with obvious guiding and ore-controlling effects.
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF ORE-CONTROLLING STRUCTURE IN THE BAOSHAN CU-PB-ZN POLYMETALLIC DEPOSIT, HUNAN PROVINCE
ZHANG Zhi, QI Fanyu, ZHEN Shimin
2019, 25(S1): 39-43. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.007
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The Baoshan Cu-Pb-Zn polymetallic deposit is located in the northern margin of the middle section in the Nanling metallogenic belt. It is divided into the middle skarn type copper-molybdenum ore and the peripheral hydrothermal type lead-zinc-silver deposit. It has typical zoning characteristics. The ore body orientation is controlled by structure. According to the occurrence of ore bodies, it can be seen that the formation of Baoshan copper-lead-zinc polymetallic deposits is multi-stage. The ore-controlling structure of the skarn formation period is the F0 fault, and the ore-controlling structure during the metal sulfide formation period is the F21 and F25 faults. The F0, F21 and F25 faults are the main channels for ore-bearing hydrothermal migration, and the inverted anticline and syncline structure provide a good space for the rich ore containing ore-bearing hydrothermal fluid.
EMPLACEMENT AND DEFORMATION AGE OF SURROUNDING GNEISSIC GRANITE IN WULONG GOLD DEPOSIT, EASTERN LIAONING PROVINCE: SHRIMP U-PB AGE
YANG Fengchao, YANG Jialin, GU Yuchao, SHEN Xin
2019, 25(S1): 44-48. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.008
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In order to determine the emplacement and deformation age of the surrounding rocks of the Wulong gold deposit and further explore the transition period of Late Mesozoic tectonic regime in eastern Liaoning, using petrographic observation and zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating techniques, the Wulong rock mass around the Wulong gold deposit in eastern Liaoning, the intrusive granulite porphyry veins in the Wulong rock mass, and the Sanguliu rock mass were studied. The results show that the Wulong rock mass is a typical rock with a weak gneissic, gneissic structure, the granitic porphyry veins, which have been invaded, have also been deformed, and the Sanguliu rock mass is not deformed. The Wulong rock mass SHRIMP U-Pb age is 159.2±1.9 Ma and 160.0±1.4Ma, granite porphyry is 132.14±0.85 Ma and the Sanguliu rock mass is 122-124 Ma. The Liaodong Wulong rock mass experienced the push, the extrusion event ending at 132-124 Ma. The overburden and squeeze events of the Late Jurassic in Liaodong area are closely related to the subduction of the ancient Pacific plate to Eurasia. The metallogenic tectonic setting of the Wulong gold deposit is also related to this subduction.
LATE CARBONIFEROUS TECTONIC REGIME TRANSITION IN EAST JUNGGAR: EVIDENCE FROM A2-TYPE RHYOLITE
XIONG Shuangcai, LI Guang, ZHANG Zhengfeng
2019, 25(S1): 49-52. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.009
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Laoyemiao area is located in east of east Junggar, known as the important tectonic metallogenic belt of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Laoyemiao rhyolite is similar to the typical A-type granite, and the genetic type belongs to A2-type rhyolite, which is produced in post-collision environment. Zircon U-Pb dating shows that it was formed at (311.6±3.1)Ma in the Late Carboniferous. Based on the data and regional geological features, Laoyemiao area has been planted into the Siberian plate in the Late Carboniferous, entering the transition period from the post-collision to the intraplate transformation, and put an end to the ocean-land transition environment.
ZIRCON U-PB DATING AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SONGLINKOU PLUTON, WESTERN SICHUAN
YE Yakang
2019, 25(S1): 53-59. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.010
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The songlinkou pluton is located in the mid-eastern Songpan-Ganzi orogenic belt. It was studied by microscopical observation, major and trace element analysis and zircon U-Pb dating, in order to determine the emplacement age and geochemical characteristics of the pluton. The results show that the Songlinkou pluton is composed of monzonitic granite and granodiorite which formed by two stages of magmatism in the late Triassic, the weighted mean age of zircon of granodiorite is 212.4±0.9 Ma (MSWD=0.66), and the weighted mean age of zircon of monzonitic granite is 222.4±1.1 Ma(MSWD=0.39). The pluton content of SiO2 is 56.56%~61.97%, A/CNK value is 0.93~1.05, total alkali 3.78~5.38, K2O/Na2O 1.02~1.68, Rittmann index 1.194~1.612, so that the rocks belong to metaperaluminous mid-high K Calc-alkaline series. The LREE/HREE is 5.22~7.13, and LaN/YbN is 6.93~8.96, light and heavy rare earths are distinct, with obvious negative Eu anomalies. The rocks have high Mg# values(50.97~61.27), w(Rb)/w(Sr) is 0.12~0.25, and the Rb-(Y+Nb) diagram shows that it belongs to post-collision environment. Therefore, Songlinkou monzonitic granite-granodiorite belongs to post-collision metaperaluminous mid-high K Calc-alkaline Ⅰ-type granite.
