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青海玛多“5·22”MS7.4级地震的同震地表破裂特征、成因及意义

盖海龙 姚生海 杨丽萍 亢太波 殷翔 陈庭 李鑫

盖海龙, 姚生海, 杨丽萍, 等, 2021. 青海玛多“5·22”MS7.4级地震的同震地表破裂特征、成因及意义. 地质力学学报, 27 (6): 899-912. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.06.073
引用本文: 盖海龙, 姚生海, 杨丽萍, 等, 2021. 青海玛多“5·22”MS7.4级地震的同震地表破裂特征、成因及意义. 地质力学学报, 27 (6): 899-912. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.06.073
GAI Hailong, YAO Shenghai, YANG Liping, et al., 2021. Characteristics and causes of coseismic surface rupture triggered by the '5.22' MS 7.4 Earthquake in Maduo, Qinghai, and their significance. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (6): 899-912. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.06.073
Citation: GAI Hailong, YAO Shenghai, YANG Liping, et al., 2021. Characteristics and causes of coseismic surface rupture triggered by the "5.22" MS 7.4 Earthquake in Maduo, Qinghai, and their significance. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (6): 899-912. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.06.073

青海玛多“5·22”MS7.4级地震的同震地表破裂特征、成因及意义

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.06.073
基金项目: 

中国地震局地震科技星火计划项目 XH20061Y

青海省地震科学基金项目 2019A03

详细信息
    作者简介:

    盖海龙(1988-), 男, 硕士, 工程师, 主要从事活动构造和地震灾害风险防治方面的工作。E-mail: nwuhailong@sina.cn

    通讯作者:

    姚生海(1980-), 男, 高级工程师, 主要从事活动构造和古地震研究等方面的工作。E-mail: shenghaiyao@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: P315.2

Characteristics and causes of coseismic surface rupture triggered by the "5.22" MS 7.4 Earthquake in Maduo, Qinghai, and their significance

Funds: 

the Seismological Science and Technology Spark Plan Project of China Earthquake Administration XH20061Y

the Qinghai Earthquake Science Foundation Project 2019A03

  • 摘要: 2021年5月22日2时4分在青海省果洛藏族州玛多县境内发生MS7.4级地震,此次玛多MS7.4级地震是2008年汶川MS8.0级大地震之后中国震级最大的一次地震,及时查明其同震地表破裂展布及特征,对于正确认识发震构造和区域防震减灾具有重要意义。根据震后现场调查,结合高分辨率卫星遥感图像的解译分析、余震数据和典型地震地表破裂的无人机低空摄影测量等结果,初步获得了此次地震6处典型地震地表破裂的特征。结果发现:此次玛多地震的地表破裂主要沿已知的东昆仑断裂带的南侧分支断裂昆仑山口-江错断裂的东南段分布,分析表明其中的江错断裂应是此次地震的发震断层;同震破裂的西段总体走向275°~300°,主要表现为挤压鼓包和雁列式张裂隙的斜列组合,其中江错贡麻段至江多村段出现了明显的1.4~0.8 m的垂直位移,指示该段可能具有较明显的正断层成分;中部黄河乡段主要由一系列呈左阶斜列的北西向P剪切裂缝和右阶雁行排列的北东向张裂隙构成,走滑位移较小;而东段地表破裂出现了多个分支,其中北支昌马河段主要由一系列雁行排列的张裂隙组成,总体走向为260°,与断裂西段的走向明显不同;地震造成的最大左旋位移出现在西段的错尔加拉破裂段,约2.8 m,指示此次地震地表破裂带的走滑位移主要呈从西向东的单侧扩展-衰减特征。考虑到此次玛多地震出现在东昆仑主干断裂南侧的巴颜喀拉地块内部,表明该地块内部具有发生7级以上大地震的能力,因此,巴颜喀拉地块内部强震活动的孕震条件和机理应该是未来需要进一步关注的科学问题。

     

  • 图  1  玛多MS7.4级地震区域地震构造图(余震目录来自青海省地震台网)

    a—巴颜喀拉块体历史强震分布图; b—玛多MS 7.4级地震余震分布及典型地表破裂考察点分布图

    Figure  1.  Regional seismic structural map of the Maduo MS7.4 earthquake

    (a)Distribution map of historical strong earthquakes occurred in the Bayan Har block; (b)Distribution of aftershocks and investigation points of typical surface rupture of the MS7.4 Maduo earthquake
    The aftershock catalog comes from the Qinghai Seismic Network.

