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储集层中高压流体引爆强地震的机理——以5.12汶川地震为例

毛小平 何廉康 刘佳林 李岁岁 张学强 宿宇驰 卢鹏宇

毛小平, 何廉康, 刘佳林, 等, 2021. 储集层中高压流体引爆强地震的机理——以5.12汶川地震为例. 地质力学学报, 27 (4): 628-642. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.052
引用本文: 毛小平, 何廉康, 刘佳林, 等, 2021. 储集层中高压流体引爆强地震的机理——以5.12汶川地震为例. 地质力学学报, 27 (4): 628-642. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.052
MAO Xiaoping, HE Liankang, LIU Jialin, et al., 2021. Mechanism of the strong earthquake triggered by high pressure fluid in reservoir: A case study of the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (4): 628-642. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.052
Citation: MAO Xiaoping, HE Liankang, LIU Jialin, et al., 2021. Mechanism of the strong earthquake triggered by high pressure fluid in reservoir: A case study of the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (4): 628-642. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.052

储集层中高压流体引爆强地震的机理——以5.12汶川地震为例

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.052
基金项目: 

中国石油化工股份有限公司科技项目 JP14009

详细信息
    作者简介:

    毛小平(1965-), 副教授, 研究方向为地球物理勘探、地震波传播。E-mail: maoxp9@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P315

Mechanism of the strong earthquake triggered by high pressure fluid in reservoir: A case study of the 5.12 Wenchuan earthquake

Funds: 

the Science and Technology Project of China Petrochemical Corporation JP14009

  • 摘要: 目前产生地震的机制仍以弹性回跳说为主:地震是因为断层错断使岩层的弹性能释放而引发。但越来越多的学者开始质疑,仅断层错断后的弹性能,是否真能达到实际地震所释放的巨大能量。因此,有必要探讨地震初动后破坏性强震的性质及其真正的能量来源。文章根据沉积地层中的储集层及其压力的特点分析得出,储集层内含有大量的高压流体,其压力在一定条件下可以释放出来,产生流体物理爆炸,有可能是强震能量的重要组成部分。通过计算得出,当断层破裂并刺穿面积较大的储集层时,其压力释放所产生的弹性能可以达到震级8.0以上地震所释放的能量;人为的工程活动也可引发小规模的流体压力的释放现象,如钻井时的井喷、水力压裂会诱发有感地震等。同时,文章根据对距离震中较近的地震台的波形及传播射线路径分析认为,强震波动可能不是横波S波,而是涨缩波P波,据此不能排除强震是由爆炸所致。综合汶川地震多个台站记录到的地震波的时间域和频率域特征、地面观测到的爆炸现象、地震后科学钻探获得的岩心等大量直接或间接证据,说明了这种流体爆炸能量释放的可能性。最后,文章提出了地震活动可分为三个阶段:微破裂阶段Ⅰ,该阶段有流体活动,并可产生动电效应,但未触发地震初动;地震初动后的断裂破裂阶段Ⅱ;由流体压力释放产生地震强震阶段Ⅲ。

     

  • 图  1  孟加拉湾沉积地层与变质基底(剖面经度87°;据Curray,1991修改)

    Figure  1.  Sedimentary strata and metamorphic basement in Bay of Bengal (modified after Curray, 1991). Note: longitude of geological section: 87°

    图  2  钻穿储集层前后储集层及井筒压强变化示意图(ΔP为流体压强)

    Figure  2.  Pressure variation of the reservoir and the wellbore before and after drilling through reservoir (ΔP is the fluid pressure). (a) Before the perforation. (b) During the perforation. (c) Water flooding mode.