THE U-PB GEOCHRONOLOGY AND GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SAERGAN MAFIC ROCKS IN THE KEPING AREA, SOUTHWEST TIANSHAN, CHINA
HUO Hailong, CHEN Zhengle, CHEN Guimin, ZHANG Qing, HAN Fengbin, ZHANG Wengao
2019, 25(S1): 60-65. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.011
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There is a set of mafic rocks developed along the Saergan strike-slip faults in the Keping area, which is of great significance to understanding the internal relations between the southwest Tianshan orogenic belt and the Tarim Craton. The zircon U-Pb geochronology and geochemical analysis of the Saergan Mafic rocks are used to investigate the effect of the Cenozoic intracontinental orogeny process of the Southwest Tianshan orogenic belt. The zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of the Saergan mafic rock is 49.14±0.8 Ma, indicating that the mafic rocks were formed in Eocene. Geochemistry data shows that the rocks have an important relationship with the remote effects of the collision between the Indian plate and the Eurasian plate.
STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF THRUST NAPPES IN THE QIANGTANG BASIN AND HYDROCARBON RESOURCES EFFECT
JI Changjun, WU Zhenhan, LIU Zhiwei, ZHAO Zhen
2019, 25(S1): 66-71. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.012
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As a good chance to understand the petroleum geological conditions of the basin, the paleo-oil reservoir in the south Qiangtang depression of the Qiangtang basin has been researched in detail for many years, and a large number of thrust nappe structures are revealed through detailed structural mapping, 2D seismic and geological shallow drilling. The paleo-oil reservoir is a large tectonic bed where the basin overthrust to the surface from north to south. It is mainly menifested in Mesozoic Marine strata overlying the late cretaceous-miocene lacustrine red beds, and the middle Jurassic oil-bearing dolomite is the main high quality reservoir of the paleo-oil reservoir. Analysis of the petroleum geological conditions of the paleo-oil reservoirs show that although thrust nappe structure destroys hanging wall anticline reservoirs, it makes stratum thickening, beneficial to the secondary hydrocarbon generation in effective source rocks and the effective shield and seal for the footwall flat. At the same time, it is conducive to the formation of high-quality dolomite reservoirs and structural traps, creating a good spatial-temporal matching relationship between generation, reservoir and cover for secondary accumulation, and contributing to the formation of thrust nappe type reservoirs.
RESEARCH ON THE EFFECT OF TECTONISM ON THE FORM AND PRESERVATION OF MARINE POTASH IN TRIASSIC JIALINGJIANG FORMATION IN DIANJIANG SALT BASIN, EASTERN SICHUAN BASIN
ZHANG Xiong, ZHU Zhengjie, WEI Yuyan, ZHAO Yanjun, ZHANG Yu
2019, 25(S1): 72-77. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.013
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Based on the analysis of the tectonic evolution and late-stage tectonics of the Dianjiang Salt Basin in the eastern Sichuan Basin, combined with magnetotelluric sounding method and seismic data interpretation, this paper holds that there are two sub-depressions in the Dianjiang Salt Basin. Both Hexing sub-depression and Dongjiachang sub-depression are advantageous to the concentration of ancient brine. Although the formation of the eastern Sichuan fold belt in the late Early Cretaceous reformed the Triassic salt-bearing strata, the secondary depression area was located at the syncline core and the end of the fold dip, and was not subjected to weathering. Meanwhile, the magnetotelluric sounding and seismic data showed that no fault structure existed in the two depression area, indicating the well preservation conditions.
