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西南天山中—新生界层控砂砾岩型铜铅锌矿成矿规律

刘增仁 朱红英 贾润幸 帅磊 唐虎

刘增仁, 朱红英, 贾润幸, 等, 2022. 西南天山中—新生界层控砂砾岩型铜铅锌矿成矿规律. 地质力学学报, 28 (1): 50-66. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222803
引用本文: 刘增仁, 朱红英, 贾润幸, 等, 2022. 西南天山中—新生界层控砂砾岩型铜铅锌矿成矿规律. 地质力学学报, 28 (1): 50-66. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222803
LIU Zengren, ZHU Hongying, JIA Runxing, et al., 2022. Metallogenic regularity of Meso-Cenozoic stratabound glutenite-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposits in the southwestern Tianshan Mountains. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (1): 50-66. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222803
Citation: LIU Zengren, ZHU Hongying, JIA Runxing, et al., 2022. Metallogenic regularity of Meso-Cenozoic stratabound glutenite-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposits in the southwestern Tianshan Mountains. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (1): 50-66. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222803

西南天山中—新生界层控砂砾岩型铜铅锌矿成矿规律

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222803
基金项目: 

中国地质调查局项目 DD20160001

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘增仁(1964-2021), 男, 教授级高级工程师, 从事沉积盆地与矿产调查研究。E-mail: 1005880489@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P612

Metallogenic regularity of Meso-Cenozoic stratabound glutenite-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposits in the southwestern Tianshan Mountains

Funds: 

the Project of China Geological Survey DD20160001

  • 摘要: 西南天山是新疆中—新生界层控砂砾岩型铜铅锌矿的重要产出地区,以萨热克铜矿、乌拉根铅锌矿、花园铜矿、伽师铜矿为代表,均产于隆起剥蚀区边缘的红层盆地中并严格受层位控制,赋矿盆地的下部为煤系生烃岩,中部为渗透性良好的砂砾岩铜铅锌矿储集层,上覆膏岩及泥岩等密闭盖层,具有铜铅锌-铀-煤-天然气同盆共存富集的成矿特征。文章总结了西南天山赋矿盆地沉积-构造演化及赋矿层位特征,研究了铜铅锌典型矿床的控矿条件和成矿作用特征。通过对比分析,总结了中—新生界砂砾岩型铜铅锌矿的区域成矿规律,认为有机质与铜铅锌成矿关系密切,推测在原始矿源层的基础上,在隆起部位经油田卤水叠加形成铜铅锌贫矿体,喜马拉雅期断裂构造沟通深源成矿流体再次叠加形成铜铅锌富矿体。总结构建了西南天山中—新生界层控砂砾岩型铜铅锌矿的成矿模式,以期为已知矿山深边部勘查及区域找矿工作部署提供依据。

     

  • 图  1  西南天山乌恰地区苏鲁铁列克-乌拉根隆起周缘区域地质图

    1—中更新世—全新世冲洪积堆积; 2—早更新世冲洪积相碎屑岩建造; 3—中新世—上新世滨浅湖、冲积扇相粗-细碎屑岩建造; 4—中新世滨浅湖相碎屑岩建造; 5—渐新世—中新世滨浅湖相细碎屑岩夹膏盐建造; 6—古新世—渐新世浅海相碳酸盐岩、细碎屑岩夹膏盐建造; 7—古新世海湾相膏盐建造; 8—晚白垩世潮坪-海湾相碳酸盐岩、细碎屑岩、膏盐建造; 9—早白垩世辫状河三角洲相碎屑岩建造; 10—晚侏罗世冲积扇相粗碎屑岩建造; 11—早—中侏罗世滨浅湖相含煤碎屑岩建造; 12—晚侏罗世冲积扇相粗碎屑岩建造; 13—三叠纪滨浅湖相碎屑岩建造; 14—早二叠世滨浅湖相碎屑岩夹碳酸盐岩建造; 15—晚石炭世滨浅海相碳酸盐岩、碎屑岩建造; 16—早石炭世浅海-半深海相碳酸盐岩建造; 17—中泥盆世滨浅海相碳酸盐岩夹碎屑岩建造; 18—早泥盆世浅海-半深海相变质碎屑岩建造; 19—中—晚志留世浅海-半深海相碎屑岩建造; 20—长城纪半深海-深海相变质碎屑岩夹碳酸盐岩建造; 21—晚志留世—早泥盆世超镁铁质岩建造; 22—整合接触界线; 23—角度不整合接触界线; 24—平行不整合接触界线; 25—断层; 26—南天山冲断褶皱带; 27—盆地边界; 28—铜矿床; 29—铜矿(化)点; 30—铅锌矿床; 31—铅锌矿(化)点; 32—城镇
    a—南天山冲断褶皱带含铜铅锌矿盆地分布; b—苏鲁铁列克-乌拉根隆起周缘砂砾岩型铜铅锌矿分布

