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柴北缘尕海南山晚志留世—晚泥盆世火山岩浆组合对早古生代造山后伸展时限的约束

高万里 王宗秀 吴林 江万 钱涛

高万里,王宗秀,吴林,等,2024. 柴北缘尕海南山晚志留世—晚泥盆世火山岩浆组合对早古生代造山后伸展时限的约束[J]. 地质力学学报,30(3):506−518 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023178
引用本文: 高万里,王宗秀,吴林,等,2024. 柴北缘尕海南山晚志留世—晚泥盆世火山岩浆组合对早古生代造山后伸展时限的约束[J]. 地质力学学报,30(3):506−518 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023178
GAO W L,WANG Z X,WU L,et al.,2024. Constraints for post-orogenic extension of the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin from the Late Silurian–Late Devonian igneous rocks in the Gahai–Nanshan area[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(3):506−518 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023178
Citation: GAO W L,WANG Z X,WU L,et al.,2024. Constraints for post-orogenic extension of the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin from the Late Silurian–Late Devonian igneous rocks in the Gahai–Nanshan area[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(3):506−518 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023178

柴北缘尕海南山晚志留世—晚泥盆世火山岩浆组合对早古生代造山后伸展时限的约束

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023178
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(42372179,41702204)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    高万里(1985—),男,博士,副研究员,从事区域构造和岩石大地构造研究。Email:gwanli851202@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P574;P611

Constraints for post-orogenic extension of the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin from the Late Silurian–Late Devonian igneous rocks in the Gahai–Nanshan area

Funds: This research is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants NO. 42372179 and 41702204).
  • 摘要: 柴达木盆地北缘(柴北缘)构造带经历了早古生代的大洋俯冲到大陆俯冲,形成了广为人知的柴北缘超高压变质带。早古生代造山带何时开始垮塌一直存在争论,火山岩和侵入岩作为深地岩石探针能为约束地壳活动提供关键制约。应用锆石LA–ICP–MS U–Pb年代学和Lu–Hf同位素方法对柴北缘东段尕海南山地区出露的牦牛山组火山碎屑岩和侵入其中的花岗岩开展研究。锆石U–Pb年代学结果显示,牦牛山组火山碎屑岩的形成时代约为423 Ma,侵入其中的花岗岩的形成时代为370 Ma,表明火山岩喷发的年龄在晚志留世,后期侵入的花岗岩结晶年龄为晚泥盆世;锆石Lu–Hf同位素结果显示,晚志留世熔结凝灰岩εHf(t)值集中在–11.5~–8.3,其两阶段Hf模式年龄集中在1945~2133 Ma,显示火山岩主要源于古老地壳物质熔融;而晚泥盆世侵入的花岗岩的εHf(t)值分布在3.9~9.1,其两阶段的Hf模式年龄集中在792~1118 Ma,显示花岗岩主要源于中—新元古代地壳物质的部分熔融。结合对区域地质、岩石学等资料的综合分析认为,晚志留世—早泥盆世时期,大陆深俯冲导致的强烈造山作用造成柴北缘地壳发生明显加厚,加厚的欧龙布鲁克地壳基底发生部分熔融,形成了该时期的火山岩;晚泥盆世时期,加厚地壳的拆沉作用导致软流圈地幔上涌,引发区域地壳伸展,上涌的软流圈物质与地壳相互作用并发生部分熔融作用。因此区域牦牛山组形成时代跨度较大,不能笼统地用牦牛山组代表造山结束的时限,晚泥盆世岩浆岩的出现才预示着柴北缘地区进入显著的地壳伸展状态。

     

  • 图  1  柴达木盆地北缘大地构造简图(据Zhang et al.,2017a修改)

    Figure  1.  Simplified tectonic map of the northern margin of the Qaidam Basin (modified after Zhang et al., 2017a)

    图  2  旺尕秀南牦牛山组火山岩及花岗岩地质略图

    Figure  2.  Geological sketch map of the volcanic rocks and granites of the Maoniushan Formation in southern Wanggaxiu

    图  3  旺尕秀南火山岩及侵入岩野外及镜下照片

    Pl—斜长石;Qtz—石英;Kfs—钾长石a—野外宏观接触关系;b—火山岩显微镜下特征;c—花岗岩显微镜下特征

    Figure  3.  Field and microscopic photos of volcanic rocks and intrusive rocks in southern Wanggaxiunan

    (a) Field macroscopic contact relationships of volcanic rocks and granites; (b) Microscopic characteristics of volcanic rocks; (c) Microscopic characteristics of granites Pl–plagioclase; Qtz–quartz; Kfs–K-feldspar

    图  4  火山岩和花岗岩的锆石阴极发光图(CL)

    黄色圈为锆石U–Pb测点,红色圈为锆石Hf测点a—火山岩NQC021-1锆石CL图像;b—花岗岩NQC022-1锆石CL图像

    Figure  4.  Zircon cathodoluminescence (CL) images of volcanic rocks and granites

    (a) Zircon CL image of volcanic rock sample NQC021-1; (b) Zircon CL image of granite sample NQC022-1 The yellow circles represent zircon U–Pb sites, and the red circles represent zircon Hf sites.

