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地震反射数据Q值估计及其在油气勘探中的应用

张浩 付昌 满红霞 陈程 方欣欣 李宗星

张浩, 付昌, 满红霞, 等, 2022. 地震反射数据Q值估计及其在油气勘探中的应用. 地质力学学报, 28 (4): 550-560. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021154
引用本文: 张浩, 付昌, 满红霞, 等, 2022. 地震反射数据Q值估计及其在油气勘探中的应用. 地质力学学报, 28 (4): 550-560. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021154
ZHANG Hao, FU Chang, MAN Hongxia, et al., 2022. Q estimation of seismic reflection data and its application in oil and gas exploration. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (4): 550-560. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021154
Citation: ZHANG Hao, FU Chang, MAN Hongxia, et al., 2022. Q estimation of seismic reflection data and its application in oil and gas exploration. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (4): 550-560. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021154

地震反射数据Q值估计及其在油气勘探中的应用

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021154
基金项目: 

中国地质科学院地质力学研究所基本科研业务项目 DZLXJK202006

国家自然科学基金 41804129

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张浩(1983—),男,博士,副研究员,研究方向为地震成像与智能数据处理应用。E-mail:zhhao@cags.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P631

Q estimation of seismic reflection data and its application in oil and gas exploration

Funds: 

the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences DZLXJK202006

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41804129

  • 摘要: 油气地震勘探中,地震波在实际介质中传播时会产生明显的吸收衰减现象,导致地震信号中的主频向低频移动,频带宽度变窄,相位发生畸变,制约了地震勘探识别薄层的分辨能力。为了获得更高分辨率的地震成像,文章介绍了一种在地震反射数据成像域进行Q值估计建模的方法与流程,并利用估计出的Q值通过偏移成像对数据进行衰减补偿,实现高分辨率成像。该方法在时间域引入等效Q值的概念,首先在初步黏弹性时间偏移成像域的时窗内,通过数据在时窗内的补偿效果来确定时间域的等效Q值参数,接着通过在深度域层速度上计算成像射线获得时深转换关系,进而对转换到时间域层Q值的等效参数进行时深转换,完成最终深度域Q值建模,最后将该关键参数作为黏弹性叠前深度偏移的输入,进行复杂构造的黏弹性补偿成像。同时使用中国东部某实际地震数据来验证方法的有效性,验证结果表明发展的流程和方法可较好实现深度域负责构造Q值建模和成像域补偿,实现复杂构造高分辨成像。

     

  • 图  1  中国东部某工区经常规处理后的地震炮集数据

    Figure  1.  Typical shot gathers after conditioning from a survey in Eastern China

    图  2  实际数据偏移与Q值建模流程

    Figure  2.  Schematic chart of data migration and Q model building workflow

    图  3  实际数据深度域层速度与成像射线

    Figure  3.  Depth interval velocity and image ray

    图  4  空间位置转换函数X(x0t0)与Z(x0t0)

    Figure  4.  Spatial position transformation matrix X(x0, t0) and Z(x0, t0)

    图  5  时间域Q-PSTM剖面上选取Q值过程

    F3为反Q滤波截止频率

    Figure  5.  Effective Q picking on Q-PSTM stack in the time domain

    图  6  Q值建模过程中的变化情况

    a—时间域等效Q值;b—经过反演得到的时间域层Q值;c—最终转换得到的深度域层Q值与对应的成像射线

    Figure  6.  Q model building process

    (a) Effective Q in the time domain; (b) Inverted time interval Q value; (c) Final depth interval Q field and image ray

    图  7  补偿吸收衰减的Q叠前深度偏移成像结果

    Figure  7.  Q compensated prestack depth migration result

    图  8  常规叠前深度偏移成像结果

    Figure  8.  Normal prestack depth migration result

    图  9  未补偿吸收衰减与补偿后的成像结果对比

    a—常规深度偏移结果;b—Q深度偏移结果

    Figure  9.  Result comparison in detail with and without Q compensation

    (a) Normal prestack depth migration result; (b) Q prestack depth migration result

    图  10  未补偿吸收衰减与补偿后的成像结果频谱对比

    Figure  10.  Spectrum comparison in detail with and without Q compensation

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-07-27
  • 修回日期:  2022-02-24

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