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基于构造应变分析的裂缝预测方法及其应用

高晨阳 赵福海 高莲凤 李丙喜 雷茂盛 丁恺

高晨阳,赵福海,高莲凤,等,2023. 基于构造应变分析的裂缝预测方法及其应用[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):21−33 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022089
引用本文: 高晨阳,赵福海,高莲凤,等,2023. 基于构造应变分析的裂缝预测方法及其应用[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):21−33 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022089
GAO C Y,ZHAO F H,GAO L F,et al.,2023. The methods of fracture prediction based on structural strain analysis and its application[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):21−33 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022089
Citation: GAO C Y,ZHAO F H,GAO L F,et al.,2023. The methods of fracture prediction based on structural strain analysis and its application[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):21−33 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022089

基于构造应变分析的裂缝预测方法及其应用

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022089
基金项目: 中国石油天然气集团公司前瞻性基础性研究项目(2021DJ0205);辽宁工程技术大学学科创新团队资助项目(LNTU20TD-14)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    高晨阳(1996—),男,在读硕士,从事沉积地质与矿产研究。E-mail: 523178632@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    高莲凤(1970—),女,博士,教授,主要从事沉积地质、储层评价与矿产资源开发方面的教学与科研工作。E-mail: ytgaolf@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P618.13;TE19

The methods of fracture prediction based on structural strain analysis and its application

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Forward-looking Basic Research Project of the China National Petroleum Corporation (Grant 2021DJ0205) and the Project of the Discipline Innovation Team of the Liaoning Technology University (Grant LNTU20TD-14).
  • 摘要: 地层应变是构造裂缝产生的直接因素,根据构造应变大小可以预测构造裂缝发育的位置和强度,对研究区的主要裂缝发育区进行划分。文章以松辽盆地徐家围子断陷徐中地区营城组四段(简称营四段)为研究对象,在建立研究区精细的三维构造模型基础上,利用“构造恢复”方法实现研究区古构造恢复,通过开展有限应变值计算来预测构造裂缝的平面分布。研究表明:研究区营四段主要包括3个造缝期,即营城组末期、泉头组—青山口组时期、嫩江组时期,其中,营城组末期与泉头组—青山口组时期的构造变形较为强烈,是裂缝的主要形成时期。根据应变大小与试气产量的关系,将研究区划分为3类裂缝发育区,Ⅰ类裂缝发育区已钻井验证,表明利用构造应变对裂缝的预测结果可靠,Ⅱ类裂缝发育区可作为深层天然气的下一步挖潜的重要方向,Ⅲ类裂缝发育区产能较低,裂缝对储层的改造作用有限。

     

  • 图  1  构造恢复方法示意图

    a—斜剪切法恢复断层示意图(①—伸展断层形成前;②—伸展断层形成过程);b—弯滑去褶皱法恢复褶皱示意图(①—现今地层形态;②—弯滑去褶皱恢复后地层形态)

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of the structural restoration methods

    (a) Schematic diagram of the fault restoration by the oblique shear method (①–Before the extensional fault formation; ②–Formation process of the extensional fault); (b) Schematic diagram of the fold restoration by the flexural slip unfolding method (①–Current stratigraphic morphology; ②–Stratigraphic morphology after the fold restoration)

    图  2  研究区构造位置及地层沉积序列图

    a—研究区构造位置图(据刘国平等,2016修改);b—研究区地层沉积序列图

    Figure  2.  Structural location and stratigraphic sedimentary sequence map of the study area

    (a) Tectonic location map of the study area (modified from Liu et al., 2016); (b) Stratigraphic sedimentary sequence map of the study area

    图  3  研究区构造裂缝照片

    a—高角度构造裂缝,XS601井,3646.60 m;b—3组构造裂缝,早期构造裂缝被方解石完全充填,XS5井,3480.10 m;c—多组构造裂缝,构造裂缝(Ⅱ)发育受到构造裂缝(Ⅰ)限制,构造裂缝(Ⅰ)又被构造裂缝(Ⅲ)切割,部分裂缝被泥质完全充填,XS5井,3488.30 m

    Figure  3.  Photos of structural fractures in the study area

    (a) High-angle structural fractures (Well XS601 at 3646.60 m); (b) Three groups of structural fractures, and the early structural fractures are filled by calcite (Well XS5 at 3480.10 m); (c) Multiple groups of structural fractures; Structural fracture (I) limits the development of Structural fracture (II), and Structural fracture (Ⅲ) cut Structural fracture (I); Some of the fractures are filled by mud (Well XS5 at 3488.30 m)

    图  4  研究区裂缝产状分布图

    a—构造裂缝倾向倾角等密图(n=242);b—构造裂缝走向玫瑰花图(n=242);c—充填裂缝走向玫瑰花图(n=35)

    Figure  4.  Distribution map of fracture occurrence in the study area

    (a) Isometric map of the dip and dip direction of structural fractures (n=242); (b) Rose diagram of the strike of structural fractures (n=242); (c) Rose diagram of the strike of filling fractures (n=35)

    图  5  各时期研究区营四段构造模型

    ①—营城组沉积时期;②—登娄库组沉积时期;③—嫩江组沉积时期;④—现今

    Figure  5.  Structural model of the YING-4 section of different periods in the study area

    ①–Depositional period of the Yingcheng formation; ②–Depositional period of the Denglouku formation; ③–Depositional period of the Nenjiang formation; ④–Now

    图  6  各时期研究区营四段构造图

    a—营四段沉积末期底面构造图;b—登娄库组沉积末期营四段顶面构造图;c—嫩江组沉积末期营四段顶面构造图;d—现今营四段顶面构造图

    Figure  6.  Structural map of the YING-4 section of different periods in the study area

    (a) The bottom structure of the YING-4 section at the end of the deposition; (b) The top structure of the YING-4 section at the end of the deposition of the Denglouku formation; (c) The top structure of the YING-4 section at the end of the deposition of the Nenjiang formation; (d) The top structure of the present YING-4 section

    图  7  研究区有限应变分布图

    a—营城末期—登娄库期有限应变分布图;b—泉头—青山口期有限应变分布图;c—嫩江期—现今有限应变图;d—三期叠加总有限应变分布图

    Figure  7.  Finite strain distribution in the study area

    (a) Finite strain distribution map of the late Yingcheng–Denglouku period; (b) Finite strain distribution map of the Quantou–Qingshankou period; (c) Finite strain distribution map of the Nenjiang period–present; (d) Distribution map of the three-phase superimposed total finite strain

    图  8  研究区裂缝发育分布区域验证图

    a—试气产量与应变值关系图;b—裂缝发育区预测图

    Figure  8.  Verification map of fracture development and distribution area in the study area

    (a) Relationship between test gas production and strain value; (b) Prediction map of the fracture development area

    表  1  徐家围子兴城地区营四段致密气储集层渗透率与产能对应关系表(冯子辉等,2013

    Table  1.   Corresponding relationship between permeability and productivity of the tight gas reservoir in the Ying-4 section of the Xingcheng area, Xujiaweizi Rift(Feng et al.,2013

    井名井段/m渗透率/×10-3μm2产能(压裂后)/(m3/d)
    xs601 3461~3472 1.28 262641
    fs5 3186~3210 0.25 49191
    xs1 4435~4480 0.39 70000
    3364~3379 0.31 54758
    xs5 3411~3422 0.16 6619
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-13
  • 修回日期:  2023-01-03
  • 录用日期:  2023-01-03

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