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北山东南部早白垩世伸展构造变形:二维反射地震剖面解释与磷灰石裂变径迹测年的制约

刘奎 陈宣华 王德润 顾文沛 邵兆刚 张义平

刘奎,陈宣华,王德润,等,2024. 北山东南部早白垩世伸展构造变形:二维反射地震剖面解释与磷灰石裂变径迹测年的制约[J]. 地质力学学报,30(3):377−393 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023151
引用本文: 刘奎,陈宣华,王德润,等,2024. 北山东南部早白垩世伸展构造变形:二维反射地震剖面解释与磷灰石裂变径迹测年的制约[J]. 地质力学学报,30(3):377−393 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023151
LIU K,CHEN X H,WANG D R,et al.,2024. The Early Cretaceous extensional deformation in the southeastern Beishan Range, central Asia: Constrains from 2D seismic reflection profile interpretation and apatite fission track thermochronology[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(3):377−393 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023151
Citation: LIU K,CHEN X H,WANG D R,et al.,2024. The Early Cretaceous extensional deformation in the southeastern Beishan Range, central Asia: Constrains from 2D seismic reflection profile interpretation and apatite fission track thermochronology[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(3):377−393 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023151

北山东南部早白垩世伸展构造变形:二维反射地震剖面解释与磷灰石裂变径迹测年的制约

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023151
基金项目: 中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20230229,DD20221643,DD20190011,DD20160083)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘奎(1991—),男,在读博士,主要从事构造变形与构造−热年代学的研究工作。Email:kuiliucags@foxmail.com

    通讯作者:

    陈宣华(1967—),男,研究员,主要从事大地构造与构造地质学、地球深部探测与深地科学等研究工作。Email:xhchen@cags.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P542;P548

The Early Cretaceous extensional deformation in the southeastern Beishan Range, central Asia: Constrains from 2D seismic reflection profile interpretation and apatite fission track thermochronology

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Geological Survey Project of the China Geological Survey (Grants No. DD20230229, DD20221643, DD20190011, and DD20160083).
  • 摘要: 为深入认识中亚造山带南缘晚中生代陆内变形过程及其动力学机制,通过野外地质观察、二维反射地震剖面解释及磷灰石裂变径迹测年,对北山东南部早白垩世伸展构造及早期挤压构造进行了详细解析。结果表明,一系列逆冲断层与褶皱构造造成下—中侏罗统发生强烈的挤压变形。地震剖面揭示出2条早白垩世伸展正断层,其中梭梭井断层为南东倾向的低角度铲式正断层,五道明断层为北西倾向的高角度正断层,二者共同切割了早期形成的褶皱−冲断系统,指示挤压−伸展构造的转换;梭梭井断层与五道明断层分别限定了早白垩世总口子盆地的北西和南东边界,使得其具有 “地堑”样式,盆地内沉积的下白垩统生长地层发育,表明伸展正断层的活动时间为早白垩世晚期。磷灰石裂变径迹热史模拟结果显示,梭梭井断层下盘于132~110 Ma经历了快速冷却和剥露事件,该事件与其持续的正断层活动密切相关,进一步证实北山东南部晚中生代挤压−伸展构造的转换很可能发生在早白垩世晚期(133~129 Ma)。增厚地壳的重力垮塌与局部地幔上涌共同导致了中亚造山带南缘早白垩世的区域伸展作用。

     

  • 图  1  亚洲大地构造简图与北山地区及其周缘区域地质图(任纪舜等,2013徐学义等,2015陈宣华等,2019Liu et al.,2023

    a—亚洲大地构造简图;b—北山地区及周缘区域地质图

    Figure  1.  Sketched tectonic map of Asia and regional geologic map of the Beishan Range and its surrounding belts, central Asia (modified from Ren et al., 2013; Xu et al., 2015, Chen et al., 2019; Liu et al., 2023)

    (a) Sketched tectonic map of Asia; (b) Regional geologic map of the Beishan Range and its surrounding belts ZKB–Zongkouzi Basin; MCC–metamorphic core complex

    图  2  北山东南部红柳大泉地区地质图(底图据甘肃省地质局和第二区域地质调查队,1971;靳拥护等,2020修改)

    a—红柳大泉地区地质图;b—北西—南东走向AA'剖面图

    Figure  2.  Geologic map of the Hongliudaquan area, southeastern Beishan Range (base map modified from BGGP, 1971; Jin et al., 2020; Apatite (U–Th)/He ages according to Liu et al., 2023)

    (a) Geological map of the Hongliudaquan area; (b) NW–SE trending section AA'HFTS–Hongliudaquan Fold–Thrust System; HQT–Hongqishan Thrust Fault

    图  3  北山东南部红柳大泉地区构造解译图与野外照片(Liu et al.,2023

    a—谷歌地球卫星影像的构造解译图; b—发育于下—中侏罗统内部的挤压构造变形的野外照片; c—下白垩统的野外照片

    Figure  3.  Google Earth satellite image and field photos showing the structural deformation of the J1-2Ln and K1Ch groups in the Hongliudaquan area, southeastern Beishan Range (Liu et al., 2023)

    (a) Google Earth satellite image showing the structural deformation; (b) Field photo of the J1-2Ln group; (c) Field photo of the K1Ch group

    图  4  地震剖面BB'及其构造解释特征(剖面位置见图2)

    a—未解释地震剖面BB';b—BB'地震剖面的构造解释图

    Figure  4.  Seismic profile BB’ and its structural interpretation (Profile location is shown in Fig. 2)

