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长江三角洲地区晚新生代地质与环境研究进展述评

赵希涛 胡道功 吴中海 杨晓东

赵希涛, 胡道功, 吴中海, 等, 2017. 长江三角洲地区晚新生代地质与环境研究进展述评. 地质力学学报, 23 (1): 1-64.
引用本文: 赵希涛, 胡道功, 吴中海, 等, 2017. 长江三角洲地区晚新生代地质与环境研究进展述评. 地质力学学报, 23 (1): 1-64.
ZHAO Xi-tao, HU Dao-gong, WU Zhong-hai, et al., 2017. REVIEWS ON THE RESSEARCH OF LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA AREA. Journal of Geomechanics, 23 (1): 1-64.
Citation: ZHAO Xi-tao, HU Dao-gong, WU Zhong-hai, et al., 2017. REVIEWS ON THE RESSEARCH OF LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA AREA. Journal of Geomechanics, 23 (1): 1-64.

长江三角洲地区晚新生代地质与环境研究进展述评

基金项目: 

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20160268

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20160269

国家自然科学基金项目 41171009

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵希涛(1940-),男,汉族,研究员,地貌与第四纪地质专业。E-mail:xitao_zhao@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: P546P66

REVIEWS ON THE RESSEARCH OF LATE CENOZOIC GEOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT OF THE YANGTZE RIVER DELTA AREA

  • 摘要: 长江是我国最长的河流和世界最主要的大河之一,长江三角洲地区则是我国人口最为密集和经济最为发达的地区之一。因此,研究长江三角洲地区晚新生代地质与环境的特征与变化,特别是长江河口地区的河谷变迁与三角洲发育,对于该地区的国计民生,具有十分重要的意义。长江三角洲地区晚新生代地质与环境的科学调查研究,已经走过了整整的一个世纪。随着经济的发展和科技的进步,长江三角洲地区晚新生代地质与环境的研究也取得了重大的进展。本文从现代三角洲发育、末次盛冰期长江河谷的深切与充填作用及冰后期地层的沉积相变化,埋藏硬土层的分布、特征、成因及其古土壤学性质,三角洲地区晚第四纪时期的海侵地层层序与新近纪及早、中第四纪地层及其沉积环境,以及从三角洲钻孔的碎屑锆石、独居石年龄谱及沉积物成分和地球化学组成随时间的变化来推论长江贯通三峡的时间等方面所取得的进展和所存在的问题,按照研究时间的大体顺序和地层的新老次序进行了较详细的综述和简要评论。最后根据自己的认识和判断,概括了长江三角洲地区近一个世纪来研究工作所取得的进展和所存在的问题,并在此基础上提出了今后进一步工作的几点建议,希望能引起广大同仁及有关部门的注意,以期达到抛砖引玉的目的。

     

  • 图  1  长江三角洲及邻区地貌成因类型图[5]

    Figure  1.  Genelic type map of geomorphology of the Yangtze River Delta and its adjacent areas

    图  2  长江三角洲全新世地层横剖面

    Figure  2.  Holocene stratigraphic cross section in the Yangtze River Delta

    图  3  长江三角洲滨海平原发育过程图[7]

    Figure  3.  The development process of the coastal plain in the Yangtze River Delta

    图  4  长江三角洲南部平原中全新世古地理图[9]

    Figure  4.  Middle holocene palaeogeography map of the southern plain of the Yangtze River Delta

    图  5  苏北平原中部全新世海岸演化示意图[14]

    Figure  5.  Sketch map of Holocene coastal evolution in the middle part of the North Jiangsu Plain

    图  6  建湖庆丰剖面全新世地层综合柱状图[13]

    1—耕土;2—黏土;3—粉砂质黏土;4—黏土质粉砂;5—淤泥;6—细砂;7—贝壳缩聚;8—原位贝壳;9—腐木;10—潜穴;11—磁性地层柱;12—孢粉与微古取样点;13—14C取样点;14—孢粉带

    Figure  6.  Holocene comprehensive stratigraphic column of Qingfeng profile in Jianhu

    图  7  里下河地区北部晚第四纪地层柱状对比图[14]

