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花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床流体成矿机制研究进展

郑范博 王国光 倪培

郑范博, 王国光, 倪培, 2021. 花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床流体成矿机制研究进展. 地质力学学报, 27 (4): 596-613. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.050
引用本文: 郑范博, 王国光, 倪培, 2021. 花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床流体成矿机制研究进展. 地质力学学报, 27 (4): 596-613. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.050
ZHENG Fanbo, WANG Guoguang, NI Pei, 2021. Research progress on the fluid metallogenic mechanism of granitic pegmatite-type rare metal deposits. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (4): 596-613. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.050
Citation: ZHENG Fanbo, WANG Guoguang, NI Pei, 2021. Research progress on the fluid metallogenic mechanism of granitic pegmatite-type rare metal deposits. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (4): 596-613. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.050

花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床流体成矿机制研究进展

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.050
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2018YFA0702704

详细信息
    作者简介:

    郑范博(1995-), 男, 硕士研究生, 研究方向为花岗伟晶岩型锂矿。E-mail: 2915449730@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    王国光(1983-), 男, 副教授, 研究方向为地质流体与成矿作用。E-mail: ggwang@nju.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P59;P611

Research progress on the fluid metallogenic mechanism of granitic pegmatite-type rare metal deposits

Funds: 

the State Key Research and Development Program 2018YFA0702704

  • 摘要: 随着战略性新兴产业的快速发展,稀有金属等关键金属资源的地位日益不可或缺。花岗伟晶岩是最重要的稀有金属矿床成因类型,该类型矿床的成矿流体特征和成因机制是矿床学的热门研究话题。文章主要对花岗伟晶岩型矿床的成矿流体特征和成矿机制进行了探讨。花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床成矿流体普遍富集挥发分(B、P、F和H2O)和成矿元素,具有低黏度、低成核率、强元素溶解能力和强迁移性。花岗伟晶岩型稀有金属矿床成矿流体形成温压条件存在争议,部分研究者认为形成于高温高压条件,也有研究者认为可能形成于过冷却条件下,温度可能低至350℃。花岗质岩浆高度结晶分异演化和富成矿元素地壳物质小比例深熔是形成成矿花岗伟晶岩的两种主要机制。流体不混溶和组成带纯化是岩浆热液演化过程中稀有金属进一步富集的重要手段。中国规模最大的甲基卡花岗伟晶岩型锂矿是研究该类矿床的理想实验室。

     

  • 图  1  典型稀有金属花岗伟晶岩的文象结构(样品为新疆大红柳滩锂矿手标本)

    Qtz—石英;Kfs—钾长石

    Figure  1.  Representative photo of rare metal pegmatites showing graphic texture(The sample is a hand specimen from the Dahongliutan lithium deposit, Xinjiang)

    Qtz-quartz; Kfs-K-feldspar

    图  2  美国加利福尼亚州圣迭戈县帕洛马山附近一条完整的伟晶岩岩脉部分(29 cm厚;London,2018)

    UST(unidirectional solidification texture)—单向固结组构,位于中间带

    Figure  2.  A complete section of a pegmatite dike from near Palomar Mountain, San Diego County, California, USA(29 cm-thickness; London, 2018)

    UST-unidirectional solidification texture, located in the intermediate zone

    图  3  花岗伟晶岩型锂矿锂辉石中典型的包裹体照片

    VCO2—气相二氧化碳;LCO2—液相二氧化碳;LH2O—液相水;S—固相;V—气相
    a—甲基卡锂辉石中的富晶体包裹体; b—甲基卡锂辉石中富CO2 FIA (Fluid Inclusion Assemblage, 流体包裹体组合); c—甲基卡锂辉石中的富晶体FIA; d—大红柳滩锂辉石中的富晶体FIA

    Figure  3.  Typical inclusions in the spodumene from the granitic pegmatite-type lithium-bearing ore. (a) Crystal-rich inclusion hosted in the spodumene from Jiajika; (b) CO2-rich Fluid Inclusion Assemblage hosted in the spodumene from Jiajika; (c) Crystal-rich Fluid Inclusion Assemblage hosted in the spodumene from Jiajika; (d) Crystal-rich Fluid Inclusion Assemblage hosted in the spodumene from Dahongliutan

    VCO2-Gas phase carbon dioxide; LCO2-Liquid phase carbon dioxide; LH2O-Liquid phase water; S-Solid phase; V-Gas phase

    图  4  假二元硅酸盐熔体-H2O系统的温度-H2O浓度图(Thomas and Davidson, 2016)

    a—Ehrenfriedersdorf花岗岩-伟晶岩系统石英中熔体包裹体中Be质量浓度-H2O浓度图;b—Ehrenfriedersdorf花岗岩-伟晶岩系统石英中熔体包裹体中CA浓度-H2O浓度图(该图表明在临界条件下,某些元素在超临界流体或熔体中的溶解度非常高);c—假二元硅酸盐熔体-H2O系统中A型和B型熔体包裹体温度-H2O浓度图;d—5个不同伟晶岩石英中熔体包裹体的结果绘制的假二元溶线
    CA代表Be、Sn、As、P、Cl、Ta;CA-crit代表在临界H2O浓度下的CA浓度;H2O-crit代表临界H2O浓度);TC代表临界温度

    Figure  4.  Temperature versus H2O concentration plot of the pseudo-binary silicate melt-H2O system (Thomas and Davidson, 2016).

