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华北平原中南部聊城-兰考断裂的第四纪晚期活动性探测——兼论1937年菏泽7.0级地震发震机制

刘广英 梁宽 李志鹏 马保起 龙焘 李磊 谭鑫 李浩洋

刘广英, 梁宽, 李志鹏, 等, 2024. 华北平原中南部聊城-兰考断裂的第四纪晚期活动性探测——兼论1937年菏泽7.0级地震发震机制. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 242-259. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023088
引用本文: 刘广英, 梁宽, 李志鹏, 等, 2024. 华北平原中南部聊城-兰考断裂的第四纪晚期活动性探测——兼论1937年菏泽7.0级地震发震机制. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 242-259. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023088
LIU Guangying, LIANG Kuan, LI Zhipeng, et al., 2024. Detection of the Late Quaternary activity of the Liaocheng-Lankao Fault in the south-central part of the North China Plain: Discussion on the seismogenic mechanism of the 1937 Heze M 7.0 earthquake. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 242-259. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023088
Citation: LIU Guangying, LIANG Kuan, LI Zhipeng, et al., 2024. Detection of the Late Quaternary activity of the Liaocheng-Lankao Fault in the south-central part of the North China Plain: Discussion on the seismogenic mechanism of the 1937 Heze M 7.0 earthquake. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 242-259. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023088

华北平原中南部聊城-兰考断裂的第四纪晚期活动性探测——兼论1937年菏泽7.0级地震发震机制

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023088
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 42202253

应急管理部国家自然灾害防治研究院基本科研业务专项 ZDJ2019-28

应急管理部国家自然灾害防治研究院基本科研业务专项 ZDJ2019-21

中国铁路设计集团有限公司科技开发计划 2020YY340411

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘广英(1970—),男,正研级高级工程师,水文地质专业,主要从事铁路勘察设计工作。Email:liuguangying@crdc.com

    通讯作者:

    梁宽(1988—),男,博士,副研究员,构造地质学专业,主要从事活动构造研究。Email:liangkuan18@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P65

Detection of the Late Quaternary activity of the Liaocheng-Lankao Fault in the south-central part of the North China Plain: Discussion on the seismogenic mechanism of the 1937 Heze M 7.0 earthquake

Funds: 

the National Science Foundation of China 42202253

the Basic Research Funds of the National Institute of Natural Hazards, Ministry of Emergency Management of China ZDJ2019-28

the Basic Research Funds of the National Institute of Natural Hazards, Ministry of Emergency Management of China ZDJ2019-21

the Science and Technology Development Project of the China Railway Design Corporation 2020YY340411

  • 摘要: 华北平原是中国人口最多、经济最为发达的地区之一,也是受地震灾害影响最为严重的地区之一。对于该地区断裂活动性和大地震发震机制的研究有利于探索板内地震的发震规律、减轻地震灾害所造成的损失。聊城-兰考断裂是华北平原中南部一条重要的隐伏深大断裂。结合浅层地震勘探、钻孔勘探和第四纪测年方法,对聊城-兰考断裂的活动性进行了精细的研究。坝城寺钻孔揭示聊城-兰考断裂南段错断了全新统底界,为全新世早期活动断裂,揭露出该断裂晚更新世以来造成了4次古地震事件,单次事件的垂直位错为1.2±0.2~3.7±0.2 m。根据钻孔揭示的地层落差计算出该断裂晚更新世早期的平均垂直滑动速率约为0.1±0.05 mm/a,晚更新世晚期—全新世中期的平均滑动速率为0.35±0.04 mm/a。根据1937年菏泽7.0级和6${\raise0.7ex\hbox{$3$} \!\mathord{\left/{\vphantom {3 4}}\right.}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$4$}} $级地震的等震线和地表破裂分布特征认为,小留-解元集断裂和东明-成武断裂为该地震的发震断裂;聊城-兰考断裂对于该地区应力的积累、地震的发生具有很好的控制和约束作用,为区域控震构造。

     