    1—耕土或填土;2—粘土;3—淤泥;4—碳质淤泥;5—泥炭;6—亚粘土;7—亚砂土;8—砂;9—古土壤;10—贝壳层;11—原位贝壳或牡蛎壳;12—滨海相;13—海陆过渡相;14—陆相;15—风成相

    Figure  7.  Contrast figure of Late Quaternary stratigraphic column of the north part of the LiXia River area

    图  8  长江深切河谷系统(含主河道和支谷)[15]

    Figure  8.  Deep valley system of the Yangtze River

    图  9  钻孔及剖面位置图[18]

    Figure  9.  Drillings and profile locations

    图  10  长江古河谷剖面图[18]

    Figure  10.  Ancient Valley profiles of the Yangtze River

    图  11  南京长江四桥长江古河槽地质剖面示意图[18]

    Figure  11.  Sketch map of the ancient channel geological section in the forth Nanjing Yangtze river bridge

    图  12  南京长江大桥长江古河槽地质剖面示意图[19]

    Figure  12.  Sketch map of the ancient channel geological section in the Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge

    图  13  南京长江三桥附近长江古河槽地质剖面示意图[19]

    Figure  13.  Sketch map of the ancient channel geological section near the 3rd Nanjing Yangtze river bridge

    图  14  上海面粉厂钻孔微体古生物分析综合柱状图[26]

    Figure  14.  Comprehensive column of micropaleontology analysis of Shanghai flour mill drilling

    图  15  长江三角洲第四纪海侵范围图[29]

    Figure  15.  The Quaternary transgression range in Yangtze River Delta

    图  16  太湖827孔中-上更新统有孔虫、海相介形虫种数、壳体数量统计[30]

    Figure  16.  Statistics of the middle-upper Pleistocene foraminifera、ostracods of marine species and the shells in the Taihu 827 drilling

    图  17  磁性地层划分剖面图(据王润华等)[35]

    Figure  17.  Profiles of magnetic stratigraphic division

    图  18  磁性地层划分剖面磁化率对比图[35]

    Figure  18.  Comparison of magnetic susceptibility of magnetic stratigraphic sections

    图  19  长江三角洲河口地区第四纪海陆相地层分布特征[36]

    Figure  19.  The distribution characteristics of the Quaternary marine-terrigenous facies strata in the Changjiang Estuary

    图  20  浦东机场孔(Pd)第四系地层和地球化学微量元素及其比值、古地磁分布[36]

    Figure  20.  The Quaternary stratigraphy and Geochemical of trace elements and their ratios, paleomagnetic distribution in PD hole

    图  21  长江三角洲DY03孔古地磁与磁化率测量结果[37]

    Figure  21.  Paleomagnetic and magnetic susceptibility of the DY03 hole in the Yangtze River Delta

    图  22  长江三角洲DY03孔地层综合柱状图[37]

    Figure  22.  Comprehensive stratigraphic column of the DY03 hole in the Yangtze River Delta

    图  23  SC6孔晚新生代地层框架综合图[38]

    Figure  23.  Late Cenozoic stratigraphic framework of SC6 hole

    图  24  长江三角洲南部5个钻孔的地层和孢粉绝对浓度(粒/g)分布[39]

    Figure  24.  Stratigraphy and absolute sporopollen concentration distribution of the 5 boreholes in the south of the Yangtze River delta

    图  25  长江三角洲南部平原SG7孔新近纪-全新世孢粉图谱[39]

    Figure  25.  Neogene-Holocene Pollen spectrum of SG7 hole in southern plain of the Yangtze River Delta

    图  26  江苏乐安镇—安亭—东海地层剖面图[40]

    Figure  26.  Stratigraphic section of Le'an town-Anting-Donghai in Jiangsu

    图  27  太仓—宝应第四系地质结构剖面(NW向)[45]

    Figure  27.  Taicang-Baoying Quaternary geological structure profile (NW)

    图  28  宝应1号孔古地磁图[47]

    Figure  28.  Paleomagnetic map of Baoying No.1 hole

    图  29  宝应钻孔沉积物常量元素含量随深度变化[48]

