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深井地壳活动综合观测技术略谈

蔡美峰

蔡美峰,2023. 深井地壳活动综合观测技术略谈[J]. 地质力学学报,29(3):301−312 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20232901
引用本文: 蔡美峰,2023. 深井地壳活动综合观测技术略谈[J]. 地质力学学报,29(3):301−312 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20232901
CAI M F,2023. A brief talk on comprehensive crustal activity observation technology of deep-holes[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(3):301−312 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20232901
Citation: CAI M F,2023. A brief talk on comprehensive crustal activity observation technology of deep-holes[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(3):301−312 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20232901

深井地壳活动综合观测技术略谈

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20232901
基金项目: 中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20230249,DD20230014);中国工程院重点咨询项目(2019-XZ-16)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    蔡美峰(1943—),男,博士,教授,中国工程院院士,研究方向为地应力、岩石力学与采矿工程。 E-mail:caimeifeng@ustb.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P631;TH762;P315.6

A brief talk on comprehensive crustal activity observation technology of deep-holes

Funds: This research is financially supported by the China Geological Survey Project (Grant DD20230249,DD20230014) and the Key Consultation Project of the Chinese Academy of Engineering (Grant 2019-XZ-16).
More Information
    Author Bio:

    蔡美峰,教授,博士生导师,中国工程院院士,岩石力学与采矿工程专家,自然资源部北京地壳应力应变野外科学观测研究站学术委员会主任。长期从事地应力测量与科学采矿方向研究,首次开发出我国具有自主知识产权的地应力测量技术,提出了以地应力为基础的采矿设计优化的技术体系、安全高效开采技术和矿山动力灾害预测与防控技术,撰写了我国第一部系统介绍地应力测量的专著《地应力测量原理和技术》,是我国矿山地应力测量的主要开拓者之一。获国家科技进步二等奖4项、三等奖1项,国家技术发明三等奖1项和国家级教学成果二等奖1项。2008—2010年先后被评为国家级教学名师、全国模范教师和全国优秀科技工作者。曾担任国务院学位委员会矿业工程学科评议组召集人、国际岩石力学学会教育委员会主席、中国岩石力学与工程学会副理事长、中国金属学会常务理事兼采矿分会理事长等职务,积极总结我国矿山地质科技成就和经验,提出多项建设性意见或建议,为我国深部矿山地质科技事业发展做出了重大贡献

  • 摘要:

    岩石圈在地球内动力作用下,塑造出不同类型的地球表面形态,而通过钻孔地壳活动综合观测技术捕捉地壳应力状态及其动态变化规律,是人类认识地球内动力过程、研究内动力地质灾害机理的重要途径。文章总结了日本、美国等发达国家以及IODP国际合作研究计划在发展钻孔地壳活动综合观测技术方面的贡献,并对中国钻孔应变观测技术及其观测仪器发展历程、研发现状进行了系统性的总结,尤其是“十三五”以来,在深地深海探测国家战略的大背景下,中国地质调查局、中国地震局等单位相继完成井中综合地球物理观测系统研发工作,并在陆域综合观测站中完成野外验证。其中,中国地质科学院地质力学研究所利用系统集成关键技术成功研制的地壳活动综合地球物理观测系统,拥有应变、倾斜、地震、地磁、地温、孔隙压等多种传感器和15个分量,具备观测地壳变形、应力、应变、倾斜、地震及其诱导的地温、水文、地电、地磁等岩石圈地球动力相对变化的能力,已在甘肃山丹(安装深度253 m)、四川平武(WFSD-4,1600 m)观测站投入使用,取得了一定的成效,对中国未来突破3000 m深井地壳活动综合观测技术具有指导意义,可为地球动力学研究、深部矿产和地热资源安全开采、内动力地质灾害预测提供重要地应力动态变化信息。同时,以“十四五”深地深海探测国家战略为契机,提出了深井地壳活动综合观测系统的未来发展方向和构想。

     

  • 图  1  美国Parkfield地震实验场深部钻孔计划(据Zoback et al., 1998修改)

    Figure  1.  Deep drilling plan of Parkfield Seismic Test Site in the United States (revised from Zoback et al., 1998)

    图  2  Parkfield深井综合观测仪(据彭华等,2011修改)

    Figure  2.  Parkfield deep-well comprehensive observation instrument (revised from Peng et al., 2011)

    图  3  日本深井地壳综合观测装置及其监测曲线(据苏恺之等,2003a徐纪人和赵志新,2006修改)

    a—地壳综合观测装置及配重; b—采用该装置获得各参量观测曲线

    Figure  3.  Japan deep-well integrated crustal observation device and its monitoring curves (a) Integrated crustal observation device and counterweight; (b) The observation curve of each parameter is obtained by using this device (revised from Su et al., 2003a; Xu and Zhao et al., 2006).

    图  4  IODP钻孔长期监测系统(C0006G孔;据Kinoshita et al., 2018a修改)

    Figure  4.  Hole C0006G long-time borehole monitoring system (LTBMS) of IODP (revised from Kinoshita et al., 2018a

    图  5  深井地壳活动综合观测系统(据彭华等,2011a修改)

    a—COBD系统;b— OPBD结构

    Figure  5.  Comprehensive observation system for deep borehole crustal activity (revised from Peng et al., 2011a) (a) COBD system; (b) OPBD structure

    图  6  深井地壳活动综合观测系统主要测量单元记录曲线

    Figure  6.  Recording curves of the main measuring units of the deep-well crustal activity comprehensive observation system

    图  7  CODB系统四分量式钻孔应变仪(通道1—4)原始记录曲线

    Figure  7.  Original recording curves of 4-component borehole strain gauge in CODB system(1–4 tunnel)

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  • 收稿日期:  2023-04-10
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