    (a) Uninterpreted seismic profile BB'; (b) Structural interpretation map of seismic profile BB'

    图  5  地震剖面CC'及其构造解释特征(剖面位置见图2)

    a—未解释地震剖面CC';b—CC'地震剖面的构造解释图

    Figure  5.  Seismic profile CC' and its structural interpretation (Profile location is shown in Fig. 2)

    (a) Uninterpreted seismic profile CC'; (b) Structural interpretation map of seismic profile CC'

    图  6  地震剖面DD'及其构造解释特征(剖面位置见图2)

    a—未解释地震剖面DD';b—DD'地震剖面的构造解释图

    Figure  6.  Seismic profile DD’ and its structural interpretation (Profile location is shown in Fig. 2)

    (a) Uninterpreted seismic profile DD'; (b) Structural interpretation map of seismic profile DD'

    图  7  北山东南部磷灰石裂变径迹年龄的雷达分布图(采用 RadialPlotter软件绘制;Vermeesch,2009

    a—HLK-1样品磷灰石裂变径迹年龄雷达图; b—HLK-2样品磷灰石裂变径迹年龄雷达图; c—HLK-4样品磷灰石裂变径迹年龄雷达图$\mathrm{P}\left(\chi^2\right) $—检验所有单颗粒年龄正态分布置信度的最值;Dpar—与结晶C轴平行、与抛光面相交的裂变径迹蚀刻象的最大直径;n=32—样品测试的磷灰石颗粒数

    Figure  7.  Radial plots of apatite fission track ages (plotted from RadialPlotter by Vermeesch, 2009) in the southeastern Beishan Range

    图  8  北山东南部磷灰石裂变径迹长度分布图、热史模拟结果及径迹长度实测与模拟结果对比图(热史模拟采用HeFTy软件)

    Figure  8.  Length distribution of apatite fission tracks, thermal history simulation results, and comparison of measured and simulated track lengths in the southeastern Beishan Range (thermal history simulation results using HeFTy software)

    Solid black lines represent the optimal thermal history paths, solid purple lines represent "good" thermal history paths (GOF>0.8), and solid green lines represent "acceptable" thermal history paths (0.8>GOF>0.05).

    图  9  北山东南部早白垩世构造−热演化模式图

    a—北山东南部早白垩世晚期伸展构造变形模式图;b—磷灰石裂变径迹热史模拟图

    Figure  9.  The Early Cretaceous tectonic–thermal evolution of the southeastern Beishan Range

    (a) Late Early Cretaceous extensional structural deformation pattern in the southeastern Beishan Range; (b) Simulation map of apatite fission track thermal history

    图  10  北山地区及周缘早白垩世伸展构造变形模式图(Webb et al.,1999Meng et al.,2003Hui et al.,2021Zuo et al.,2020

    Figure  10.  Tectonic model of the Early Cretaceous extensional deformation in the Beishan Range and its surrounding regions (modified from Webb et al.,1999; Meng et al., 2003; Hui et al., 2021; Zuo et al., 2020)

    图  11  早白垩世中亚和东亚地区伸展构造变形(包括变质核杂岩和地堑/半地堑盆地等)与亚洲陆缘多板块汇聚体系的关系图(Meng,2003Meng et al.,2003,Wang et al.,20112015任纪瞬等,2013Lin and Wei,2018Ma and Xu,2021

    Figure  11.  Distribution of Early Cretaceous extensional structures in the central and eastern Asian continent, including metamorphic core complexes and graben/half-graben basins (modified from Meng, 2003; Meng et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2011,2015; Ren et al., 2013; Lin et al., 2018; Ma and Xu, 2021)

    表  1  北山东南部红柳大泉地区磷灰石裂变径迹测试结果

    Table  1.   Apatite fission track results in the Hongliudaquan area, southeastern Beishan Range

    样品编号 采样位置/
    高程
    Nc ρd/×106
    cm−2(Nd)
    ρs/×106
    cm−2(Ns)
    ρi/×106
    cm−2(Ni)
    U/
    ×106
    P(χ2)/
    %
    平均径迹长度/
    (μm±1SD)(Nj/条)
    平均 Dpar/
    μm
    年龄/Ma
    HLK-1 40°56′20″N, 98°31′11″E/1473 m 32 1.173 (4274) 1.6434 (3983) 2.8465 (6899) 29.14 29.5 12.72±1.39 (127) 1.5 118.4±7.3
    HLK-2 40°55′17″N, 98°30′28″E/1481 m 32 1.186 (4321) 1.4263 (1765) 2.5536 (3160) 25.68 82.7 12.96±0.25 (105) 1.6 115.9±7.6
    HLK-4 40°53′34″N, 98°28′41″E/1517 m 32 1.18 (4297) 2.4206 (3555) 4.4873 (6737) 45.16 50.5 13.01±1.46 (111) 1.57 109±6.8
    注:Nc—样品测试的磷灰石颗粒数;ρd—用SRM612计量剂计算的白云母外探测器的诱发径迹密度;Nd—诱发径迹总数;ρs—自发径迹密度;Ns—自发径迹总数;ρi—用晶体分析计算的白云母外探测器的诱发径迹密度;Ni—诱发径迹总数;P(χ2)—检验所有单颗粒年龄正态分布置信度的最值(Galbraith,1981);Dpar—与结晶c轴平行、与抛光面相交的裂变径迹蚀刻象的最大直径;Nj—统计的封闭径迹的条数
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-09-11
  • 修回日期:  2023-12-04
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