    图  5  锆石U–Pb谐和曲线

    a—NQC021-1熔结凝灰岩样品锆石U–Pb谐和曲线;b—NQC022-1二长花岗岩锆石U–Pb谐和曲线

    Figure  5.  Concordia plots of zircon U–Pb analysis

    (a) Concordia plot of zircon U–Pb analysis for the NQC021-1 welded tuff sample; (b) Concordia plot of zircon U–Pb analysis for the NQC022-1 granite sample

    图  6  锆石Hf同位素结果

    a—NQC021-1熔结凝灰岩锆石εHf(t)频度图;b—NQC021-1熔结凝灰岩锆石Hf两阶段模式年龄;c—NQC022-1二长花岗岩锆石εHf(t)频度图;d—NQC022-1二长花岗岩锆石Hf两阶段模式年龄

    Figure  6.  Zircon Hf isotopic composition of the samples

    (a) εHf(t) frequency distribution plot of zircons from the NQC021-1 welded tuff sample; (b) Two-stage Hf model ages of zircons from the NQC021-1 welded tuff sample; (c) εHf(t) frequency distribution plot of zircons from the NQC022-1 granodiorite sample; (d) Two-stage Hf model ages of zircons from the NQC022-1 granodiorite sample

    表  1  样品锆石U–Pb年代学学分析结果

    Table  1.   U–Pb chronological analysis results of zircon samples

    样品点 Th/×10-6 U/×10-6 Th/U 同位素比值 年龄/Ma
    207Pb/206Pb 1σ 207Pb/235U 1σ 206Pb/238U 1σ 207Pb/206Pb 1σ 207Pb/235U 1σ 206Pb/238U 1σ
    样品 NQC021-1
    NQC021-1.1 117 104 1.12 0.0555 0.0039 0.5105 0.0355 0.0667 0.0018 434 149 419 24 416 11
    NQC021-1.2 71 82 0.86 0.0560 0.0044 0.5251 0.0403 0.0680 0.0019 452 164 429 27 424 11
    NQC021-1.3 136 166 0.82 0.0555 0.0031 0.5121 0.0289 0.0670 0.0017 431 122 420 19 418 10
    NQC021-1.4 119 147 0.81 0.0561 0.0029 0.5528 0.0280 0.0715 0.0017 455 109 447 18 445 10
    NQC021-1.5 66 77 0.85 0.0557 0.0046 0.4997 0.0406 0.0651 0.0018 439 174 412 27 407 11
    NQC021-1.6 117 124 0.94 0.0561 0.0030 0.5282 0.0283 0.0682 0.0017 458 116 431 19 425 10
    NQC021-1.7 111 145 0.77 0.0551 0.0041 0.4972 0.0367 0.0654 0.0018 416 159 410 25 409 11
    NQC021-1.8 158 158 1.00 0.0562 0.0023 0.5374 0.0220 0.0694 0.0016 459 88 437 15 432 10
    NQC021-1.9 208 146 1.42 0.0557 0.0034 0.5094 0.0313 0.0664 0.0017 439 132 418 21 414 10
    NQC021-1.10 150 140 1.07 0.0557 0.0028 0.5173 0.0261 0.0674 0.0016 440 109 423 17 420 10
    NQC021-1.11 70 89 0.78 0.0573 0.0048 0.5887 0.0489 0.0745 0.0022 502 176 470 31 464 13
    NQC021-1.12 86 117 0.74 0.0561 0.0028 0.5288 0.0266 0.0684 0.0017 455 108 431 18 427 10
    NQC021-1.13 107 133 0.80 0.0556 0.0031 0.4969 0.0273 0.0649 0.0016 435 119 410 19 405 10
    NQC021-1.14 90 110 0.81 0.0559 0.0037 0.5564 0.0369 0.0722 0.0019 448 143 449 24 449 11
    NQC021-1.15 204 232 0.88 0.0563 0.0026 0.5373 0.0249 0.0692 0.0017 464 100 437 16 431 10
    NQC021-1.16 672 279 2.40 0.0556 0.0019 0.5329 0.0182 0.0696 0.0016 434 72 434 12 434 10
    NQC021-1.17 109 140 0.78 0.0556 0.0026 0.5408 0.0256 0.0705 0.0017 437 101 439 17 439 10
    NQC021-1.18 92 130 0.71 0.0560 0.0028 0.5413 0.0268 0.0701 0.0017 453 106 439 18 437 10
    NQC021-1.19 117 112 1.05 0.0556 0.0025 0.5315 0.0240 0.0693 0.0017 437 97 433 16 432 10
    NQC021-1.20 69 77 0.90 0.0548 0.0041 0.4891 0.0360 0.0647 0.0018 405 158 404 25 404 11
    NQC021-1.21 50 95 0.53 0.0550 0.0033 0.5038 0.0304 0.0665 0.0017 411 129 414 21 415 10
    NQC021-1.22 162 184 0.88 0.0555 0.0020 0.5297 0.0190 0.0692 0.0016 432 76 432 13 431 10
