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祁连山玉石沟橄榄岩显微构造特征及演化

杨艳 杨波 张宏远

杨艳, 杨波, 张宏远, 2013. 祁连山玉石沟橄榄岩显微构造特征及演化. 地质力学学报, 19 (3): 275-286.
引用本文: 杨艳, 杨波, 张宏远, 2013. 祁连山玉石沟橄榄岩显微构造特征及演化. 地质力学学报, 19 (3): 275-286.
YANG Yan, YANG Bo, ZHANG Hong-yuan, 2013. MICROTECTONIC FEATURES AND EVOLUTION OF THE YUSHIGOU PERIDOTITE ROCK FROM THE QILIANSHAN MOUNTAIN. Journal of Geomechanics, 19 (3): 275-286.
Citation: YANG Yan, YANG Bo, ZHANG Hong-yuan, 2013. MICROTECTONIC FEATURES AND EVOLUTION OF THE YUSHIGOU PERIDOTITE ROCK FROM THE QILIANSHAN MOUNTAIN. Journal of Geomechanics, 19 (3): 275-286.

祁连山玉石沟橄榄岩显微构造特征及演化

基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金重点项目 41230311

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 1212011121188

详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨艳(1991-), 女, 中国地质大学(北京)本科在读, 资源勘查(固体矿产)专业。E-mail:173102703@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    张宏远, E-mail:zhanghongyuan@cugb.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P545

MICROTECTONIC FEATURES AND EVOLUTION OF THE YUSHIGOU PERIDOTITE ROCK FROM THE QILIANSHAN MOUNTAIN

  • 摘要: 橄榄岩作为上地幔的主要成分,影响着上地幔的流变学行为,其显微构造记录了岩石形成发展过程中所经受的构造事件。通过对祁连山玉石沟橄榄岩样品的镜下显微构造观察、岩石组构测定及TEM位错分析,探讨了与变形相关的温度、围压、含水性和应变速率等因素,总结该岩石的变形机制和变形历史,并推断其形成发展时大地构造环境。研究表明,玉石沟橄榄岩产自上地幔,其变形改造经历了上地幔演化和脆-韧性变形2个阶段。上地幔演化阶段橄榄石发育明显的A型原生组构,电子背散射衍射技术(EBSD)测定的橄榄石显微组构表明,该地区橄榄岩形成于高温(>1200℃)、低应力( < 350 MPa)、低应变速率、低含水量的地幔浅部环境条件下;脆-韧性变形阶段叠加改造了原生A型组构,而发育明显的D型次生组构。橄榄石变形主控因素为动态恢复作用,普遍发育亚晶粒、消光带和扭折显微构造等相关组构,并与透射电镜下所观察到的位错排对应,同时还发育以微破裂为主的一套脆性变形组构,表现出两组共轭剪破裂和另一组张性破裂等现象,揭示出与韧性动态恢复现象一致的应力场方向指示。

     

  • 图  1  典型橄榄石组构及其与滑移系和应力、含水量关系(据Karato等[3],略有修改)

    Figure  1.  Typical olivine fabric and the relationship with dominant slip systems, stress and water content

    图  2  祁连山—柴北缘地区地质简图

    1—板岩夹灰岩、灰岩、板岩及中基性火山岩;2—辉长岩;3—滑石菱镁片岩等;4—纯橄榄岩;5—方辉橄榄岩;6—蛇纹岩;7—白云岩、石英片岩;8—UHP terrane;9—北祁连缝合带;10—断裂;11—构造边界;12—取样点

    Figure  2.  Geological sketch map of Qilianshan to northern margin of Qaidam regions

    图  3  洋壳的组合结构[16]

    1—沉积物;2—拉斑玄武岩;3—辉长岩;5—上地幔(橄榄岩)

    Figure  3.  Composition and structure of oceanic crust

    图  4  玉石沟超基性岩体A-B地质剖面示意图(剖面位置见图 1

    1—北岩体(方辉橄榄岩);2—中岩体(方辉橄榄岩);3—小岩体(纯橄榄岩);4—南岩体(纯橄榄岩)

    Figure  4.  Schematic cross section of ultrabasic rock from Yushigou

    图  5  玉石沟橄榄岩的显微图像

    a—方辉橄榄岩中残斑结构;b—橄榄石中剪/张破裂;c—橄榄石中消光带、亚晶粒;d—斜方辉石中扭折带;e—斜方辉石中出溶叶理;f—斜方辉石中出溶现象;g—方辉橄榄岩中铬尖晶石

    Figure  5.  Photomicrograph of peridotites from Yushigou

    图  6  橄榄岩共轭剪裂面及其受力模式图(里德尔剪切)

    Figure  6.  The conjugate shear fracture surfaces and their force mode in peridotite (Riedel Shear)

    图  7  方辉橄榄岩中橄榄石晶格优先定向

    Figure  7.  Lattice-preferred orientation of olivine in harzburgite

    图  8  橄榄石晶体在样品中简易定向图

    ①—镁橄榄石矿物晶体形态及光率体主轴与结晶轴关系示意图;②—橄榄石晶体简易图;③—橄榄石晶体在样品中的定向;④—岩石样品定向薄片磨制

    Figure  8.  Simple directed graph of olivine crystals in the sample

    图  9  透射电镜下橄榄岩位错组态及晶体弯曲

    Figure  9.  TEM images of dislocation configuration and crystal bend in olivine

    图  10  应力作用下的橄榄石晶体弯曲

    Figure  10.  Olivine crystals bend under compressive stress

    表  1  五种LPO类型特征及其形成环境

    Table  1.   Features and formation conditions of five LPO-types

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  • 收稿日期:  2013-03-24
  • 刊出日期:  2013-09-01

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