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印度-欧亚板块碰撞变形区的大地震时空分布特征与迁移规律

赵根模 吴中海 刘杰 张雷 左嘉梦

赵根模, 吴中海, 刘杰, 等, 2019. 印度-欧亚板块碰撞变形区的大地震时空分布特征与迁移规律. 地质力学学报, 25 (3): 324-340. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.03.030
引用本文: 赵根模, 吴中海, 刘杰, 等, 2019. 印度-欧亚板块碰撞变形区的大地震时空分布特征与迁移规律. 地质力学学报, 25 (3): 324-340. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.03.030
ZHAO Genmo, WU Zhonghai, LIU Jie, et al., 2019. THE TIME SPACE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS AND MIGRATION LAW OF LARGE EARTHQUAKES IN THE INDIAM-EURASIAN PLATE COLLISION DEFORMATION AREA. Journal of Geomechanics, 25 (3): 324-340. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.03.030
Citation: ZHAO Genmo, WU Zhonghai, LIU Jie, et al., 2019. THE TIME SPACE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS AND MIGRATION LAW OF LARGE EARTHQUAKES IN THE INDIAM-EURASIAN PLATE COLLISION DEFORMATION AREA. Journal of Geomechanics, 25 (3): 324-340. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.03.030

印度-欧亚板块碰撞变形区的大地震时空分布特征与迁移规律

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2019.25.03.030
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金 41571013

国家自然科学基金 41171009

中国地质调查局项目 DD20160268

中国地质调查局项目 DD20190396

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵根模(1937-), 男, 研究员, 从事地震地质与地震活动性研究。E-mail:mingzhao_tj@Hotmail.com

    通讯作者:

    吴中海(1974-), 男, 研究员, 从事新构造与活动构造研究。E-mail:wuzhonghai@geomech.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P315

THE TIME SPACE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS AND MIGRATION LAW OF LARGE EARTHQUAKES IN THE INDIAM-EURASIAN PLATE COLLISION DEFORMATION AREA

  • 摘要: 印度板块与欧亚板块在新生代期间的持续碰撞和挤压过程导致亚洲大陆发生了强烈的弥散式板内变形,并形成了一个以贝加尔湖为顶点,以喜马拉雅带为底边的近似三角形的变形区与强震活动区,即新-藏三角区。基于固体刚塑性变形平面结构,结合滑移线场网络模型,对该区历史强震活动的大范围离散式空间分布特点进行了分析解释。结合1505-1976年以来历史强震空间迁移的实例,归纳了该区历史强震活动与地震应变释放从印度板块边界→新-藏地块→两侧大陆的顺序性及定向性迁移特征,并根据对地震空间迁移规律的认识,进一步探讨了区域未来强震危险性问题。结果显示,从2000-2018年间,印度板块边界和新-藏三角区已多次发生M7.9~9.1大地震,但其东、西两侧的区域大陆地区却异常平静,没发生过7级以上大地震。依照区域强震活动的顺序性迁移特点,推测在未来几到几十年,亚洲大陆东部与中部以及喜马拉雅带东段等区域的大地震危险性较大。

     

  • 图  1  亚洲大陆东部地震分布与地质构造图

    Figure  1.  Seismic distribution and tectonic map of eastern Asia continent

    图  2  力学实验给出的滑移线场示意图[14-16]

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of slip line field drawn by mechanical experiment[14-16]

    图  3  扁平的刚性模具楔入在半无限刚塑性介质中图像[5]

    Figure  3.  The flat even rigidity matrix jostle rigidity-plastic pattern[5]

    图  4  扁平刚性模具楔入半无限刚塑性介质导致的块体侧向逃逸模式[5]

    Figure  4.  Block lateral escape mode caused by flat rigid die wedged into semi-infinte rigid plastic medium[5]

    图  5  中国大陆1999—2009年水平运动场分布图图像(GPS)[17]

    Figure  5.  Map of horizontal sports fields in mainland China from 1999 to 2009(GPS)[17]

    图  6  地震时间(年)序列实例图示

    A—印度板块边界, 绿色(M≥8);B—新藏三角区, 红色(M≥7.8);C—侧方地块(中国大陆东部和中亚),C黑色(M≥7.5)

    Figure  6.  The seismic time-sequences patterns

    图  7  2000—2017年序列图(显示B和C区异常平静)

    A—印度板块边界, 绿色(M≥8);B—新藏三角区, 红色(M≥7.8);C—侧方地块(中国大陆东部和中亚),C黑色(M≥7.5)

    Figure  7.  The sequence pattern from 2000 to 2017 (Showing that B and C areas are remarkable quiet)

    图  8  三角区及附近M≥8级地震分布图(1700—2017年)

    Figure  8.  The seismic distribution of the triangle area and vicinity M≥8.0 (1700—2017)

    图  9  三大边界带的M-t

    Figure  9.  The M-t plot of the three boundary zones map

    图  10  三大边界带的应变释放曲线图

    Figure  10.  The ∑E1/2 release curves of the three boundary zones

    图  11  新—藏三角区强震活动的纵向迁移时空图像

    红色和黑色圆点代表区域上的M≥7.0历史地震事件及发生时间;圆点间直线指示地震迁移路径;箭头指示其时间顺序

    Figure  11.  Time Space images of the longitudinal migration of strong earthquakes in the Xinjiang-Tibet Triangle Area

    图  12  地震交叉迁移(1905—1957年)

    红色圆点代表区域大地震事件及发生时间

    Figure  12.  Seismic cross migration(From 1905 to 1957)

    图  13  三角区地震横向迁移平面图

    黑色和红色圆点代表地震低速和中速迁移过程中的典型大地震事件;平行线段表示横向迁移等时线

    Figure  13.  Plan of lateral seismic migration in Triangle Area

    图  14  新—藏三角地块地震横向迁移时空分布图

    a—1950;b—1947;c—1934;d—1905;图中实线为低速,虚线为中速

    Figure  14.  Time space distribution of lateral seismic migration in the Xinjiang-Tibet Triangle Area

    图  15  三角区内近东西向断裂带M-t

    ⑦—喜马拉雅带

    Figure  15.  The M-t plot of the E-W fault zone in Triangle Area

    图  16  三角区内近东西向断裂带累积应变释放图

    ⑦—喜马拉雅带

    Figure  16.  The ∑E1/2 release curves of the E-W strike faults in the Triangle Area

    表  1  新藏三角区主要地震纵向迁移带及其特征一览表

    Table  1.   Main seismic longitudinal migration zones and their characteristics in the Xinjiang-Tibet Triangle Area

    地震迁移带名称 迁移方式 出现时段/a 持续时间/a 迁移速率km/a 统计震级
    帕米尔—贝加尔带 由西南向东北往复式迁移 1669—1761 92 50 M≥7.8
    1902—1957 55
    喜马拉雅带 东西向往复迁移 1803—1897 94 30 M≥7.8
    1905—1950 45
    2005—2015 10
    南北带 由南向北迁移 1500—1561 61 50 M≥7.0
    1713—1742 29
    1789—1932 143
    1913—1957 44
    1988—2008 20
    昆仑带 从西向东迁移 1956—2001 45 53 M≥7.0
    祁连山带 从东南向西北 1920—1932 12 83 M≥7.5
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-12-26
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