    Figure  1.  Regional geological map of the Sulutilek-Wulagan uplift in the Wuqia area, southwestern Tianshan Mountains

    (a) Distribution of Cu-Pb-Zn-bearing basins in the thrust-fold belt of the southern Tianshan Mountains; (b) Distribution map of glutenite-type Cu-Pb-Zn deposits in the periphery of the Sulutilek-Wulagan uplift
    1-Meso-pleistocene-Holocene alluvial-pluvial accumulation; 2-Early pleistocene alluvial-pluvial clastic formation; 3-Coarse-fine clastic formation of Miocene-Pliocene coastal shallow-lake facies and alluvial fan facies; 4-Clastic formation of Miocene coastal shallow-lake facies; 5-Fine clastic rock with gypsum salt formation of Oligocene-Miocene coastal shallow-lake facies; 6-Carbonate rock-fine clastic rock-gypsum salt formation of Paleocene-Oligocene neritic facies; 7-Gypsum salt formation of Paleocene bay facies; 8-Carbonate rock-fine clastic rock-gypsum salt formation of Late Cretaceous tidal flat-bay facies; 9-Clastic formation of early Cretaceous braided fluvial-delta facies; 10-Coarse clastic formation of Late Jurassic alluvial fan facies; 11-Coal-bearing clastic formation of early Jurassic-middle Jurassic coastal shallow-lake facies; 12-Coarse clastic formation of Late Jurassic alluvial fan facies; 13-Clastic formation of Triassic coastal shallow-lake facies; 14-Clastic formation with carbonate formation of early Permian coastal shallow-lake facies; 15-Marine carbonate and clastic formation of late Carboniferous littoral-neritic facies; 16-Carbonate formation of early Carboniferous neritic-bathyal facies; 17-Carbonate formation with clastic formation of middle Devonian littoral-neritic facies; 18-Metamorphic clastic formation of early Devonian neritic-bathyal facies; 19-Clastic formation of middle-late Silurian neritic-bathyal facies; 20-Metamorphic clastic formation with carbonate formation of neritic-bathyal facies in the Changcheng period; 21-Late Silurian-early Devonian ultramafic formation; 22-Conformable geologic boundary; 23-Angular unconformable geological boundary; 24-Parallel unconformable geological boundaries; 25-Fault; 26-Thrust-fold belt of the Southern Tianshan Mountains; 27-Basin boundary; 28-Copper deposit; 29-Copper (mineralization) occurrence; 30-Lead-Zinc deposit; 31-Lead-Zinc (mineralization) occurrence; 32-town

    图  2  萨热克盆地沉积-构造演化图

    1—砾岩; 2—石英砾岩; 3—粗砂岩; 4—细砂岩; 5—粉砂岩; 6—石英砂岩; 7—泥质砂岩; 8—泥质粉砂岩; 9—粉砂质泥岩; 10—泥岩; 11—灰岩; 12—云母片岩; 13—云母石英片岩; 14—含砾砂岩透镜体; 15—煤层; 16—铜矿