    图  3  川西坳陷什邡地区地质统计学模拟的连井孔隙度剖面(武恒志等,2015)

    Figure  3.  Cross-well porosity section from the geostatistics modeling of the reservoirs in the Shifang area, Western Sichuan Depression(Wu et al., 2015)

    图  4  鸭子河气田及破裂模型范围示意图

    Figure  4.  Schematic diagram of the Yazihe gas field and the fracture model range

    图  5  流体压力释放模式剖面示意图

    T—三叠系;Z—震旦系;h—深度;r—极限动用半径(距离)

    Figure  5.  Profile of the fluid pressure release mode before (a) and after (b) the fault-rupture

    T-Triassic system; Z-Sinian system; h-depth; r-limited drainage radius (distance)

    图  6  汶川地震各台站地震波形对比图

    Figure  6.  Comparison of seismic waveforms at various stations during the Wenchuan earthquake

    图  7  汶川地震近震台站时频分析

    S1、S2、S1′、S2′分别为卧龙台、清平台两次强振动事件主频位置;F1、F2、F1′、F2′分别为卧龙台、清平台两次强振动事件最大频率位置

    Figure  7.  Time frequency analysis of near the seismic stations during the Wenchuan earthquake

    S1, S2, S1′ and S2′ are the main frequency positions of two strong vibration events observed at the Wolong station and the Qingping station respectively; F1, F2, F1′ and F2′ are the maximum frequency positions of two strong vibration events observed at the Wolong station and the Qingping station respectively.

    图  8  卧龙地震台接收到的地震信号振幅包络线及地震射线路径示意图

    a—连续时频分析频谱;b—分时段离散频谱;c—三个分量正振幅波动曲线及包络线;d—地震波射线路径
    S—强振幅事件;P单个强振幅事件;A—初始破裂;H—震源;Ps—转换横波

    Figure  8.  Amplitude envelope and seismic ray path of seismic signal received by the Wolong station. (a) Continuous time-frequency spectrum analysis. (b) The discrete spectrum of different periods. (c) The positive amplitude curves and envelopes of the three components. (d) Ray path of the seismic wave.

    S-strong amplitude event; P-single strong amplitude event; A-initial fracture; H-hypocenter; Ps-converted shear wave

    图  9  在汶川地震时流体活动与爆炸现象

    a—八角庙露头中假玄武玻璃(Pst)流动构造特征(Wang et al., 2015);b—北川桂溪镇水井岩滑坡和堰塞体表面不同位置的4个爆炸坑(拍摄日期2008-06-20;镜向S;104.603°E,31.973°N;Shang et al., 2015)

    Figure  9.  Fluid activity and explosion during the Wenchuan earthquake. (a) Characteristics of the flow structure of pseudobasaltic glass in the outcrop of Bajiaomiao(Wang et al., 2015). (b) Four explosion pits at different positions on the surface of the shuijingyan landslide and weir plug in Guixi Town, Beichuan (shot date: June 20, 2008, lens direction: S, 104.603°E, 31.973°N) (Shang et al., 2015)

    表  1  深部流体与油气参数对比

    Table  1.   Comparison of parameters between deep fluid and oil and gas

    深部流体 页岩气 常规油气
    赋存空间 变质基底 盆地 盆地
    孔隙度 <1% 1%~5% 5%~30%
    渗透率 <0.1 mD 0.1~50 mD 50~5000 mD
    可自由流动距离 1 nm 1 m 500 m
    流体/气体丰度 <0.05 cm3/g 7~15 cm3/g >8000 cm3/g
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  川西坳陷须家河组和灯影组储集层参数与模型参数对比表

    Table  2.   Comparison of reservoir parameters and model parameters of the Xujiahe formation and the Dengying formation in the Western Sichuan Depression

    储层参数 实测参数 所取模型参数 资料来源
    长度 10~50 km 5 km 冷济高等(2011)
    宽度 5~22 km 0.5 km
    储层厚度 150~300 m 100 m 赵正望等(2013)
    储层孔隙度 5%~20% 5% 武恒志等(2015)
    深度 >6 km 4 km
    储层压力 1.8~2.1倍超压 按1.8倍超压 冷济高等(2011)
    流体含量 鸭子河气田探明储量3.09×107 m3油当量(至2014年) 1.3×107 m3 徐天吉(2017)
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-05
  • 修回日期:  2021-07-16
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-28

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