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青藏高原陆陆碰撞-挤出活动构造体系控震作用:以1990年以来强震活动为例

吴中海

吴中海, 2024. 青藏高原陆陆碰撞-挤出活动构造体系控震作用:以1990年以来强震活动为例. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 189-205. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023186
引用本文: 吴中海, 2024. 青藏高原陆陆碰撞-挤出活动构造体系控震作用:以1990年以来强震活动为例. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 189-205. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023186
WU Zhonghai, 2024. The earthquake-controlling process of continental collision-extrusion active tectonic system around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: A case study of strong earthquakes since 1990. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 189-205. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023186
Citation: WU Zhonghai, 2024. The earthquake-controlling process of continental collision-extrusion active tectonic system around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: A case study of strong earthquakes since 1990. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 189-205. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023186

青藏高原陆陆碰撞-挤出活动构造体系控震作用:以1990年以来强震活动为例

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023186
基金项目: 

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20242319

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20230014

国家自然科学基金云南联合基金项目 U2002211

西藏自治区第1次全国自然灾害综合风险普查项目(2022年地震灾害部分) XZLX-BMC-2022-053

详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴中海(1974—),男,博士,研究员,主要从事新构造与活动构造研究。Email:wuzhonghai8848@foxmail.com

  • 中图分类号: P315;P553

The earthquake-controlling process of continental collision-extrusion active tectonic system around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: A case study of strong earthquakes since 1990

Funds: 

the Geological Survey Project of the China Geological Survey DD20242319

the Geological Survey Project of the China Geological Survey DD20230014

the National Natural Science Foundation of China U2002211

the First National Natural Disaster Comprehensive Risk Survey Project of Xizang Autonomous Region XZLX-BMC-2022-053

  • 摘要: 青藏高原是地中海-喜马拉雅地震带上强震活动最频繁的区域之一,深入认识该区的活动构造体系控震效应对于区域强震危险性分析具有重要科学意义。从陆陆碰撞-挤出活动构造体系角度,对青藏高原自1990年以来的MW≥6.0强震活动及控震构造机制进行分析发现,青藏高原陆陆碰撞-挤出构造体系对区域强震活动起到显著控制作用,区域强震事件尤其是MW≥6.5地震主要出现在构造体系的主要边界断裂带上,并显示出相对有规律的时空迁移过程,而且青藏高原东部的多层次挤出-旋转活动构造体系构成了1990年以来强震过程的主要控震构造,其次是喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂带。因此,青藏高原挤出构造体系应是未来强震活动趋势分析最值得关注的区域,尤其是当前最为活跃的巴颜喀拉次级挤出构造单元。对比分析土耳其安纳托利亚板块及周边的强震活动发现,该区具有类似的陆陆碰撞-挤出构造体系及控震效应,表明该构造体系是陆内造山中的一种典型的控震构造。进一步综合分析认为,活动构造体系控震效应的主要表现:一是构造体系中主要断块的边界断裂带通常是强震活动的主要场所;二是构造体系中不同构造带的强震活动常具有联动效应或相互触发关系,其中的复杂或特殊构造部位则是易出现双震或震群活动的场所;三是当构造体系中某个构造单元或构造带处于活跃阶段时,便会出现强震丛集现象。另外,充分认识构造体系中主要活动断层间的协调变形关系,活动断层带上的强震活动的分段破裂行为,以及活动断层上强震原地复发通常存在“周期长、准周期性和丛集性”的特点等,有助于在根据活动构造体系分析区域未来强震活动趋势时更为准确地判定活动断层带的未来强震危险性。

     

  • 图  1  1990年以来青藏高原发生的MW≥6.0强震的活动特征

    地震释放能(E)采用公式logE=5.24+1.44MW进行计算(美国地质调查局,https://www.usgs.gov/)
    a—强震分布图(DEM数据来源 https://www.gscloud.cn/search;国内的活动断层数据吴中海和周春景,2018;国外活动断层数据为遥感解译);b—强震的震源机制解(数据搜索自 https://www.globalcmt.or);c—强震的震级-时间(M-T)分布与地震累计释放能曲线

    Figure  1.  Characteristics of strong earthquakes with MW≥6.0 around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau since 1990

    (a)Distribution map of strong earthquakes (DEM Data from https://www.gscloud.cn/search); domestic active fault data from Wu and Zhou, 2018, and foreign active fault data from remote sensing interpretation); (b) Seismic source mechanism solutions of strong earthquakes (data retrieved from https://www.globalcmt.org); (c) Magnitude-time (M-T) distribution of strong earthquakes and cumulative seismic energy release curve (Dark purple line)
    The seismic energy release (E) is calculated using the formula logE=5.24+1.44MW (U.S. Geological Survey, https://www.usgs.gov/programs/earthquake-hazards/earthquake-magnitude-energy-release-and-shaking-intensity).