ANALYSIS OF THE TECTONIC STRESS FIELD OF THE LONGTING-HEYANG EXPLORATION AREA
FAN Yuhai, WANG Hui, CUI Sheng, ZHANG Shaopeng
2019, 25(S1): 78-83. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.014
Abstract (435) HTML (72) PDF (1181KB)(28)
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Based on the basic geological data, the tectonic stress field of longting-heyang exploration area in the Permian carboniferous coalfield of Weibei is analyzed by means of structural analytic research ideas and methods, and the significance of coal-controlling is revealed. Research results show that since the end of the Trias, the study area has experienced NNW squeezed tectonic activity in Indosinian movement period, NWW squeezed tectonic activity in middle Yanshan movement period, NE squeezed-right rotated and NW-SE stretching activity In Himalaya movement period. The maximum principal compressive stress positions are 335°, 285°, 44° respectively. The faults in NEE direction controlled the spatial distribution of coal seam, and its development directly affects the next exploration and development of coal resources in the region.
THE TECTONIC ACTIVITY IN THE SOUTHERN MARGIN OF THE ILI BASIN AND ITS CONSTRAINT ON SANDSTONE-TYPE URANIUM DEPOSITS: EVIDENCE FROM APATITE FISSION TRACK AND U-PB DATING
DING Bo, LIU Hongxu, LI Ping, JIANG Hong, ZHANG Hujun, ZHANG Bin
2019, 25(S1): 84-89. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.015
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In order to explore the relationship between the tectonic activity and uranium mineralization in the southern margin of Ili basin, the method of apatite fission track and U-Pb dating was used to ascertain the tectonic activity and metallogenic age of sandstone-type uranium deposits by adopting the sandstone sample of the ore bearing layer. The above research can draw some conclusions. Firstly, the southern margin of Ili basin experienced three periods of intense uplift and denudation, which were the late Indosinian tectonic activity from late Triassic to middle Jurassic, Yanshanian tectonic activity from late Jurassic to early Cretaceous and Himalayan period tectonic activity from Miocene to present respectively. Secondly, the metallogenic age of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the middle-west section of the southern margin of the basin can be divided into four stages: 158~153 Ma, 108~60.5 Ma, 55~15 Ma and 12~0.3 Ma, while the metallogenic age of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the east section was relatively new, ranging from 7.8 to 5.5 Ma. Thirdly, the tectonic activity and the metallogenic age of sandstone-type uranium deposits in the southern margin of the basin have a good correspondence. The process of uranium mineralization can be divided into three stages: rapid uplift of the source area-the formation stage of ore-bearing construction and the pre-enrichment stage of uranium, pre-enrichment, the primary mineralization and post-superimposition reconstruction stage.
NEW PROGRESS IN THE STUDY OF GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GENESIS OF JIANDE COPPER DEPOSIT, ZHEJIANG PROVINCE
ZHOU Jiyuan
2019, 25(S1): 90-102. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.016
Abstract (346) HTML (235) PDF (964KB)(21)
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Jiande copper deposit was discovered in 1958. It was explored by the geological department and mined by the metallurgical department in 1960. By 1980, when the reserves handed over were about to be mined out and became a critical mine, the author was invited to take a group of teachers and students to investigate and study the ore deposit, summarize the ore-forming conditions, analyze the ore-controlling factors, explore the ore-body distribution law, and determine the origin of magmatic hydrothermal fluid. The theory of ore liquid migration was put forward. The mathematical and physical simulation was carried out by computer for the first time. It shows the rationality and correctness of the theory and method adopted. Because a few volcanic rocks and siliceous rocks were found in the mining area, the genesis of submarine volcanic hydrothermal deposits was proposed. Based on the detailed study and exploration of geological characteristics, metallogenic age and fluid inclusions in the mining area in recent years, the deposit is denied to be the origin of submarine volcanic hydrothermal deposit, which is further confirmed to be magmatic hydrothermal genesis. A similar Gaoling copper deposit was found on the periphery of the deposit.