  • 图  1  区域地震构造图

    a—华北块体及其邻区地震构造图(地震及断层数据邓起东,2007;黑色箭头为GPS观测的地块运动速率,相对于稳定的西欧和西伯利亚地盾的运动,张培震等,2003);b—华北平原中南部地震构造图(地震及断层数据邓起东, 2007, 第四系等深线向宏发等,2000);c—钻孔及物探资料分布位置(深地震反射剖面徐翰,2018)

    Figure  1.  Regional seismotectonic map

    (a) Seismotectonic map of the North China block and its adjacent areas (Fault and seismic data are from Deng, 2007, black arrows are GPS-derived rates of block motion, movements relative to the stable Western European and Siberian shields are modified from Zhang et al., 2003); (b) Seismic map of the south-central part of the North China Plain (Seismic and fault data are modified from Deng et al., 2007, and Quaternary isobaths from Xiang et al., 2000); (c) Distribution of drilling profiles and shallow seismic detection lines (Deep seismic reflection profile from Xu, 2018)

    图  2  坝城寺浅层地震反射剖面解译结果与钻孔布设

    T1—T6—有效波组;ZK1—ZK4—钻孔;红色线为解译断层F,绿色虚线为扰动同相轴连线L,断层F上断点地表投影位于里程984 m处,L顶端点在地表的投影位于里程1060 m处
    a—坝城寺浅层地震反射剖面;b—坝城寺钻孔(ZK1—ZK5)平面分布图

    Figure  2.  Interpretation results of shallow seismic reflection profile and borehole layout at Bachengsi

    (a) Interpreted results of shallow seismic reflection profile at Bachengsi; (b) Plan distribution of boreholes at Bachengsi (ZK1-ZK5)
    T1-T6 represent effective wave groups; ZK1-ZK4 represent boreholes; The red line represents interpreted Fault F, and the green dashed line represents the disturbed line L. The surface projection of the upper breakpoint on Fault F is located at 984 m. The projection of the top point of L on the surface is located at 1060 m.

    图  3  坝城寺钻孔样品地层年龄-深度关系

    Figure  3.  Diagram showing the relationship between the age and depth of strata samples from the Bachengsi borehole

    图  4  坝城寺钻孔联合剖面图

    B1—B16为标志层;岩芯柱左侧数字为地层埋深,红色数字为断层的垂直落差

    Figure  4.  Combined cross-section of boreholes in Bachengsi

    B1-B16 represent marker layers, with the depth of the strata indicated on the left side of the core column, and the vertical displacement of the fault is indicated by the red numbers.

    图  5  钻孔ZK4中B1—B8标志层的岩芯特征

    a—标志层B1;b—标志层B2;c—标志层B3;d—标志层B4;e—标志层B5;f—标志层B6;g—标志层B7;h—标志层B8

    Figure  5.  Photographs of marker layers B1 to B8 in ZK4

    (a) Photograph of marker layer B1; (b)Photograph of marker layer B2; (c)Photograph of marker layer B3; (d)Photograph of marker layer B4; (e)Photograph of marker layer B5; (f)Photograph of marker layer B6; (g)Photograph of marker layer B7; (h)Photograph of marker layer B8

    图  6  钻孔ZK4中标志层B9、B10、B13、B15和B16的岩芯特征

    a—标志层B9;b—标志层B10;c—标志层B13;d—标志层B15;e—标志层B16

    Figure  6.  Photographs of marker layer B9, B10, B13, B15 and B16 in BCS-ZK4

    (a)Photograph of marker layer B9; (b)Photograph of marker layer B10; (c)Photograph of marker layer B13; (d)Photograph of marker layer B15; (e)Photograph of marker layer B16

    图  7  聊城-兰考断裂在坝城寺钻孔中出露特征

    a—钻孔ZK5 75.7 m深度处断层Fb出露; b—钻孔ZK3 109.4 m深度处断层Fb出露; c—钻孔ZK4 145.5 m深度处断层Fb出露; d—钻孔ZK5 108.8 m深度处断层Fc出露; e—钻孔ZK3 137.8 m深度处断层Fc出露

    Figure  7.  The outcrops of the Liaocheng-Lankao fault revealed by the Bachengsi boreholes

