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青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带新生代地层沉积序列及年代学研究进展

董晓朋 李振宏 井向辉 崔加伟 黄婷 寇琳琳

董晓朋,李振宏,井向辉,等,2023. 青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带新生代地层沉积序列及年代学研究进展[J]. 地质力学学报,29(4):465−484 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023048
引用本文: 董晓朋,李振宏,井向辉,等,2023. 青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带新生代地层沉积序列及年代学研究进展[J]. 地质力学学报,29(4):465−484 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023048
DONG X P,LI Z H,JING X H,et al.,2023. Stratigraphic sequence characteristics and geochronology research progress of the Cenozoic in the arcuate tectonic belt on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(4):465−484 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023048
Citation: DONG X P,LI Z H,JING X H,et al.,2023. Stratigraphic sequence characteristics and geochronology research progress of the Cenozoic in the arcuate tectonic belt on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(4):465−484 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023048

青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带新生代地层沉积序列及年代学研究进展

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023048
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(U2244220,41972119);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20230002,DD20221644);中国地质科学院院所长基金(DZLXJK202104)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    董晓朋(1989—),男,博士,副研究员,主要从事沉积盆地与大地构造演化方面的研究工作。E-mail:dongxiaopeng_geo@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李振宏(1973—),男,博士,研究员,主要从事沉积盆地分析、石油地质综合研究、区域地质调查等方面的研究工作。E-mail:lizhennhong@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P535;P534.6

Stratigraphic sequence characteristics and geochronology research progress of the Cenozoic in the arcuate tectonic belt on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau

Funds: This research is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants U2244220 and 41972119), the Geological Investigation Project of the China Geological Survey (Grants DD20230002 and DD20221644), and the Fund of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (Grant DZLXJK202104).
  • 摘要:

    青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带新生代的构造变形和沉积充填过程既受到了太平洋板块俯冲的远程效应影响,也受到了青藏高原北东向扩展的控制。确定新生代地层的沉积时代是深入理解青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带内构造变形和沉积充填过程的重要前提,但是目前弧形构造带内新生代地层序列和沉积时代仍存在诸多争议。文章系统研究了弧形构造带内古近纪至新近纪沉积序列和地层时代,结果显示弧形构造带内寺口子组、清水营组、彰恩堡组和干河沟组的沉积时代分别为中晚渐新世、晚渐新世—早中新世、中中新世—晚中新世和晚中新世—上新世。综合分析了古近纪至新近纪不整合界面的形成时代,重新厘定了古近纪—新近纪两期不整合及其大地构造意义,第一期不整合发育在清水营组与彰恩堡组之间,时代为早中新世,指示了青藏高原的北东向扩展到达弧形构造带;第二期不整合发育在彰恩堡组与干河沟组之间,时代为晚中新世,指示了青藏高原北东向扩展对弧形构造带的改造达到高峰。讨论了弧形构造带沉积充填过程与构造演化的耦合关系,新生代盆地的沉积演化过程主要经历了三个阶段:自中渐新世至早中新世,弧形构造带主要受控于早期的滨太平洋伸展构造体系域,处于伸展构造背景;早中新世至晚中新世,构造变形和盆地演化开始受到青藏高原北东向扩展的影响,处于挤压构造背景;晚中新世至上新世,弧形构造带持续快速隆升,并且走滑断裂体系的发育分割了新生代盆地。

     

  • 图  1  青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带大地构造背景及周缘盆地分布图

    Figure  1.  Tectonic background of the arcuate tectonic belt on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau and the surrounding basins

    图  2  青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带区域地质简图(据马兆颖等,2020修改)

    Figure  2.  Simplified geologic map of the arcuate tectonic belt on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau (modified from Ma et al., 2020)

    图  3  青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带新生代沉积序列

    Figure  3.  Cenozoic stratigraphic sequence in the arcuate tectonic belt on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau

    图  4  古近系寺口子组沉积特征

    a—观音店剖面中寺口子组中的透镜状含砾粗砂岩;b—观音店剖面中的古近系寺口子组底部的砾岩;c—丁家二沟剖面中寺口子组一段砾岩,含粗砂岩夹层;d—隆德地区观音店剖面中下白垩统乃家河组与古近系寺口子组呈平行不整合接触;e、f—固原地区寺口子剖面中下白垩统乃家河组与古近系寺口子组呈平行不整合接触;g—同心地区丁家二沟剖面下白垩统庙山湖组与古近系寺口子组呈角度不整合接触;h—寺口子剖面中寺口子组底部大型斜层理