APPLICATION OF FLUID INCLUSIONS METHODOLOGY IN THE SHALE GAS STUDY: A REVIEW
YAN Liyu, ZHENG Yi, WANG Chengming, YU Pengpeng
2019, 25(S1): 103-107. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.017
Abstract (228) HTML (62) PDF (895KB)(12)
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Since the US shale gas exploration breakthrough, more intention has been paid to shale gas exploration in China with a large number of research projects focusing on the potential evaluation and optimized target of continental shale gas in China. Even so, some key scientific issues on shale gas (i.e., generation mechanism, enrichment mechanism, accumulation time and deformation in later period) remain unclear. Herein, we carry out a systematic review about the application of fluid inclusion methodology, as well as its progress and prospective. Micropetrographic observation, cooling-heating stage micro-thermometry and Laser Raman are usually used to constrain the T(temperature)-X(composition)-P(pressure) of fluids contributing to formation of shale gas, and the forming depth (paleo-depth) are also reconstructed for further exploration. Generally, more specific fluid inclusion studies on shale gas reservoir are needed for the current insufficient understanding.
MAGMATION, TECTONIC ACTIVITY AND URANIUM MINERALIZATION EVENTS OF SOUTHERN ZHUGUANG URANIUM ORE-CONCENTRATED DISTRICT, NORTHERN GUANGDONG, CHINA
ZHONG Fujun, PAN Jiayong, ZHANG Weimeng, LAI Jing, ZHOU Tangbo, LIU Wenquan
2019, 25(S1): 108-114. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.018
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The southern Zhuguang uranium ore-concentrated district, which is located in central-eastern part of Zhuguangshan complex in Nanling region, China, is an important producer of uranium resource during the past three decades. There is abundant granite related uranium deposits that are generally controlled by the Mesozoic regional magmation, tectonic activity and hydrothermal events in study area, namely "trinity". The Indosinian and Yanshanian magmatism makes uranium preconcentration in crust of Zhuguang area; the tectonic activity provides a favorable location for uranium mineralization; and the hydrothermal activity drives the uranium migration and ore-formation in altered granite and silicified fracture zone. The uranium mineralization in Zhuguang area is characterized by synchronism and multiple stages, and restrained by the crust extension during the Cretaceous Paleogene lithospheric extension in South China. The Cretaceous Paleogene structural evolution of Nanxiong basin and Zhuguangshan complex is possibly responsible for the large scale uranium mineralization in Zhuguang area.
S-PB ISOTOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF JINCHANGHE IRON-COPPER-LEAD-ZINC POLYMETALLIC DEPOSIT IN BAOSHAN CITY, YUNNAN PROVINCE
LI Zhenhuan, LIU Xuelong, CHEN Jianhang, LUO Ying, ZHANG Changzhen, WANG Shuaishuai
2019, 25(S1): 115-118. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.019
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The Jinchanghe iron-copper-lead-zinc polymetallic deposit in western Yunnan Province is located in the north of Baoshan block and the south of the sharp intersection of NS-trending Baoshan-Shidian abdominal anticline and NNW-trending Lancang River fault. On the basis of previous work, the S-Pb isotope characteristics of Jinchanghe iron-copper-lead-zinc polymetallic deposit are studied, which is of great significance for analyzing the source of ore-forming materials and exploring the metallogenic process of the deposit. Sampling and testing results show that the sulfide value δ34S of the deposit is +2.5‰~+11.1‰, with an average of +5.65‰, indicating that the sulfide source of the deposit is deep mantle-derived magmatic sulfur and mixed sulfur (complex sulfur); the average value of enriched Delta 34S in symbiotic sulfur-bearing minerals is chalcopyrite (+5.65‰) > sphalerite (+5.38‰) > galena (+3.45‰), indicating that the sulfur isotope fractionation of the deposit is not up to balance. The distribution of sample points in 207Pb/204Pb~206Pb/204Pb, 208Pb/204Pb~206Pb/204Pb lead isotope pattern and the variation range of Zhu Bingquan Δβ-Δγ show that the lead isotopes of the deposit mainly originate from the upper crust and are related to the intrusion of deep magma.
MIGRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF ORE-FORMING ELEMENTS DURING MINERALIZATION AND ALTERATION OF TONGCHANGGOU PORPHYRY COPPER-MOLYBDENUM DEPOSIT, YUNNAN PROVINCE
CHEN Jianhang, LIU Xuelong, LI Zhenhuan, ZHANG Changzhen, LUO Ying, WANG Shuaishuai
2019, 25(S1): 119-123. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.020
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The porphyry Cu-Mo molybdenum ore deposit is a typical example of Mo polymetallic mineralization of Geza arc in the late Yanshan period. Based on the petrographic study of this deposit, TiO2 was selected as the inert component in the process of alteration and the element migration was quantitatively analyzed by using Gresens equation. The migration characteristics of major elements show that Al2O3, K2O, Na2O, P2O5 and SiO2 continue to immigrate in the potassium silicate alteration stage and the sericitization stage of quartz stage, and that Fe2O3, MgO and CaO immigrate in the prophylitic stage. Trace elements showed significant migration of Mo, Ba, W, Ra, Nb, Ta and LREE in the potassium silicate salinization stage, and the enrichment of Ba, W and Mo was significantly correlated. Pb and Zn were enriched in quartz-sericite alteration stage, while Cu was enriched in prophylitic stage. The study on mineralization alteration and migration characteristics of ore-forming elements in Tongchanggou porphyry copper-molybdenum ore deposit has important reference significance for the establishment of deep geochemical exploration index, metallogenic information and determination of ore-body boundary in this area.
ALTERATION ZONING AND PROSPECTING SIGNIFICANCE OF THE HONGDOUSHAN COPPER DEPOSIT IN THE SOUTHERN LANCANGJIANG BELT, WESTERN YUNNAN
CHEN Xinglin, WANG Lei, DING Jinjin, ZHU Enyi
2019, 25(S1): 124-128. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.021
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The Hongdoushan copper deposit is one of the newly discovered in the southern Lancangjiang belt. The alteration characteristics and zoning of the deposit have been studied through field geological work and systematic structural alteration lithofacies mapping. The main altered types for Hongdoushan deposit are as follows: potassic feldspathization, silicification, chloritization, epidotization, and secondary carbonation, sericitization and limonitization. Surrounding rock alteration in the mining area shows a certain regularity in space, and the alteration zones have obvious superposition phenomenon. According to the characteristics of altered rocks in the area, from the fault zone to the hanging wall rock, there are four obvious alteration zones, which are Cataclastic rock zone, felsic lithification-carbonate-sericite zone, silicification-chlorite-epidote zone and weakly felsic lithification andesite zone. The ore-bodies are located mainly in the felsic lithification, carbonate-sericite zone and silicification-chlorite-epidote zone. The concentric alteration zones from the inner outward of the porphyry veins are successively potassic zone, silicide zone, propylitic zone, sericite zone. Radial quartz-calcite-chalcopyrite veins are developed in the surrounding rocks beside the porphyry.
DISCUSSION ON THE TWO TYPES OF PORPHYRY COPPER MINERALIZATION IN NORTHERN CHILE AND NORTHWEST ARGENTINA
QIU Ruizhao, CHEN Yuming, CHEN Xiufa, ZHAO Hongjun, REN Xiaodong, ZHAO Like, ZHANG Cao, WANG Liangliang
2019, 25(S1): 129-134. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.022
Abstract (207) HTML (141) PDF (1066KB)(16)
Abstract:
The Mesozoic-Cenozoic porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina were formed in the orogenic setting of the Paleozoic terrane collocation. With the opening of the Atlantic Ocean, the South American continent drifted westward, in Mesozoic-Cenozoic the South American craton was subducted beneath the Paleozoic orogenic belts to form a thicker or double crust. As a part of the active continental margin of South America, northern Chile continuously "swallowed" the Pacific (Nasca) plate which subducted eastward. The mineralization of porphyry copper deposits in northern Chile occurred after the large-scale magmatic activity which caused by slab-failure subduction of the Pacific (Nazca) plate, and repeatedly took place along the reactivated lithosphere discontinuities (the pre-existing Paleozoic splice zones and regional faults), forming so-called Andean-type porphyry copper deposits; The large-scale copper (gold, molybdenum) mineralization in northwestern Argentina was associated with the collapse of the thickened orogenic belt. The large-scale mineralization was controlled by the large-scale magmatism caused by the de-rooting of the orogenic lithosphere, asthenospheric material and thermal upwelling. Overall, Porphyry copper deposits of the Andean-type and orogenic collapse-type in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina, as well as the formation of the Andean copper (gold) metallogenic belt in South America, are closely related to the westward drift of the South American continent and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean since the Mesozoic and Cenozoic.
