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新世纪构造地质学两大支柱理论: 最大有效力矩准则与变位形分解

郑亚东 张进江 张波

郑亚东, 张进江, 张波, 2022. 新世纪构造地质学两大支柱理论: 最大有效力矩准则与变位形分解. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 319-337. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021118
引用本文: 郑亚东, 张进江, 张波, 2022. 新世纪构造地质学两大支柱理论: 最大有效力矩准则与变位形分解. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 319-337. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021118
ZHENG Yadong, ZHANG Jinjiang, ZHANG Bo, 2022. Two pillar theories of structural geology in the new century: the MEM criterion and the deformation partitioning. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 319-337. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021118
Citation: ZHENG Yadong, ZHANG Jinjiang, ZHANG Bo, 2022. Two pillar theories of structural geology in the new century: the MEM criterion and the deformation partitioning. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 319-337. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021118

新世纪构造地质学两大支柱理论: 最大有效力矩准则与变位形分解

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021118
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金 41772207

详细信息
    作者简介:

    郑亚东(1936—)男, 教授, 从事构造地质学研究。E-mail: yadongzheng1998@gmail.com

    通讯作者:

    张波(1978—)男, 副教授, 从事构造地质学与岩石流变学研究。E-mail: geozhangbo@pku.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P54

Two pillar theories of structural geology in the new century: the MEM criterion and the deformation partitioning

Funds: 

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41772207

  • 摘要: 传统构造地质学用摩尔-库伦准则和贝克尔的应变椭球体理念分别解释地壳中的脆性断层和塑性变形,将变形局部化的韧性剪切带形成解释为平行应变椭球体的圆切面,却无法解释变形局部化的共轭剪切带稳定夹角~110°面对应缩短方向。变形局部化是独立于脆性和塑性变形外的变形领域,受最大有效力矩准则控制。20世纪末提出的变位形分解理念,摆脱连续介质力学的束缚,合理地说明广泛存在的走滑断层平行俯冲带或逆冲断层带。非均匀变形和非连续介质力学理念的建立,为地质学与力学的结合开辟了新的前景。文章试用上述两理念概略分析中国和邻区中新生代构造格局,以期引发讨论。

     

  • 图  1  自然界常见的两类钝角(~110°和~145°)

    a—切割糜棱面理的共轭剪切条带(White, 1979);b—河床中的叠瓦状砾石(施罗克, 1955);c—多米诺骨牌构造(Ramsay and Huber, 1987)

    Figure  1.  Common two obtuse angles, ~110° and ~145° in nature

    (a) Conjugate shear bands truncating mylonitic foliation (White, 1979); (b) Imbricate pebbles in the river bed (Shi et al., 1955) (c) Domino structure by Ramsay and Huber (1987)

    图  2  最大有效力矩准则

    a、b—有限方块边界的应力状态及相应的应力莫尔圆; c—最大有效力矩准则的数学表达式与图示(深浅阴影区表示全部实验和自然观测值范围); d—英格兰地下1 km处钾盐矿柱的共轭剪切带(黑色粗线表示剪切带;虚线表示早期开采时挖掘机开采时的挖掘痕迹,注意发生错动;Watterson, 1999)

    Figure  2.  Mathematical expression and graphical representation of the MEM-criterion

    (a-c) Mathematic expression and diagram of the MEM-criterion (grey shallow areas presenting the ranges of all experimental and natural observations); (d) Conjugate shear zones in a potash pillar underground (1000 m depth) in England (Watterson, 1999)

    图  3  变形局部化(110°不随递进变形而变,菱形块体内基本无应变)

    a—千枚岩轴向压缩实验(Paterson and Weiss, 1966);b—赛璐璐数值模拟(Liao et al., 2013)

    Figure  3.  Deformation localization (Note that 110° is an invariant and that there is almost no strain in rhombic blocks or lozenges)

    (a) Axial compression test for phyllite (Paterson and Weiss, 1966); (b) Results by numerical simulation (Liao et al., 2013)

    图  4  变形局部化与准均匀变形的应力与应变曲线(Peltzer and Tapponnier, 1988)

    a为应力降和共轭伸展剪切带,110°面对缩短方向;b中的共轭褶皱也是钝角面对缩短方向,但未形成清晰的不连续面,故应力-应变曲线近似均匀变形

    Figure  4.  Difference in stress-strain curves in various deformation types (Peltzer and Tapponnier, 1988)

    (a) Conjugate extensional shear zones with 110° in the shortening direction in deformation localization; (b) An obtuse angle between conjugate fold sets in sub-homogeneous deformation

    图  5  走滑边界变位形分解程度图解(Tikoff and Teyssier, 1994; Teyssier et al., 1995)