    Figure  2.  Sedimentary-tectonic evolution of the Sareke basin

    1-Conglomerate; 2-Quartz conglometate; 3-Gritstone; 4-Fine sandstone; 5-Siltstone; 6-Silicarenite; 7-Argillaceous sandstone; 8-Muddy siltstone; 9-Silty mudstone; 10-Mudstone; 11-Limestone; 12-Mica-schist; 13-Mica quartz schist; 14-Gravel sandstone lens; 15-Coal bed; 16-Copper ore

    图  3  喀什凹陷北缘乌恰洼陷沉积-构造演化图

    1—砾岩; 2—石英砾岩; 3—砂砾岩; 4—粗砂岩; 5—细砂岩; 6—粉砂岩; 7—石英砂岩; 8—泥质砂岩; 9—泥质粉砂岩; 10—粉砂质泥岩; 11—泥岩; 12—灰岩; 13—介壳灰岩; 14—云母片岩; 15—云母石英片岩; 16—含砾砂岩透镜体; 17—石膏层; 18—煤层; 19—铜矿; 20—铅锌矿

    Figure  3.  Sedimentary-tectonic evolution of the Wuqia subsag in the northern margin of the Kashi Sag

    1-Conglomerate; 2-Quartz conglometate; 3-Sandy conglomerates; 4-Gritstone; 5-Fine sandstone; 6-Siltstone; 7-Silicarenite; 8-Argillaceous sandstone; 9-Muddy siltstone; 10-Silty mudstone; 11-Mudstone; 12-Limestone; 13-Shell limestone; 14-Mica-schist; 15-Mica quartz schist; 16-Gravel sandstone lens; 17-Gypsum bed; 18-Coal bed; 19-Copper ore; 20-Lead-zinc ore

    图  4  萨热克铜矿、乌拉根铅锌矿有机质成矿表现形式

    a—萨热克铜矿油田卤水造成含砾砂岩褪色蚀变; b—萨热克铜矿断裂破碎带中充填的沥青与辉铜矿; c—乌拉根铅锌矿石中的有机气泡(含闪锌矿)(单偏光); d—乌拉根北矿带破碎带中与方铅矿、黄铁矿共同产出的沥青

    Figure  4.  Organic mineralization forms of the Sareke copper deposit and the Wulagen lead-zinc deposit

    (a) The fade alteration of pebbly sandstone caused by brine in the Sareke copper deposit; (b)Bitumen and chalcocite filled in fractures of the Sareke copper deposit; (c) Organic bubbles in the Wulagan lead-zinc ore (containing sphalerite) (single polarized light); (d) Bitumen produced together with galena and pyrite in the fracture zone of the northern Wulagen ore belt

    图  5  中—新生界砂砾岩型铅锌铜矿成矿模式图

    1—白云岩; 2—石膏; 3—泥岩; 4—粉砂质泥岩; 5—砂岩; 6—粗砂岩; 7—砂砾岩; 8—砾岩; 9—坍塌角砾岩; 10—古近系/白垩系; 11—侏罗系/长城系; 12—断裂构造; 13—深源成矿流体; 14—深源成矿流体/油田卤水; 15—盆地卤水; 16—铅锌富/贫矿体; 17—铜富/贫矿体

    Figure  5.  Metallogenic model of Meso-Cenozonic glutenite-type Pb-Zn-Cu deposit

    1-Dolomite; 2-Gypsum; 3-Mudstone; 4-Silty mudstone; 5-Sandstone; 6-Gritstone; 7-Glutenite; 8-Conglomerate; 9-Collapse breccia; 10-Paleogene system/Cretaceous system; 11-Jurassic system/Changcheng system; 12-Fracture; 13-Deep source ore-forming fluid; 14-Deep source ore-forming fluid/Oilfield brine; 15-Basin brine; 16-Lead-zinc-rich ore bodies/Lead-zinc lean ore bodies; 17-Copper-rich ore bodies/Copper-lean ore bodies