    图  2  青藏高原及邻区的活动构造变形样式与现今地壳运动状态(Molnar and Lyon-Caen, 1989; Zhang et al., 2004吴中海和周春景,2018)

    Ⅰ—柴达木断块;Ⅱ—巴颜喀拉断块;Ⅲ—藏东-川滇-禅泰断块

    Figure  2.  Active tectonic deformation patterns and present crustal movement around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and adjacent regions (Molnar and Lyon-Caen, 1989; Zhang et al., 2004; Wu and Zhou, 2018)

    I-Qaidam Block; Ⅱ-Bayan Har Block; Ⅲ-eastern Tibetan-Sichuan-Yunnan-Chantai Block

    图  3  青藏高原主要活动断裂与构造体系以及1990年以来发生的MW≥6.5强震活动(震源机制解和地震数据引自美国地质调查局(USGS)相关网站(https://earthquake.usgs.gov/);国内部分活动断层数据吴中海和周春景,2018;国外活动断层数据为遥感解译;断层滑动速率引自Van Der Woerd et al., 2002Vigny et al., 2003Cowgill,2007Ader et al., 2012; Cowgill, 2007; Ader et al., 2012Chevalier et al., 20122017Liu et al., 2020; Li et al., 2021; 胡萌萌等, 2023)

    1—青藏高原中南部的近东西向伸展变形构造体系;2—由鲜水河-小江断裂带及藏东-川滇断块区构成的挤出构造体系;3—由东昆仑断裂带、龙门山断裂带及巴颜喀拉断块构成的挤出构造体系;4—由阿尔金-祁连-海原逆冲走滑边界及柴达木断块构成的挤出构造体系;5—走滑断裂;6—逆冲断裂;7—正断层;8—GPS观测的主要断块现今运动状态及速率(数据引自Zhang et al., 2004);9—震源机制解(其中粗线条代表发震断层节面);10—6.5≤MW < 7.0地震;11—7.0≤MW < 8.0地震

    Figure  3.  Main active faults and tectonic systems around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and strong earthquake events with MW≥6.5 since 1990 (seismic source mechanisms and earthquake data from relevant websites of the United States Geological Survey (USGS); some domestic active fault data from Wu and Zhou, 2018; foreign active fault data from remote sensing interpretation; fault slip rates from Van Der Woerd et al., 2002; Vigny et al., 2003; Cowgill, 2007; Ader et al., 2012; Chevalier et al., 2012, 2017; Liu et al., 2020; Li et al., 2021; Hu et al., 2023)

    1-Nearly EW-trending extensional deformation tectonic system in the central and southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; 2-Extrusion tectonic system composed of the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang Fault Zone and the eastern Tibetan-Sichuan-Yunnan Block; 3-Extrusion tectonic system composed of the Dongkunlun Fault Zone, Longmenshan Fault Zone, and Bayan Har Block; 4-Extrusion tectonic system composed of the Altyn Tagh-Qilian-Haiyuan thrust and strike-slip boundary and Qaidam Block; 5-Strike-slip faults; 6-Thrust faults; 7-Normal faults; 8-Current movement and velocity of main blocks observed by GPS (data from Zhang et al., 2004); 9-Seismic source mechanisms (thick lines represent fault planes); 10-Earthquakes with 6.5≤MW < 7.0; 11-Earthquakes with 7.0≤MW < 8.0

    图  4  青藏高原最近一轮强震活动过程中不同类型断裂带和构造单元的地震能释放量统计图

    Figure  4.  Statistical map of seismic energy release from different types of active fault zones and tectonic units during the recent strong earthquakes with MW≥6.5 around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau since 1990

    图  5  土耳其及邻区公元1999—2023年间的MW>7.0大震序列与陆陆碰撞-挤出构造体系关系图(地震与震源机制解数据源自美国地质调查局(USGS)相关网站https://earthquake.usgs.gov/)

    NAF—北安纳托利亚断裂带;EAF—东安纳托利亚断裂带;DSF—死海断裂;NAT—北爱琴海海槽
    a—安纳托利亚及周边板块现今运动状态(Armijo et al., 1999);b—土耳其安纳托利亚及邻区的陆陆碰撞-挤出构造体系及其最近一轮大地震迁移过程

    Figure  5.  Relationship between the sequence of MW>7.0 earthquakes and the continental collision-extrusion tectonic system in Turkey and neighboring areas from 1999 to 2023 (earthquake and seismic source mechanism data sourced from relevant websites of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at https://earthquake.usgs.gov/)

    (a)Current motion status of Anatolia and surrounding plates (from Armijo et al., 1999); (b) Continental collision-extrusion tectonic system and the latest seismic migration process in Anatolia, Turkey, and neighboring areas

    图  6  刚性块体碰撞-挤出活动构造体系及控震特征模式图

    Figure  6.  Diagram showing the collision-extrusion active tectonic system of rigid block and its earthquake-controlling pattern