THE TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PORPHYRY CU (AU-MO) DEPOSITS IN THE ANDES BELT
ZHAO Hongjun, QIU Ruizhao, CHEN Xiufa, ZHANG Chao
2019, 25(S1): 135-139. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.023
Abstract (310) HTML (88) PDF (947KB)(15)
Abstract:
This article relies on the "Global Mineral Resources Information System" and related projects of the China Geological Survey. The spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of the porphyry Cu(Au-Mo) deposit in the Andean orogenic belt of South America is summarized: Influenced by the continuous subduction of the plate, the porphyry Cu(Au-Mo) deposit in the Andean belt is linear and multi-banded. It is characterized by a large number of deposits, concentrated distribution and large scale of deposits in the Central Andes section. At the age of mineralization, there were two periods of the Late Paleozoic Gondwana orogenic cycle and and four periods of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Andean orogenic revolving cycle. The most important is the late Eocene-Oligocene and Miocene mid-Pliocene. It provides a reference for understanding the ore-forming geological characteristics and metallogenic regularity of porphyry deposits in the Andean belt.
GEOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND GENESIS OF SOKOR GOLD DEPOSIT IN KELANTAN, MALAYSIA
LU Jiankun, HUANG Changshuai, YANG Renyi
2019, 25(S1): 140-144. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.024
Abstract (759) HTML (170) PDF (1181KB)(33)
Abstract:
The Malay Pennisula gold mines are mainly distributed in the north of the central gold belt of the peninsula, and the metallogenic belt is located at the junction of the Tethys metallogenic belt and the Pacific Rim metallogenic belt, and the metallogenic conditions are superior. The main ore bearing rocks are phyllite and quartz porphyry, the main ore minerals are pyrite, orebody occurrences are consistent with formation occurrences of contact zones. Gold mineralization types are mainly massive sulfide type, quartz vein type and limonite type, and ore grade changes greatly. Geological characteristics, ore occurrences and alteration information show that mineralization is closely related with hydrothermal activity, and it belongs to the epithermal gold deposit.
MAIN ORE-CONTROLLING STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PROSPECTING MODEL OF MADAGASCAR GRAPHITE DEPOSIT
SUN Zhenyi, BAI Hao, FANG Ye, DI Yongjun
2019, 25(S1): 145-149. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.025
Abstract (234) HTML (126) PDF (953KB)(20)
Abstract:
Madagascar graphite deposits are mainly distributed in the Middle-East and south of Madagascar Island. There are abundant types of graphite deposits and favorable metallogenic geological conditions in this area, which have good prospecting prospects. The comprehensive study shows that the metallogenesis of graphite deposits has gone through three stages: Neoarchean to Neoproterozoic sedimentation, metamorphic deformation and magmatic superimposition and transformation. The study of ore-controlling structure shows that the central graphite deposit is mainly controlled by metamorphic schistosity transformed by tight isoclinal folds, with thin wings and thick hinge zone. The eastern graphite deposits are controlled by shear zones of synclinal folds and metamorphic schistosities, and are enriched by hydrothermal superimposition of later migration along brittle faults. The southern graphite deposit extends steadily due to the influence of deep shear deformation zone. Based on the study of ore-controlling structures, a regional prospecting model for graphite deposits is proposed, in which the main body is "zonal composite-magmatic superimposition". Based on the existing spatial and temporal distribution of mineralization and metallogenic conditions, four major metallogenic prospects in Madagascar are divided in this paper.