    表  1  新疆萨热克铜矿床与云南六苴铜矿床对比表

    Table  1.   Comparison of the Sareke copper deposit in Xinjiang and the Liuju copper deposit in Yunnan

    矿床 萨热克铜矿床 六苴铜矿床
    大地构造位置 费尔干纳拉分断陷盆地之萨热克盆地。红层盆地下部为煤系烃源岩, 组成"煤-铜-泥岩"建造组合 扬子陆块西南缘云南楚雄中—新生界陆相红层盆地。盆地下部为煤系烃源岩, 组成"煤-铜-盐"建造组合
    赋矿层位与岩石组合 上侏罗统库孜贡苏组上段(J3k2)灰绿色冲积扇相砾岩与下白垩统克孜勒苏群第一岩性段(K1kz1)褐红色泥岩组合 下—上白垩统高峰寺组凹地苴段(K1gw)、马头山组六苴段(K2ml)与大村段(K2md)高渗透率石英砂岩、含砾砂岩与泥岩组合
    控矿构造特征 苏鲁铁列克隆起、萨热克向斜及向斜南北翼基底断裂及其横向次级断裂, 断裂构造交接部位为富矿体形成部位 大雪山背斜及其次级褶皱构造和南北、东北向次级构造控矿
    矿体特征 层状、似层状、透镜状、脉状 层状、似层状、透镜状、脉状
    蚀变特征 方解石化、黄铁矿化及碎裂化、褪色蚀变 褪色化、硅化、碳酸岩化、黄铁矿化
    矿石矿物 辉铜矿、黄铜矿、斑铜矿、蓝铜矿以及黄铁矿、闪锌矿、方铅矿、辉钼矿等, 脉石矿物为方解石 辉铜矿、斑铜矿、黄铜矿、蓝辉铜矿、黄铁矿及辉银矿、方铅矿等, 脉石矿物为石英、长石等
    结构构造特征 砾状结构、他形粒状结构、镶嵌结构、胶状结构、交代结构等; 浸染状、碎裂状、细脉状、团块状构造等 自形/他形粒状结构、交代结构、镶嵌结构等, 具稠密浸染状、星点状、条带状、细脉状构造
    矿物分带 垂向上具"辉铜矿-斑铜矿-黄铜矿-黄铁矿"分带, 平面具"辉铜矿-辉铜矿+斑铜矿-黄铜矿+辉铜矿+斑铜矿-黄铜矿+黄铁矿-黄铁矿"分带 垂向上具"赤铁矿-辉铜矿-斑铜矿-黄铜矿-黄铁矿"分带, 平面具"赤铁矿-赤铁矿+辉铜矿-辉铜矿+斑铜矿-辉铜矿+斑铜矿+黄铜矿-黄铜矿+黄铁矿-黄铁矿"分带
    油气显示 油迹、沥青与轻质油, 油田卤水造成浅-砖红色交互带, 包裹体为油气烃类-盐水、含烃类盐水、含轻质油及甲烷-CO2包裹体 矿区斑点状"原生"有机质发育, 形成浅-砖红色交互带, 包裹体为富含烃类、沥青的有机包裹体
    硫同位素特征 δ34S全为负值, 集中于-15.4‰~-24.7‰之间, 硫主要来自硫酸盐细菌与有机质还原, 部分源于有机硫 δ34S分布范围较广, δ34S值为-31.4‰~-5.8‰, 主要为硫酸盐生物细菌还原成因
    铅同位素特征 铅同位素投点图位于上地壳与造山带之间, 靠近造山带演化线 铅同位素投影集中于上地壳附近及造山带线之间
    成矿流体特征 成矿流体为来自于沉积盆地中的建造水及富含有机烃类的油田卤水和深源成矿流体 成矿流体为含有机质的还原性流体及高盐度氧化性流体, 发生水-岩相互作用沉淀成矿
    成矿期次 原始矿源层成矿期, 乌恰构造运动及地幔柱热源驱动盆地油田卤水向隆起区迁移聚集与地表水发生氧化-还原作用成矿期、喜马拉雅构造运动沟通深源成矿流体形成富矿体成矿期、表生成矿期 沉积-成岩期、喜马拉雅早期构造-热演化富含有机质流体与氧化流体水-岩作用期、喜马拉雅中期断裂构造沟通深源成矿流体上侵形成脉状铅锌矿体、表生成矿期
    注: 六苴铜矿床资料据韩润生等(2010)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  新疆乌拉根铅锌矿床与云南金顶铅锌矿床对比表