    表  1  1990年以来青藏高原22次MW≥6.5强震序列及其主要参数

    Table  1.   Sequence and main parameters of 22 strong earthquakes with MW≥6.5 since 1990 around the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    序号 发震时期
    (年-月-日)
    仪器震中 地震发生地 矩震级
    (MW)
    震源
    深度/
    km
    发震构造 同震震破裂 参考文献
    北纬/
    (°)
    东经/
    (°)
    断层名称 断层性质 长度/km 最大位移/m
    水平 垂直
    1 2022-09-05 29.68 102.24 四川泸定 6.6 12 鲜水河断裂带磨西段 左旋走滑 22 2.23 吴伟伟等, 2023; 韩炳权等, 2023
    2 2022-01-07 37.83 101.29 青海门源 6.6 13 海原断裂带冷龙岭-托莱山段 左旋走滑 23 3.2 0.5~1.0 韩帅等, 2022
    3 2021-05-21 34.60 98.25 青海玛多 7.3 10 东昆仑断裂带分支——昆仑山口-江错断裂东南段 左旋走滑 151~154 2.8~4.8 2.0 盖海龙等, 2021潘家伟等, 2021; Pan et al., 2022; Ren et al., 2022; Fan et al., 2022
    4 2017-08-08 33.19 103.86 四川九寨沟 6.5 9 东昆仑断裂带东段的塔藏断裂 左旋走滑 25~40 0.74~1.1 单新建等, 2017; 季灵运等, 2017; 郑绪君等, 2017; 陈威等, 2018; 申文豪等, 2019;
    5 2015-05-12 27.81 86.07 尼泊尔珠峰登山者营地 7.3 15 喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂带尼泊尔段 低角度逆冲 40 3.5 (倾滑) 吴中海等, 2015
    6 2015-04-26 27.77 86.02 尼泊尔(余震) 6.7 22.91 喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂带尼泊尔段 低角度逆冲 USGS
    7 2015-04-25 28.22 84.82 尼泊尔(余震) 6.6 10 喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂带尼泊尔段 低角度逆冲 USGS
    8 2015-04-25 28.23 84.73 尼泊尔博克拉 7.8 8.22 喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂带尼泊尔段 低角度逆冲 140 5.3 (倾滑) 吴中海等, 2015
    9 2014-02-12 35.91 82.59 新疆于田 6.9 10 阿尔金断裂西南分支:南硝尔库勒断裂、硝尔库勒断裂及阿什库勒断裂 左旋走滑 37.1 0.9 袁兆德等, 2021
    10 2013-04-20 30.31 102.89 四川芦山 6.6 14 龙门山构造带南段的盲逆断层 逆断层 20~28 1.5~1.6 倾滑) 王卫民等, 2013; 刘成利等, 2013
    11 2011-09-18 27.73 88.16 印度锡金邦 6.9 50 喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂带锡金段 走滑断层 USGS
    12 2010-04-13 33.17 96.55 青海玉树 6.9 17 玉树-甘孜断裂带隆宝湖-结古镇段 左旋走滑 46 2.4 0.6 周春景等, 2014
    13 2008-08-25 30.90 83.52 西藏仲巴县 6.7 12 仲巴-改则裂谷中段的帕龙错地堑 左旋正断层 50 1.15~1.34 (倾滑) 邱江涛等, 2019
    14 2008-05-12 31.00 103.32 四川汶川 7.9 19 龙门山构造带的映秀-北川断裂和彭县-灌县断裂 右旋逆断层 240 4.9 6.5 Xu et al., 2009
    15 2008-03-20 35.49 81.47 新疆于田 6.6 14 阿尔金断裂西南分支局部拉分处的雪山西麓断裂 左旋正断层 31 1.8 2.0 徐锡伟等, 2011;
    16 2001-11-14 35.95 90.54 青海太阳湖 7.8 10 东昆仑断裂系库塞湖-昆仑山口段 左旋走滑 426 8.0 Xu et al., 2006
    17 1999-03-28 30.51 79.40 印度北安恰尔 6.6 15 喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂带印度乌塔兰恰尔邦段 低角度逆冲 USGS
    18 1997-11-08 35.07 87.33 西藏玛尼 7.5 33 东昆仑断裂系西段分支——玛尔盖茶卡断裂 左旋走滑 170~185 5.5~7.5 Wang et al., 2007; Ren and Zhang, 2019
    19 1996-11-19 35.35 78.13 新疆和田喀喇昆仑山口 6.9 33 阿尔金断裂系西段分支断裂 左旋走滑 61 Wang and Wright, 2012
    20 1996-02-03 27.29 100.28 云南丽江大具乡 6.6 11.1 哈巴-玉龙雪山东麓断裂 正断层 33 0.78 秦嘉政等, 1997
    21 1991-10-19 30.78 78.77 印度代赫里 6.8 10.3 喜马拉雅主前缘逆冲断裂带印度乌塔兰恰尔邦段 低角度逆冲 USGS
    22 1990-04-26 35.99 100.25 青海共和 6.5 8.1 青海共和盆地北西西向隐伏逆断层 左旋逆断层 40 0.05 0.79 (倾滑) 赵明等, 1992
    注:①地震数据源自美国地质调查局(USGS)相关网站(https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/);②数据采集日期为1900-01-01—2023-08-30,震级MW≥6.5,范围为北纬26.037°~40.044°、东经76.025°~106.084°;③地震破裂若具有同震地表破裂数据则使用地表调查结果,否则采用地震反演或InSAR等形变观测的震源区破裂参数
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-01
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