    (a) Be concentration versus H2O concentration plot in melt inclusions in the Ehrenfriedersdorf granite-pegmatite system. (b)CAversus H2O concentration plot in melt inclusions hosted in quartz in the Ehrenfriedersdorf granite-pegmatite system. (c) Relationship of type-A and type-B melt in clusions in a temperature versus H2O concentration plot of the pseudo-binary silicate melt-H2O system. (d)Results of melt inclusions in quartz of five different pegmatites plot a pseudo-binary solvus(The figure b shows that certain elements have very high solubility in supercritical fluids or melts under critical conditions; CA represents Be, Sn, As, P, Cl, Ta; CA-crit represents the concentration of CA at the critical H2O concentration; H2O-critre represents critical H2O concentration; TC represents critical temperature)

    图  5  世界主要伟晶岩矿床形成的温压条件

    Figure  5.  Temperature and pressure conditions of main pegmatite deposits in the world

    图  6  花岗岩和花岗伟晶岩关系示意图(London,2008)

    Figure  6.  Schematic diagram of the relationship between granite and granitic pegmatite (London, 2008)

    图  7  花岗伟晶岩浆组成带纯化示意图(London, 2014, 2018)

    a—在组成带纯化作用时,相容的组分从大块熔体中溶解,通过边界层附着在成岩矿物的表面上;b—由于挥发分降低了固相温度,增强了组分的混相性,被排除的稀有金属组分在边界层液体中富集;c—一旦熔体的成分被耗尽,边界层液体就会发生结晶,导致在生长的矿物(云母、电气石)的成分发生突变

    Figure  7.  Schematic diagram of the constitutional zone refining of granitic pegmatite magma(London, 2014, 2018). (a) During the constitutional zone refining, the compatible components dissolve from the bulk melt and attach to the surface of the diagenetic mineral through the boundary layer. (b) Because the volatiles decrease the solid temperature and enhance the miscibility of the components, the excluded rare metal components are enriched in the boundary layer liquid. (c) Once the composition of the melt is exhausted, the boundary layer liquid will crystallize, resulting in a mutation in the composition of the growing minerals (mica, tourmaline)

    图  8  世界主要锂矿床分布图

    1—甲基卡;2—可尔因;3—阿尔泰;4—大红柳滩;5—Zavitskoye;6—Goltsovoer;7—Tastyq;8—Vishnvakovskoe;9—Lakha;10—Ural mining;11—Ullava lantta;12—Minade Barroso;13—Guarda;14—Zinnwald;15—Winneba;16—Manono-Kitolo;17—Kamativi;18—Bikita;19—Cape Cross-Brandberg-Uis;20—Rubicon Mine;21—Greenbushes;22—MountCaitlin;23—Mount Marion;24—Kemerton;25—Tanco;26—Quebec;27—Kings Mtn;28—Aracuai;29—Sao Joaodel Rei;30—扎布耶碳酸盐型盐湖;31—西台吉乃尔硫酸盐型盐湖;32—东台吉乃尔硫酸盐型盐湖;33—Salton sea;34—Silver Peak;35—Searles;36—Uyuni;37—Atacama;38—Jadar;39—Mcdermitt

    Figure  8.  Distribution of major lithium deposits in the world

    1-Jiajika; 2-Keryin; 3-Altay; 4-Dahongliutan; 5-Zavitskoye; 6-Goltsovoer; 7-Tastyq; 8-Vishnvakovskoe; 9-Lakha; 10-Ural mining; 11-Ullava lantta; 12-Minade Barroso; 13-Guarda; 14-Zinnwald; 15-Winneba; 16-Manono-Kitolo; 17-Kamativi; 18-Bikita; 19-Cape Cross-Brandberg-Uis; 20-Rubicon Mine; 21-Greenbushes; 22-MountCaitlin; 23-Mount Marion; 24-Kemerton; 25-Tanco; 26-Quebec; 27-Kings Mtn; 28-Aracuai; 29-Sao Joaodel Rei; 30-Zabuye carbonate-type salt lake; 31-West Taiji'naier sulfate-type salt lake; 32-East Taiji'naier sulfate-type salt lake; 33-Salton sea; 34-Silver Peak; 35-Searles; 36-Uyuni; 37-Atacama; 38-Jadar; 39-Mcdermitt

    图  9  甲基卡稀有金属矿田地质简图(Huang et al., 2020)

    Figure  9.  Geological sketch of the Jiajika rare metal ore field(Huang et al., 2020)

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-04-30
  • 修回日期:  2021-06-25
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-28

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