    Figure  4.  Sedimentary characteristics of the Eogene Sikouzi Formation

    (a) Lenticular gravelly coarse sandstone of the Eogene Sikouzi Formation in the Guanyindian section; (b) Conglomerates at the bottom of the Eogene Sikouzi Formation in the Guanyindian section; (c) Conglomerates with coarse sandstone interlayers in the first part of the Sikouzi Formation in the Dingjiaergou section; (d) Parallel unconformity between the Early Cretaceous Naijiahe Formation and the Eogene Sikouzi Formation in the Guanyindian section of the Longde area; (e and f) Parallel unconformity between the Early Cretaceous Naijiahe Formation and Eogene Sikouzi Formation in the Sikouzi section of the Guyuan area; (g) Angular unconformity between the Early Cretaceous Miaoshanhu Formation and the Eogene Sikouzi Formation in the Dingjiaergou section of the Tongxin area; (h) Large cross beddings at the bottom of the Eogene Sikouzi Formation in the Sikouzi section

    图  5  古近系清水营组沉积特征

    a—隆德观音店剖面中古近系清水营组上段砂质泥岩、泥岩与含石膏砂岩互层;b—固原寺口子剖面中古近系寺口子组与清水营组整合接触;c—观音店剖面中古近系清水营组下段石英砂岩与砂质泥岩互层;d—固原寺口子剖面中清水营组顶部砂质泥岩,夹含石膏砂岩层,其中在砂质泥岩顶部发育大量泄水构造;e—寺口子剖面中清水营组顶部砂质泥岩顶部泄水构造;f—同心丁家二沟剖面中古近系清水营组一段石英砂岩与砂质泥岩互层;g—丁家二沟剖面中古近系清水营组二段深灰色石膏层;h—丁家二沟剖面中古近系清水营组三段泥岩和网状石膏脉

    Figure  5.  Seimentary characteristics of the Eogene Qingshuiying Formation

    (a) The interbedded silty mudstone, mudstone and gypseous sandstone in the upper part of the Eogene Qingshuiying Formation in the Guanyindian section of the Longde area; (b) Conformity between the Eogene Sikouzi Formation and the Qingshuiying Formation in the Sikouzi section of the Guyuan area; (c) The interbedded quartz sandstone and silty mudstone in the lower part of the Eogene Qingshuiying Formation in the Guanyindian section; (d) Silty mudstone with gypseous sandstone interlayers at the top of the Eogene Qingshuiying Formation in the Sikouzi section of the Guyuan area, and some water escape structures developed at the top of silty mudstone; (e) Water escape structure developed at the top of silty mudstone of the Eogene Qingshuiying in the Sikouzi section; (f) Interbedded sandstone and silty mudstone in the first part of the Eogene Qingshuiying Formation in the Dingjiaergou section of the Tongxin area; (g) Dark grey gypsum layers in the second part of the Eogene Qingshuiying Formation in the Dingjiaergou section; (h) Mudstone and cancellate gypsum veins in the third part of the Eogene Qingshuiying Formation in the Dingjiaergou section

    图  6  新近系彰恩堡组沉积特征

    a—观音店剖面中新近系彰恩堡组粉砂质泥岩与粉砂岩互层;b—寺口子剖面中彰恩堡组泥质粉砂岩夹薄层粉砂岩;c—隆德观音店剖面中古近系清水营组与新近系彰恩堡组角度不整合接触;d—寺口子剖面中新近系彰恩堡组与干河沟组平行不整合接触;e—固原寺口子剖面中彰恩堡组泥质粉砂岩与粉砂质泥岩互层;f—同心丁家二沟剖面中新近系彰恩堡组与干河沟组平行不整合接触;g—丁家二沟剖面中彰恩堡组泥质粉砂岩,夹少量薄层泥岩