    (a) ZK5 reveals fault Fb at 75.7 m; (b) ZK3 reveals fault Fb at 109.4 m; (c) ZK4 reveals fault Fb at 145.5 m; (d) ZK5 reveals fault Fc at 108.8 m; (e) ZK3 reveals fault Fc at 137.8 m

    图  8  1937年菏泽7.0级和6${\raise0.7ex\hbox{$3$} \!\mathord{\left/{\vphantom {3 4}}\right.}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$4$}} $级地震等震线和地裂缝分布图(烈度线胡长和,1991;地裂缝分布赵宪超,1991)

    图中70°~80°为地应力的方位角

    Figure  8.  Map showing intensity lines and ground fissure distribution of the 1937 Heze M 7.0 and M 6${\raise0.7ex\hbox{$3$} \!\mathord{\left/{\vphantom {3 4}}\right.}\!\lower0.7ex\hbox{$4$}} $ earthquakes (intensity lines from Hu, 1991; ground fissure distribution from Zhao, 1991)

    The direction of the ground stress is indicated by 70°-80° in the figure.

    图  9  深地震反射剖面及其解译结果(剖面位置见图 1徐翰,2018)

    Figure  9.  Deep seismic reflection profile and its interpretation results (profile location refer to Fig. 1; Xu, 2018)

    表  1  14C样品测年结果

    Table  1.   Test results of 14C samples

    取样钻孔 埋深/m 年龄/a
    ZK2 6.0 2750±30
    ZK4 16.8 4110±30
    ZK4 38.4 12270±40
    ZK4 52.0 14500±40
    ZK4 69.6 18800±60
    ZK5 77.4 19980±70
    ZK4 86.0 21150±70
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  光释光(OSL)样品测试结果

    Table  2.   Test results of OSL samples

    取样钻孔 埋深/m U/(μg/g) Th/(μg/g) K/% 环境剂量率(Gy/ka) 等效剂量(Gy) 年龄/ka
    ZK5 102.9 0.771±0.03 3.68±0.04 2.26±0.02 2.32±0.09 137.11±5.51 59.22±3.37
    ZK4 115.4 2.650±0.11 13.10±0.03 1.92±0.02 2.96±0.11 207.12±9.19 69.97±4.08
    ZK4 131.8 1.570±0.01 10.30±0.21 2.22±0.01 2.81±0.11 258.33±13.31 92.09±5.91
    ZK4 145.4 2.530±0.01 12.00±0.20 1.75±0.02 2.55±0.09 328.40±12.97 128.73±6.84
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  标志层错断位移

    Table  3.   The displacement information of the mark layers

    标志层 岩芯特征 埋深/m Fa位移/m Fb位移/m Fc位移/m 总位移/m
    B1 灰黑色炭质黏土层 7.2 / / / /
    B2 砖红色—橘黄色粉细砂层 20.5 / / / /
    B3 青灰—灰黄色巨厚细砂层的底界面 38.9 1.25±0.20 / / 1.25±0.20
    B4 灰黑色炭质黏土层 54.65 1.05±0.20 / / 1.05±0.10
    B5 紫红色黏土层 58.35 1.2±0.1 / / 1.2±0.1
    B6 灰黑—深灰色炭质黏土层 65.55 1.65±0.10 1.2±0.1 / 2.8±0.2
    B8 蓝灰—黄灰色黏土层 73.5 1.5±0.2 / / /
    B9 灰绿色黏土层 81.5 2.25±0.20 1.2±0.2 / 3.95±0.20
    B10 紫红色色黏土层 90.5 2.25±0.20 1.35±0.20 / 4.25±0.20
    B13 紫红色含蓝灰色网纹黏土层 105.9 2.0±0.2 1.2±0.2 2.1±0.2 6.2±0.3
    B14 灰绿色黏土层 124.5 / / 1.95±0.20 /
    B15 灰黄色细砂层 132.7 3.7±0.2 3.7±0.2 2.9±0.2 6.6±0.3
    B16 紫红色黏土层 141.2 3.4±0.3 3.4±0.3 6.6±0.2 10.0±0.4
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-01
  • 修回日期:  2023-09-07
  • 录用日期:  2023-10-24
  • 预出版日期:  2023-11-23
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