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羌塘地块中西部布木错走滑断裂系的第四纪晚期地表变形特征与构造意义

韩帅 吴中海 王世锋 高扬 张圣听 陆诗铭 张铭杲

韩帅, 吴中海, 王世锋, 等, 2024. 羌塘地块中西部布木错走滑断裂系的第四纪晚期地表变形特征与构造意义. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 298-313. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023086
引用本文: 韩帅, 吴中海, 王世锋, 等, 2024. 羌塘地块中西部布木错走滑断裂系的第四纪晚期地表变形特征与构造意义. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 298-313. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023086
HAN Shuai, WU Zhonghai, WANG Shifeng, et al., 2024. Late Quaternary surface deformation and tectonic implications of the Bue Co strike-slip fault system in central-western Qiangtang block. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 298-313. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023086
Citation: HAN Shuai, WU Zhonghai, WANG Shifeng, et al., 2024. Late Quaternary surface deformation and tectonic implications of the Bue Co strike-slip fault system in central-western Qiangtang block. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 298-313. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023086

羌塘地块中西部布木错走滑断裂系的第四纪晚期地表变形特征与构造意义

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023086
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 42202259

中国地质科学院地质力学研究所中央财政科研项目结余经费新开项目 56

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20221644

详细信息
    作者简介:

    韩帅(1989—),男,助理研究员,主要从事构造地质学和活动构造研究。Email: 814224279@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    吴中海(1974—),男,博士,研究员,主要从事活动构造和第四纪地质研究。Email: 715516189@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P54;P597;P59

Late Quaternary surface deformation and tectonic implications of the Bue Co strike-slip fault system in central-western Qiangtang block

Funds: 

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 42202259

the Fundamental Research Fund of the Institute of Geomechanics, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences 56

the Geological Survey Project of the China Geological Survey DD20221644

  • 摘要: 班公-怒江缝合带(班怒带)是青藏高原内部羌塘地块与拉萨地块之间的重要边界,研究该边界带上共轭走滑断裂第四纪晚期的几何结构与变形特性对于理解高原内部在印度-欧亚板块碰撞作用下形成的空间差异响应和构造模型具有重要意义。位于班怒带西段的布木错断裂系包括北东向布木错断裂和北西向纳屋错断裂,通过遥感解译和野外地质调查,明确了这两条断裂在第四纪晚期的构造特征和最新的地表变形特征。结果显示,两条断裂自第四纪晚期以来的活动特征明显,并且近期都经历过一次大地震,产生了地表破裂。据此推测班怒带西段北西、北东两组断裂的最新活动强度接近,羌塘地块南部边界现今变形可能受控于两组断裂的共同影响,并已延伸至块体内部。以上发现进一步证明,青藏高原内部物质受中—下地壳流的驱动作用,通过走滑断层和正断层持续向北扩展。

     

  • 图  1  研究区区域地质图

    LGF—龙木错-郭扎错断裂;KF—喀喇昆仑断裂;BF—布木错断裂;LCF—纳屋错断裂;RPF—日干配错断裂;GCF—格仁错断裂;BCF—崩错断裂;JF —嘉黎断裂;KLF—昆仑断裂;QNT—柴达木北缘逆冲带;GZF—甘孜断裂;LBF—龙日坝断裂;XXF—鲜水河-小江断裂;LMF—龙门山断裂;HF—海源断裂;ATF—阿尔金断裂
    a—青藏高原活动断裂构造纲要图(据Taylor and Yin, 2009修改);b—羌塘中西部地区布木错断裂系及邻区主要活动断裂分布图

    Figure  1.  Regional geological map of the study area

    (a) Schematic tectonic map of the active faults in the Tibetan Plateau (modified after Taylor and Yin, 2009); (b) Distribution map of major active faults in the Bue Co fault system and adjacent areas in the midwestern Qiangtang
    LGF-Longmu-Guozha fault; KF-Karakoram fault; BF-Bue Co fault; LCF-Lamu Co fault; RPF-Riganpei Co fault; GCF-Gyaring Co fault; BCF-Ben Co fault; JF-Jiali fault; KLF-Kunlun fault; QNT-North Qaidam thrust belt; GZF-Ganzi fault; LBF-Longriba fault; XXF-Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault; LMF-Longmenshan fault; HF-Haiyuan fault; ATF-Altyn Tagh fault