    Figure  6.  Seimentary characteristics of the Neogene Zhang'enbao Formation

    (a) Interbedded silty mudstone and siltstone in the Zhang'enbao Formation in the Guanyindian section; (b) Argillaceous siltstone with thin siltstone interlayers in the Zhang'enbao Formation in the Sikouzi section; (c) Parallel unconformity between Eogene Qingshuiying Formation and Neogene Zhang'enbao Formation in the Guanyindian section of the Longde area; (d) Parallel unconformity between the Neogene Zhang'enbao Formation and the Ganhegou Formation in the Sikouzi section; (e) Interbedded argillaceous siltstone and silty mudstone in the Zhang'enbao Formation in the Sikouzi section of the Guyuan area; (f) Parallel unconformity between the Neogene Zhang'enbao Formation and the Ganhegou Formation in the Dingjiaergou section of the Tongxin area; (g) Argillaceous siltstone with a few thin mudstone interlayers in the Zhang'enbao Formation in the Dingjiaergou section

    图  7  新近系干河沟组沉积特征

    a—固原寺口子剖面中干河沟组下部砾岩与粗砂岩互层;b—寺口子剖面中干河沟组上部砾岩与含砾粗砂岩互层;c—寺口子剖面中干河沟组下部砾岩,砾石以泥灰岩砾石为主;d—寺口子剖面中干河沟组上部砾岩,砾石以花岗岩和砂岩砾石为主;e—干河沟组下部砂岩中的斜层理;f—干河沟组底部砂岩中的彰恩堡组泥岩团块;g、h—同心丁家二沟剖面中新近系彰恩堡组与干河沟组平行不整合接触,干河沟组底部发育砂岩

    Figure  7.  Sedimentary characteristics of the Ganhegou Formation

    (a) Interbedded conglomerate and coarse sandstone in the lower part of the Neogene Ganhegou Formation in the Sikouzi section of the Guyuan area; (b) Interbedded conglomerate and pebbly coarse sandstone in the upper part of the Ganhegou Formation in the Sikouzi section; (c) Conglomerate in the lower part of the Ganhegou Formation in the Sikouzi section and the lithology of gravels is mainly marlite; (d) Conglomerate in the upper part of the Ganhegou Formation in the Sikouzi section and the lithology of gravels is mainly granite and sandstone; (e) Cross beddings in the sandstone in the lower part of the Ganhegou Formation; (f) Fragments of the Neogene Zhang'enbao Formation in the sandstone at the bottom of the Ganhegou Formation; (g and h) Parallel unconformity between the Neogene Zhang'enbao Formation and Ganhegou Formation in the Dingjiaergou section of the Tongxin area, and sandstone developed at the bottom of the Ganhegou Formaiton

    图  8  青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带新生代地层磁性地层年龄对比图(据刘晓波,2019修改)

    A—泾源剖面;B—隆德剖面;C—寺口子剖面;D—贺家口子剖面;E—白马新田剖面

    Figure  8.  Comparsion of the magnetostratigraphic results of the Cenozoic in the arcuate tectonic belt on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau (modified from Liu, 2019)

    A–Jingyuan section; B–Longde section; C–Sikouzi section; D–Hejiakouzi section; E–Baimaxintian section

    图  9  青藏高原东北缘弧形构造带新生代地层年代对比格架

    Figure  9.  Cenozoic sedimentary sequence restricted by the magnetostratigraphic results in the arcuate tectonic belt in the northeastern Tibet Plateau

    图  10  青藏高原弧形构造带古近纪—新近纪沉积模式图

    a—中晚渐新世寺口子期;b—晚渐新世—早中新世清水营期;c— 中中新世至晚中新世彰恩堡期;d— 晚中新世至上新世干河沟期(寺口子期和干河沟期古水流数据来自野外实测,清水营期和彰恩堡期古水流数据来自Wang et al.,2013

    Figure  10.  Sedimentary evolution of the basins in the arcuate tectonic belt on the northeastern margin of the Tibet Plateau during Eogene to Neogene

    (a) Middle to late Oligocene Sikouzi period; (b) Late Oligocene to early Miocene Qingshuiying period; (c) Middle to late Miocene Zhang'enbao period; (d) Late Miocene to Pliocene Ganhegou period (Paleocurrents in the Sikouzi and Ganhegou period are measured in the field, and the paleocurrents in the Qingshuiying and Zhangenbao periods are referred from Wang et al., 2013)

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  • 收稿日期:  2023-04-09
  • 修回日期:  2023-05-24
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