    Figure  29.  Variation of the content of constant elements in sediments with depth in Baoying borehole

    图  30  兴化1#孔剖面地层、古地磁测定结果及其与标准极性柱的对比[51]

    Figure  30.  Profile stratum and paleomagnetic measurements of the 1# susceptibility with pore in Xinghua and the comparison with the standard pole column curve

    图  31  质量磁化率与中值粒径和自然伽马测井曲线对比[51]

    Figure  31.  Comparison of mass median particle size and natural gamma logging

    图  32  海安J9孔岩性剖面(a)及古地磁曲线(b)[56]

    Figure  32.  The lithologic section(a) and paleomagnetic curves (b) in Haian J9 hole

    图  33  长江三角洲地区浅部硬土层分布略图[57]

    1-基岩山区;2-下蜀粘土出露区;3-浅部硬土层缺失区;4-上部硬土层分布区;5-浅部硬土层顶板埋深等值线(米);6-剖面线

    Figure  33.  Distribution map of shallow hard soil in the Yangtze River Delta

    图  34  上海地区浅部硬土层分布图[57]

    Figure  34.  Distribution map of shallow hard soil in Shanghai area

    图  35  杭嘉湖平原-上海地区浅部地层剖面[57]

    Figure  35.  The shallow stratigraphic profile of Hangjiahu Plain-Shanghai area

    图  36  长江三角洲江北地区水文地质剖面图[57]

    1—黏土、亚黏土;2—亚砂土;3—粉细砂、中细砂;4—含砾砂、砂砾石;5—基岩;6—矿化度界线及矿化度区阀值(克/升);7—抽水钻孔:粗黑线为抽水试验段,左侧为矿化度(克/升),右侧为涌水量(升/秒)和降深(米)

    Figure  36.  Hydrogeological profile of Jiangbei area in the Yangtze River Delta

    图  37  西洋西潮流通道的地震剖面(a)及其解译图(b)[79]

    Figure  37.  Seismic profile (a) and its interpretation map of tidal currents

    图  38  苏北大丰王港潮滩大剖面所揭示的地层及其年代[78~79]

    Figure  38.  The strata and age of Wanggang tidal flat profile in Jiangsu Dafeng

    图  39  西洋西通道07SR01钻孔及地震地层单元与邻近研究钻孔的对比[79]

    Figure  39.  The strata and age of Wanggang tidal flat profile in Jiangsu Dafeng

    图  40  MIS 3以来的全球相对海平面变化与江苏海岸中部区域沉积层序的对比[79]

    (相对海平面变化的校正曲线转引自Skene等[80])

    Figure  40.  Global relative sea level change since MIS 3 and comparison of sedimentary sequences with the central coast of Jiangsu

    图  41  长江三角洲南部地区晚更新世以来年代地层[82]

    Figure  41.  Chronostratigraphy since Late pleistocene in the southern region of the Yangtze River Delta

    图  42  长江三角洲南部MFC孔综合剖面[82]

    Figure  42.  The comprehensive profile of MFC hole in the south of Yangtze River Delta

    图  43  长江三角洲晚第四纪N-S剖面地质图[17]

    Figure  43.  The late Quaternary profile map of N-S section in the Yangtze River Delta

    图  44  南黄海古江河大三角洲(2)[83]

    (遥感底图转引自史照良[84])

    Figure  44.  The ancient river delta in the South Yellow Sea

    图  45  南黄海西部陆架浅地层剖面A4与钻孔对比[85]

    Figure  45.  Comparison between sub-bottom profile A4 and drilling in western continental shelf of the South Yellow Sea

    图  46  南黄海各期三角洲分布范围[85]

    Figure  46.  The distribution range of the Delta in the South Yellow Sea at Each period

    图  47  长江三角洲北翼第四系厚度等值线图[87]

    Figure  47.  Contour map of Quaternary thickness in the North Wing of Yangtze River Delta

    图  48  长江三角洲现代构造运动强度图[88]

    Figure  48.  The intensity map of modern tectonic movement of the Yangtze River Delta

    图  49  上海地区断裂断裂构造系统图[89]