    Table  2.   Comparison of the Wulagen Pb-Zn deposit in Xinjiang and the Jinding Pb-Zn deposit in Yunnan

    矿床 乌拉根铅锌矿床 金顶铅锌矿床
    大地构造位置 塔里木盆地西缘喀什凹陷北部之乌恰洼陷, 盆地下部为侏罗系煤系烃源岩, 组成"煤-铅锌-膏岩"建造组合 兰坪-思茅中—新生代盆地北段
    赋矿层位与岩石组合 下白垩统克孜勒苏群第五岩性段(K1kz5)辫状河三角洲相砂砾岩及古新统阿尔塔什组(E1a)石膏夹白云岩 赋矿层为古新统云龙组上段(E1yb)含灰岩角砾砂岩、砂岩和下白垩统景星组(K1j)石英砂岩和粉砂岩
    控矿构造特征 吾合沙鲁断裂、基底断裂及近南北向小型断裂与节理, 上部石膏不透水层与赋矿砂砾岩透水层组成的储-盖系统 金顶穹窿为最重要的控矿构造
    矿体特征 层状、似层状及透镜状 层状、脉状和透镜状
    蚀变特征 褪色化、黄铁矿化、天青石化 以天青石化强烈发育为特征
    矿石矿物 矿石矿物以闪锌矿、方铅矿为主, 脉石矿物主要为黄铁矿、方解石、白云石; 成矿元素以Zn为主, Pb/Zn≥1∶4 金属矿物为方铅矿、闪锌矿、黄铁矿、白铁矿; 非金属矿物为天青石、重晶石等; 成矿元素以Zn为主, Pb/Zn≥1∶4
    结构构造特征 粒状结晶结构、胶状结构、结核状结构、交代溶蚀结构、嵌晶结构、粗晶结构及条带状、浸染状、草莓状、角砾状、块状、脉状、皮壳状、多孔状构造 浸染状、层纹状、同生角砾状、块状构造; 霉球状、细粒状、乳滴状、胶状等结构
    有机质特征 矿区及外围见原油、沥青等有机质, 形成浅—砖红色交互带 金顶穹窿中多见油气显示和轻油、重油、沥青等有机质
    硫同位素特征 δ34S分布范围较广, 北矿带δ34S值为-25.9‰~-7.0‰, 南矿带δ34S值为-18.4‰~+15.0‰ 以负值为主、分布范围广, δ34S值为-48.43‰~-1.71‰; 源于有机质或细菌参与下的碳酸盐还原
    铅同位素特征 不同矿石的铅同位素投影集中于造山带铅演化线附近, 大部分落入造山带区, 个别落入下地壳与地幔混合区 85%的样品显示幔源铅, 15%的样品显示壳-幔混源铅
    成矿流体特征 油气包裹体成分测试结果成矿流体为低温中—高盐度的流体, 均一温度78~410 ℃, 盐度为3.55%~23.37% 成矿流体为中—低温、中—低盐度流体, 超压含烃富CO2的流体可能是深部富CO2含矿流体注入
    成矿期次 原始矿源层形成期、油田卤水叠加成矿期(贫矿体)、深源成矿流体叠加成矿期(富矿体)、表生成矿期 盆地卤水与有机质还原成矿期、幔源流体上侵叠加成矿期、表生成矿期
    注: 金顶矿床资料据薛春纪等(2017)
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-30
  • 修回日期:  2021-12-10

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