PRELIMINARY STUDY ON DEEP GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION MODEL OF GOLD ORE FIELDS IN EASTERN SHANDONG, CHINA
ZHANG Baolin, LYU Guxian, LIANG Guanghe, XU Xingwang, LI Zhiyuan, MIAO Ya'na
2019, 25(S1): 150-156. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.026
Abstract (266) HTML (83) PDF (1183KB)(30)
Abstract:
The "second enrichment belt" in deep gold ore fields in eastern Shandong has great prospecting potential, but it is difficult to predict. One of the problems is that the target of deep exploration is hard to identify. As a product of complex metallogenic process, the gold ore bodies which are divided according to economic indicators and larger structural alteration zones, as a whole can be the goal of deep geophysical exploration. As a result, the scale of target geological bodies can be expanded, thus improving the resolution of geophysical exploration methods. Based on the geological features of the deposit, the physical parameters of the rock (ore) and the spatial characteristics of the ore-bearing structural lithofacies belt, the gold deposits in eastern Shandong are divided into three types: one-dimensional breccia type, two-dimensional altered rock type and two-dimensional quartz vein type. Relying on the ore-controlling tectonic model of "uplift and detachment zone of Mesozoic magmatic core complex" and combining the ore-bearing structural lithofacies belt with geophysical methods, the deep prospecting prediction is carried out in Linglong-Jiaojia, Dazhuangzi and Pengjiakuang ore fields, which provides theoretical and technical support for geophysical prospecting methods to effectively identify deep mineralized zones.
APPLICATION OF EVIDENCE WEIGHT METHOD IN QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF FAULTS AND GOLD MINERALIZATION IN KALAMAILI GOLD BELT, XINJIANG
CAO Xiaohong, GONG Xiaoping, HAN Qiong, MENG He
2019, 25(S1): 157-162. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.027
Abstract (187) HTML (102) PDF (1080KB)(13)
Abstract:
The Kalamaili gold belt in East Junggar is one of the important gold metallogenic belts in Xinjiang. Relevant scholars have carried out a large number of production and scientific research work, and achieved fruitful results in ore-finding, and accumulated a lot of research. In recent years, with the rise of deep exploration and the maturity of mineralization prediction methods, qualitative research has become an inevitable choice. Based on the previous comprehensive research, this research establishes a database platform based on ArcGis platform, and uses the evidence weight method to carry out quantitative evaluation of fault and gold mineralization space. The results show that the fault distance and density are important evidence weight factors. When the fault distance is in the range of 0~1500 m, the mineralization is the strongest. As the distance increases, the mineralization becomes weaker; when the fault density is between 0.26 and 0.66, it is a medium-high favorable ore-forming area. The research results are of great significance for the prospecting work in the deep and peripheral areas of the Kalamaili gold belt.
FINITE-ELEMENT SIMULATIONS OF STRUCTURE-FLUID COUPLING: A CASE STUDY IN VEIN-TYPE TUNGSTEN DEPOSITS
LIU Xiangchong
2019, 25(S1): 163-169. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.028
Abstract (280) HTML (152) PDF (1010KB)(10)
Abstract:
The dynamic process of hydrothermal ore-forming involves highly coupled physical and chemical processes at different spatial and temporal scales. Numerical simulation is one of important and effective tools to decipher these complex processes and aids in prospecting. The vein-type tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range are taken examples to show how to solve the physical and chemical equations controlling the coupled structure-fluids using numerical simulation, decipher the relationships between fluid focusing and the tungsten mineralization in the five-floor vertically morphological zonation quantitatively, and reproduce the influences of hydraulic fracturing driven by high-pressure fluids on wolframite precipitation. The numerical results are consistent with the geochemical characteristics constrained by previous studies.
CHARACTERISTICS OF AERO GRAVITY AND MAGNETISM REMOTE SENSING AND CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF FAULT STRUCTURES IN HAMI SHAQUANZI AREA, XINJIANG
ZHU Weiping, ZHU Hongwei, XU Luping, ZHANG Dishuo, CHEN Yao
2019, 25(S1): 170-174. doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.S1.029
Abstract (292) HTML (158) PDF (940KB)(9)
Abstract:
In order to study the correlation between aero geophysical survey (gravity and magnetism) and remote sensing in the study of fault structures, 18 fault structures were identified using the aero geophysical survey (gravity and magnetism) remote sensing data in Hami Shaquanzi area, Xinjiang. Based on the analysis of the characteristics and correlation of the 18 faults, the results show that the first-order and second-order faults in the area are all gravity magnetism remote sensing related. The third-order faults related to gravity magnetism are also faults in the same direction as the main structural framework. Both gravity and magnetism related and magnetism remote sensing related faults are the third-order faults. The unrelated faults are also the third-order faults. On the whole, it is more effective to identify large faults or main frame faults using gravity and magnetism remote sensing data.