    图  2  布木错断裂带的展布特征及不同部位跨断裂带高程剖面图

    a—布木错断裂带分支断裂与次级断裂展布;b—e—不同部位跨断裂带高程剖面地貌特征(断层产状依据断层地貌和现今应力场环境)

    Figure  2.  Distribution characteristics of the Bue Co fault zone and elevation profiles of different parts crossing the fault zone

    (a) Distribution of branch faults and secondary faults along the Bue Co fault zone; (b-e)Topographic features of elevation profile of different parts crossing the fault zone (The fault geometry is determined based on the fault topography and the current stress field environment)

    图  3  纳屋错断裂带展布特征及不同部位跨断裂带高程剖面图

    a—纳屋错断裂带分支断裂与次级断裂展布;b—e—不同部位跨断裂带高程剖面地貌特征(断层产状依据断层地貌和现今应力场环境)

    Figure  3.  Distribution characteristics of the Lamu Co fault zone and elevation profiles of different parts crossing the fault zone

    (a) Distribution of branch faults and secondary faults along the Lamu Co fault zone; (b-e)Topographic features of elevation profile of different parts crossing the fault zone (The fault geometry is determined based on the fault topography and the current stress field environment)

    图  4  布木错断裂带和地表破裂带典型遥感影像图

    a—地表破裂带西段线性特征;b—Q3-4扇体上发育地表破裂带陡坎;c—断层左旋错动水系;d—断层陡坡分隔第四纪沉积与基岩;e—地表破裂带东段未错段水系;f—地表破裂带东段以正断活动为主

    Figure  4.  Typical remote sensing images of the Bue Co fault zone and surface ruptures

    (a)Linear characteristics of the west section of the surface rupture zone; (b) Fault scarp of surface rupture developed on the Q3-4 fans; (c) Left-lateral drainage offset by fault; (d) Quaternary sediments and bedrock separated by fault slope; (e) Water systems not offset by the eastern section of the surface rupture; (f) Surface rupture zone dominated by positive fault activity in the eastern section

    图  5  布木错断裂带地表破裂带构造地貌特征(位置见图 4b)

    a—布木错断裂带西段拉分盆地与T3阶地上断坡(镜向北东东);b—布木错断裂带T2阶地上断坡(镜向南东);c—布木错断裂带地表破裂T1阶地上断坡(镜向北东东);d—布木错断裂带地表破裂T0阶地上冲沟左旋(镜向南东);e—布木错断裂带地表破裂T1阶地上冲沟左旋(镜向南东);f—布木错断裂带地表破裂T1阶地上地震鼓包(镜向南东)

    Figure  5.  Structural geomorphic features of the Bue Co fault coseismic surface rupture (The location refers to Fig. 4b)

    (a)Pull-apart basin in the western part of the Bue Co fault zone and fault slope on the T3 terrace (towards NEE); (b) Fault slope on the T2 terrace of the Bue Co fault zone (towards SE); (c) Fault slope on the T1 terrace of the Bue Co fault surface rupture (towards NEE); (d) Sinistral displacement of the gully on the T0 terrace of the Bue Co fault surface rupture (towards SE); (e) Sinistral displacement of the gully on the T1 terrace of the Bue Co fault surface rupture (towards SE); (f) Earthquake bulge on the T1 terrace of the Bue Co fault surface rupture (towards SE)

    图  6  布木错地表破裂带无人机测图

    a—布木错地表破裂带无人机高分辨率DSM影像;b、c—无人机高分辨率DSM影像上测量冲沟左旋位移

    Figure  6.  UAV photogrammetry of the Bue Co fault coseismic surface rupture

    (a)High-resolution DSM image of the Bue Co fault surface rupture obtained by UAV; (b, c) Sinistral displacements of gullies measured on high-resolution DSM images obtained by UAV