    图  2  错尔加拉段地表破裂解译图

    a—正射影像图; b—数字高程模型

    Figure  2.  Interpretation of surface rupture of the Cuoerjiala section

    (a) Orthophoto; (b) Digital elevation model

    图  3  错尔加拉段地表破裂及同步左旋位移特征

    a—指示左旋走滑的地表破裂带; b—北东向的大型张裂缝; c—高约1.6 m的北西向挤压鼓包; d—车辙左旋位错约2.8 m

    Figure  3.  Photos showing the features of surface rupture and synchronous left-handed displacement of the Cuoerjiala section

    (a)Surface rupture zone indicating left-handed strike-slip; (b) Large-scale NE-trending crack; (c)A ~1.6 m-high NW-trending squeeze bulge; (d) A ~2.8 m left-handed rut dislocation

    图  4  鄂陵湖南段地表破裂解译图

    a—正射影像图; b—数字高程模型

    Figure  4.  Interpretation of the surface rupture in the southern segment of the Elinghu section

    (a) Orthophoto; (b)Digital elevation model

    图  5  鄂陵湖南段地表破裂及同步左旋位移特征

    a—指示近东西向左旋剪切作用的右阶雁行张裂缝; b—宽约1.7m的北东向张裂隙; c—左阶斜列分布的挤压鼓包; d—车辙被左旋位错约1.4 m

    Figure  5.  Photos showing the features of surface rupture and synchronous left-handed displacement in the southern segment of the Elinghu section

    (a)Right-order en echelon crack indicating left-handed shearing action from near east to west; (b) A ~1.7 m-wide NE-trending tensile fracture; (c) Compressive bulges distributed diagonally in the left order; (d) A rut dislocated by left-handed is about 1.4 m

    图  6  江错贡麻段地表破裂解译图

    a—正射影像图; b—数字高程模型

    Figure  6.  Interpretation of the surface rupture in the Jiangcuogongma section

    (a) Orthophoto; (b) Digital elevation model

    图  7  江错贡麻段地震地表破裂及同步左旋位移特征

    a—张裂隙; b—左旋位错冲沟约1.2 m; c—断层陡坎; d—高约1.4 m的断层陡坎

    Figure  7.  Photos showing the features of seismic surface ruptures and synchronous left-handed displacement of the Jiangcuogongma segment

    (a) Tensile fractures; (b) A ~1.2 m-wide left-handed dislocation gully; (c) Fault ridges; (d) A ~1.4 m-high fault ridge

    图  8  江多村段地表破裂解译图

    a—无人机航摄的正射影像图; b—数字高程模型(指示断层北盘存在相对抬升)

    Figure  8.  Interpretation of the surface ruptures in the Jiangduocun section

    (a) Orthophoto; (b) Digital elevation model

    图  9  江多村段地震地表破裂及同步左旋位移特征

    a—指示左旋走滑的雁列挤压鼓包及张裂缝; b—在破裂右阶斜列部位发育的北西向挤压脊; c—宽约20 m的地表破裂; d—指示断层北侧抬升的约0.8 m高断坎; e—右阶雁列的北东向张裂缝; f—左旋位错冲沟约1.1 m

    Figure  9.  Photos showing the features of seismic surface ruptures and synchronous left-handed displacement of the Jiangduocun section

    (a) En echelon compressive bulges and tensile fractures indicating left-handed strike-slip; (b) NW-trending compressive ridge developed in the right-order oblique row of the rupture; (c) A ~20 m-wide surface rupture; (d) A ~0.8 m-high fault ridge indicating the uplift in the north side of the fault; (e) Right-order en echelon NE-trending tensile fractures; (f) A ~1.1 m-wide left-handed dislocation gully

    图  10  黄河乡段地表破裂解译图

    a—正射影像图; b—数字高程模型

    Figure  10.  Interpretation of surface ruptures in the Huanghexiang section

    (a) Orthophoto; (b) Digital elevation model

    图  11  黄河乡段地震地表破裂及同步左旋位移特征

    a—破裂带中呈左阶雁行排列的P剪切裂缝; b—北西向P剪切裂缝与北东向张裂隙的交切现象; c—具左旋走滑性质的北西向P剪切裂缝; d—破裂带中的北西向P剪切裂缝将水泥杆左旋位错约20 cm

    Figure  11.  Photos showing the features of surface ruptures and synchronous left-handed displacement of the Huanghexiang section

    (a) Left-order en echelon P shear fractures in the fracture zone; (b) Intersection between the NW-trending P shear fractures and NE-trending tensile fractures; (c) NW-trending P shear fractures with left-handed strike-slip; (d) NW-trending P shear fractures in the rupture zone left-handed dislocated the cement rod about 20 cm

    图  12  昌马河段地表破裂解译图

    a—正射影像图; b—数字高程模型

    Figure  12.  Interpretation of surface ruptures in the Changmahe section

    (a) Orthophoto; (b) Digital elevation model

    图  13  昌马河段地表破裂及同步左旋位移特征

    a—由拉张裂隙和小型鼓包雁列组合而成的地表破裂; b—由雁列鼓包和剪切裂缝组合而成的地表破裂; c—优尔曲东侧谷坡上出现的近南北向挤压鼓起带; d—地表剪切破裂左旋位错河床约1.1 m

    Figure  13.  Photos showing the features of surface ruptures and synchronous left-handed displacement in the Changmahe reach

    (a) The surface ruptures formed by the combination of tensile fratures and small bulging en echelon row; (b) Surface ruptures formed by the combination of en echelon bulges and shear fractures; (c) A nearly NS-trending compressive bulge belt appeared on the valley slope on the east side of the Youerqu slope; (d) A surface shear fracture left-handed dislocated river bed about 1.1 m

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-06-25
  • 修回日期:  2021-09-09
  • 刊出日期:  2021-12-28

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