    Figure  49.  Fault fracture system of Shanghai area

    图  50  上海及邻区活动断裂和地震震中分布[90]

    Figure  50.  Distribution of active faults and earthquakes in Shanghai and its adjacent areas

    图  51  上海及邻区主要活动性断裂及N+Q等厚线[91]

    Figure  51.  Fig. 51 The main active faults in Shanghai and its adjacent area and N+Q contour line

    图  52  长江三角洲晚新生代地层分布图[92]

    Figure  52.  Late Cenozoic stratigraphic distribution in the Yangtze River Delta

    图  53  长江三角洲晚新生代地层和独居石测年[95]

    Figure  53.  The late Cenozoic stratum and monazite dating of the Yangtze river delta

    图  54  长江三角洲晚新生代独居石年龄分布谱图[95]

    Figure  54.  Age distribution spectrum of the late Cenozoic monazites in the Yangtze river delta

    图  55  PD钻孔岩性、143Nd/144Nd、CIA和REE分异参数比值的变化[97]

    Figure  55.  The lithology of PD borehole、143Nd/144Nd、CIA and variation of the REE differentiation parameter ratio

    图  56  PD孔重矿物图谱[98]

    Figure  56.  Heavy mineral map of PD pore

    图  57  长江三角洲基岩埋深等值线和晚新生代沉积盆地分布[99]

    Figure  57.  Bedrock depth contour and the distribution of Late Cenozoic sedimentary basins in the Yangtze River Delta

    图  58  上海市基岩类型和分布图[99]

    Figure  58.  The types and distribution of bedrock in Shanghai

    图  59  SG7孔磁性特征和分层[99]

    Figure  59.  Magnetic properties and delamination of SG7 hole

    图  60  PD孔重矿物图谱[100]

    Figure  60.  Heavy mineral map of PD pore

    图  61  XH-1孔磁化率与粒度分析结果[101]

    Figure  61.  Analysis of magnetic susceptibility and grain size of XH-1 hole

    图  62  DY03孔地层、元素地球化学特征及碎屑锆石取样位置图[102~103]

    Figure  62.  Stratigraphy and geochemical characteristics of the DY03 hole and the detrital zircons sampling location

    图  63  DY03孔主量与微量元素比值变化情况[102]

    Figure  63.  The change of the ratio of main and trace elements of DY03 hole

    图  64  DY03孔碎屑锆石U-Pb年龄谱系随深度变化图[103]

    Figure  64.  The detrital zircon U-Pb age pedigree changes with depth in DY03 hole

    图  65  长江流域太古宙—新生代(变)火成岩分布图[104]

    Figure  65.  The (Metamorphic) igneous rock distribution in Yangtze River Basin from Archaean to Cenozoic

    图  66  长江三角洲第四系钻孔综合柱状图[105]

    Figure  66.  Quaternary borehole column of the Yangtze River Delta

    图  67  长江三角洲第四纪控制性断裂和古长江改道示意图[105]

    Figure  67.  Schematic diagram of the Quaternary controlled faults and the ancient Yangtze River Diversion in the Yangtze River Delta

    表  1  上海面粉厂全新世地层剖面特征简表[6]

    Table  1.   A brief table for the Holocene stratigraphic profile in Shanghai flour mill

    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  全新世长江各亚三角洲分期简表[6]

    Table  2.   Holocene staging table for the Yangtze River sub Deltas

    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  上海地区第四纪地区划分方案沿革[25]

    Table  3.   Evolution of Quaternary division scheme of Shanghai area

    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  上海东部地区第四纪地层综合表[26]

    Table  4.   Comprehensive table for Quaternary stratum in eastern Shanghai

    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  上海面粉厂钻孔地层划分与海进层位表[26]

    Table  5.   Drilling stratigraphic division and transgressive table of Shanghai flour miu