    α—汇聚方向;θσ1或${\dot S_3}$(最小瞬时伸长度)与边界的夹角;图中①、②、③分别代表圣安德烈斯断层、苏门答腊断层和新西兰阿尔派恩断层的变位形分解,96%~98%、30%和0;黑星和白星分别是文中圣安德烈斯断层和怒江-实皆断层求解的走滑分解量

    Figure  5.  Diagram for deformation partitioning% (Tikoff and Teyssier, 1994; Teyssier et al., 1995)

    图  6  圣安德列斯右行走滑断层与加洛克左行走滑断层形成的大型共轭构造和应力状态

    Figure  6.  Stress-state for the formation of the wide-open V-shaped strike-slip fault system by the San Andreas dextral strike-slip fault and Garlock sinistral strike-slip fault

    图  7  实验学所揭示的变位形分解的两个端元

    a—层状塑性泥斜向缩短实验(Gómez Rivas, 2008),显示100%变位形分解;b—千枚岩斜向挤压实验(Paterson and Weiss, 1966),显示无变位形分解

    Figure  7.  Two types of deformation partitioning by experiments

    (a) Results from layered plasticine experiment (Gómez Rivas, 2008); (b) Deformed phyllite (Paterson and Weiss, 1966), showing 100% and zero-deformation partitioning, respectively

    图  8  中国及邻区构造分区与格局图(白色箭头代表变质核杂岩上盘伸展运动方向;图中角度为大型共轭走滑断裂钝夹角角度;据任纪舜(1989)潘桂棠等(2009)杨巍然等(2012)万天丰(2013)修编)

    Figure  8.  Tectonic units and network of China and its adjacent regions (Adapted from Ren, 1989 with referring to these works)

    图  9  青藏高原中的摩尔-库伦断裂与宽V形共轭走滑断层系及所显示的应力状态(底图据Kapp et al., 2008; 断层走向玫瑰图据Zhang et al., 2012)

    BS—班公缝合带(北缝合带);IYS—印度-雅鲁藏布缝合带(南缝合带)

    Figure  9.  Mohr-Coulomb-type fractures and wide-open V-shaped conjugate strike-slip fault system in Tibet and the related stress state (Tectonic frame by From Kapp et al., 2008, and rose diagram of fautt strike by Zhang et al., 2012)

    BS-The Bangong suture belt (The northern suture belt); IYS-The Indian-Yarlung Zangbo suture belt

    图  10  高黎贡怒江段右行韧性剪切带不同尺度构造面理几何特征

    a—露头尺度的长石碎斑指示右行剪切;b—显微尺度S/C指示右行剪切(Zhang et al., 2010);c—怒江东侧千枚状板岩中的共轴叠加褶皱

    Figure  10.  Various-scale structures in the Gaoligong shear zone (Nujiang section)

    (a) σ-type feldspar porphyroblast showing dextral shearing on outcrop-scale within the Gaoligong shear zone. (b) S/C structures in the microstructures in the shear zone (Zhang et al., 2010). (c) Coaxial superimpose folds on the eastern side of the shear zone

    图  11  中南半岛新生代区域规模走滑断裂体系空间展布

    a—中南半岛的主要断层带(Kanjanapayont et al., 2012);b—几何特征、运动学和应力状态分析

    Figure  11.  Structure frame and major strike-slip fault systems in the Indo-China Peninsular

    (a) Main faults in Indo-China Peninsular (Kanjanapayont et al., 2012); (b) Geometric, kinematic, stress-state and their transformation in Tertiary

    图  12  东亚新生代构造与应力体系分析

    a—最大有效力矩方向取代滑移线的东亚新生代挤出构造(图中角度为大型共轭走滑断裂钝夹角度数;底图引自Zheng et al., 2011);b—滑移线方向;c—最大有效力矩方向(红线右行走滑,红蓝相间为左右交替,印度板块东侧先左后右,①、②表示断裂活动先后)

    Figure  12.  Tectonics and stress analysis of eastern Asia

    (a) Extrusion tectonics in eastern Asia with MEM-directions (Tectonic frame by Zheng et al., 2011); (b) Tectonic interpretation by slip lines; (c) Tectonic interpretation by MEM-directions

    图  13  东亚中、新生代构造的概略分析

    a—东亚巨型构造边界及应力体系;b—Maruyama et al.(1997)提出的模型;c—Müller et al. (2016)模式

    Figure  13.  Summary analysis on tectonics in eastern Asia region

    (a) Major tectonic boundaries and stress system in eastern Asia; (b) Mesozoic tectonic evolution by Maruyama et al., 1997; (c) Cenozoic tectonic evolution by Müller et al., 2016

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