    图  7  纳屋错断裂带和地表破裂带典型遥感影像图

    a—纳屋错走滑断裂带北支穿过第四纪晚期冲洪积扇及其上同震地表破裂;b—沿断裂北支地表破裂展布的晚更新世以来的冲洪积扇群;c—错不杂东南基岩与第四纪沉积以断层为界;d—多条水系沿纳屋错断层南支发生偏转;e—纳屋错断裂带东南段在第四纪湖区发育;f—纳屋错断裂带东南尾端活动痕迹变弱

    Figure  7.  Typical remote sensing image of the Lamu Co fault zone and surface rupture zone

    (a)Late Quaternary alluvial fan offset by the northern branch of the Lamu Co strike-slip fault zone and co-seismic surface rupture on the fan; (b) The alluvial fan group since the late Pleistocene distributed along the surface rupture of the northern fault branch; (c) Bedrock and Quaternary deposits bounded by fault to the southeast of Cobuza; (d) Several drainage systems deflected along the southern branch of the Lamu Co fault; (e) The southeast section of the Lamu Co fault zone developed in the Quaternary lake region; (f) Diminishing activity traces at the southeast end of the Lamu Co fault zone

    图  8  纳屋错断裂带地表破裂带野外构造地貌特征(位置见图 7a)

    a—纳屋错断裂带地表破裂陡坎(镜向南东);b—纳屋错断裂带断层角砾岩(镜向北东);c—纳屋错断裂带位于山麓的断层陡坎(镜向北);d—纳屋错断裂带地表破裂造成冲沟右旋(镜向北东)

    Figure  8.  Structural geomorphic features of the Lamu Co fault zone coseismic surface rupture in the field (The location refers to Fig. 7a)

    (a)Fault scarp of the Lamu Co fault surface rupture (towards SE); (b) Fault breccia of the Lamu Co fault zone (towards NE); (c) Fault scarp of the Lamu Co fault surface rupture located at the foothills The Lamu Co (towards N); (d) Dextral displacement of the gully induced by the Lamu Co fault surface rupture (towards NE)

    图  9  纳屋错地表破裂带无人机测图

    a—纳屋错地表破裂带无人机高分辨率DSM影像;b—d—无人机高分辨率DSM影像上测量冲沟右旋位移

    Figure  9.  UAV photogrammetry of the Lamu Co fault coseismic surface rupture

    (a)High-resolution DSM image of the Lamu Co fault surface rupture obtained by UAV; (b-d) Dextral displacements of gullies measured on high-resolution DSM images obtained by UAV

    表  1  布木错断裂系位移量分布表

    Table  1.   Statistic table of displacement in the Bue Co fault system

    断裂名称 经度 纬度 断错标志 位移量/m 误差/m
    布木错断裂 81°29′55.14″ 33°15′50.10″ 冲沟左旋 11.0 0.5
    81°29′52.02″ 33°15′40.44″ 冲沟左旋 3.7 0.2
    81°29′35.71″ 33°14′59.25″ 沟壁左旋 43.0 3.0
    81°29′51.82″ 33°15′40.52″ 小沟左旋 4.2 0.3
    81°29′54.82″ 33°15′50.25″ 小沟左旋 4.5 0.4
    81°29′54.58″ 33°15′50.25″ 小沟左旋 6.4 0.6
    纳屋错断裂 81°43′41.52″ 33°13′16.02″ 深沟右旋 7.3 1.2
    81°43′31.62″ 33°13′20.10″ 小溪右旋 4.5 0.5
    81°43′32.78″ 33°13′19.41″ 小溪右旋 2.7 0.3
    81°43′33.49″ 33°13′19.10″ 冲沟右旋 13.7 1.1
    81°43′40.51″ 33°13′16.28″ 小溪右旋 8.3 2.0
    81°43′41.61″ 33°13′15.70″ 沟壁右旋 10.3 2.4
    81°43′44.41″ 33°13′14.21″ 沟壁右旋 27.0 3.0
    81°43′45.32″ 33°13′13.85″ 沟壁右旋 15.0 1.5
    81°43′45.66″ 33°13′13.58″ 深沟右旋 14.0 1.5
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-05-30
  • 修回日期:  2023-12-04
  • 录用日期:  2023-12-04
  • 预出版日期:  2023-12-07
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-28

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