    时代 地层 井深(米) 海进旋回 大致厚度(米)
    全新世 ${\text{Q}}_3^1$ 上海组 0~13.85 第Ⅰ海进层 25
    ${\text{Q}}_3^2$ 13.85~17.4
    ${\text{Q}}_3^3$ 17.4~25.4
    晚更新世 ${\text{Q}}_3^3$ 南汇组 25.4~34.5 第Ⅰ陆相层 9
    ${\text{Q}}_3^2$ 34.5~74.96 第Ⅱ海进层 40
    ${\text{Q}}_3^1$ 川沙组 74.96~92 第Ⅱ陆相层 17
    ${\text{Q}}_2^1$ 92~109.5 第Ⅲ海进层 18
    早、中更新世 Q1-2 宝山群 109.5~133.2 第Ⅲ陆相层 23
    133.2~160 第Ⅳ海进层 27
    160~255.3 第Ⅳ陆相层 100
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  新近纪地层划分对比[46]

    Table  6.   Neogene stratigraphic division and correlation

    年代地层 皖北平原 河北平原 南京附近 长江三角洲
    阶(全球) 中国区域
    上新统 Piacenzian3.60 Ma 麻则沟阶 常胜沟组 固安组 尖山组 干窑镇组
    中新统 Messinian7.12 Ma 保德阶 辛集组 明化镇组 黄岗组 六合组
    Tortonion11.2 Ma
    Serravillian14.8 Ma 通古尔队 六合组
    Langhian16.4 Ma
    Burdigalian 山旺阶 固镇组 馆陶组 洞玄观组 洞玄观组 白龙港组
    Aquitanian23.8 Ma 谢家阶 头铺组
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  上海及邻区活动断裂简表[90]

    Table  7.   A brief table for active faults in Shanghai and its adjacent areas

    断裂方向 名称 图幅内长度/km 主要活动时代 断裂性(新构造期) 规模
    北北东 郯庐断裂带 长100、宽20 燕山期—近期 右旋压扭 主干断裂
    盐城—茅山—泾县断裂带 长400、宽4~20 燕山期—近期 右旋压扭 主干断裂
    镇海—温州断裂带 长120 燕山期—第四纪 压扭 主干断裂
    北东 苏北—南黄海盆地断裂系 长40~150不等 燕山期—第四纪 张扭 主干断裂和一般断裂
    湖州—苏州断裂 长200 晚白垩纪—近期 张扭 主干断裂
    肖山—球川断裂 长350、宽5.5~7.0 燕山期—近期 张扭 主干断裂
    绍兴—江山断裂带 长280 元古代—第三纪 右旋张扭 主干断裂
    东西 扬州—海安—拼茶河断裂 长240 晚白垩世—近期 张性 主干断裂
    无锡—太仓—长江口断裂 长200 燕山期—近期 张性 主干断裂
    昆山—嘉定断裂带 长60~80 白垩纪—近期 张性 主干断裂
    昌化—杭州—杭州湾断裂 长300 燕山期—第四纪 张扭 主干断裂
    北西 与郯庐断裂伴随的北西向断裂组 长30~80不等 第三纪—近期 左旋张扭或压扭 一般断裂
    南京—溧阳断裂带 长140 晚白垩纪—近期 左旋张扭 一般断裂
    太仓—奉贤断裂带 长140 晚白垩纪—近期 左旋张扭 一般断裂
    南黄海盆地北西向断裂组 长30~70不等 第三纪—近期 张扭 一般断裂
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  DY03孔个层段常量元素平均含量[102]

    Table  8.   The average content of the major elements at each section in DY03 hole

    地层 样品个数 元素平均含量/%
    Fe2O3 MnO TiO2 CaO K2O P2O5 SiO2 Al2O3 MgO Na2O
    Q4 9 5.73 0.09 0.85 2.48 2.67 0.12 64.47 12.82 2.83 1.37
    Q3 22 3.98 0.07 0.64 2.62 2.22 0.11 70.60 9.51 1.79 1.54
    Q2 16 4.14 0.07 0.67 3.93 2.25 0.11 67.45 9.71 2.02 1.31
    Q1 23 3.80 0.06 0.59 3.52 2.08 0.09 71.97 8.46 1.64 1.16
    N 20 3.49 0.06 0.49 1.45 2.35 0.06 75.26 8.35 1.08 0.92
    基底 2 4.10 0.09 0.74 3.03 2.26 0.12 70.14 10.35 2.43 1.51
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-04-20
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