    NQC021-1.23 107 119 0.90 0.0562 0.0031 0.5364 0.0291 0.0692 0.0017 459 117 436 19 432 10
    NQC021-1.24 134 176 0.76 0.0559 0.0020 0.5214 0.0192 0.0677 0.0016 448 78 426 13 422 9
    NQC021-1.25 89 122 0.73 0.0560 0.0025 0.5212 0.0237 0.0675 0.0016 454 98 426 16 421 10
    NQC021-1.26 82 115 0.72 0.0555 0.0024 0.5212 0.0225 0.0682 0.0016 431 93 426 15 425 10
    NQC021-1.27 81 113 0.71 0.0558 0.0034 0.5110 0.0310 0.0664 0.0017 444 130 419 21 415 10
    NQC021-1.28 155 132 1.18 0.0656 0.0029 0.5989 0.0265 0.0663 0.0016 792 90 477 17 414 10
    NQC021-1.29 89 93 0.96 0.0553 0.0023 0.5032 0.0210 0.0660 0.0016 423 89 414 14 412 9
    NQC021-1.30 96 126 0.76 0.0551 0.0021 0.5033 0.0196 0.0663 0.0016 417 83 414 13 414 9
    样品 NQC022-1
    NQC022-1.1 600 824 0.73 0.0551 0.0012 0.4523 0.0056 0.0595 0.0007 416 45 379 4 373 4
    NQC022-1.2 600 548 1.09 0.0554 0.0012 0.4717 0.0063 0.0617 0.0007 430 47 392 4 386 4
    NQC022-1.3 683 971 0.70 0.0539 0.0011 0.4404 0.0054 0.0592 0.0007 368 46 371 4 371 4
    NQC022-1.4 420 622 0.67 0.0549 0.0012 0.4659 0.0062 0.0616 0.0007 407 47 388 4 385 4
    NQC022-1.5 538 751 0.72 0.0552 0.0012 0.4565 0.0058 0.0600 0.0007 418 46 382 4 376 4
    NQC022-1.6 372 579 0.64 0.0554 0.0012 0.4810 0.0060 0.0630 0.0007 427 46 399 4 394 4
    NQC022-1.7 329 550 0.60 0.0540 0.0012 0.4667 0.0060 0.0627 0.0007 370 47 389 4 392 4
    NQC022-1.8 744 927 0.80 0.0548 0.0011 0.4459 0.0054 0.0590 0.0007 406 46 374 4 369 4
    NQC022-1.9 709 986 0.72 0.0547 0.0011 0.4482 0.0055 0.0595 0.0007 398 46 376 4 372 4
    NQC022-1.10 790 805 0.98 0.0549 0.0013 0.4010 0.0061 0.0530 0.0006 408 50 342 4 333 4
    NQC022-1.11 286 442 0.65 0.0591 0.0013 0.4821 0.0070 0.0592 0.0007 570 48 400 5 371 4
    NQC022-1.12 883 1035 0.85 0.0547 0.0011 0.4506 0.0055 0.0598 0.0007 398 46 378 4 374 4
    NQC022-1.13 863 983 0.88 0.0543 0.0011 0.4473 0.0054 0.0597 0.0007 383 46 375 4 374 4
    NQC022-1.14 1039 1051 0.99 0.0556 0.0012 0.4262 0.0055 0.0556 0.0006 436 46 361 4 349 4
    NQC022-1.15 1071 1221 0.88 0.0542 0.0011 0.4487 0.0054 0.0601 0.0007 378 46 376 4 376 4
    NQC022-1.16 943 1015 0.93 0.0546 0.0011 0.4369 0.0053 0.0580 0.0007 396 46 368 4 364 4
    NQC022-1.17 753 1015 0.74 0.0540 0.0011 0.4308 0.0052 0.0579 0.0007 370 46 364 4 363 4
    NQC022-1.18 618 736 0.84 0.0542 0.0012 0.4381 0.0057 0.0586 0.0007 378 47 369 4 367 4
    NQC022-1.19 710 894 0.79 0.0557 0.0012 0.4522 0.0055 0.0589 0.0007 439 45 379 4 369 4
    NQC022-1.20 715 993 0.72 0.0556 0.0012 0.4438 0.0059 0.0579 0.0007 437 47 373 4 363 4
    NQC022-1.21 755 992 0.76 0.0561 0.0012 0.4558 0.0055 0.0589 0.0007 455 45 381 4 369 4
    NQC022-1.22 649 737 0.88 0.0548 0.0012 0.4449 0.0060 0.0589 0.0007 403 47 374 4 369 4
    NQC022-1.23 171 150 1.14 0.0589 0.0016 0.4825 0.0097 0.0594 0.0007 562 56 400 7 372 4
    NQC022-1.24 893 870 1.03 0.0540 0.0011 0.4378 0.0054 0.0588 0.0007 373 46 369 4 368 4
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  样品锆石Lu–Hf同位素分析结果

    Table  2.   Lu–Hf isotopic analysis results of zircon samples

    样品 176Yb/177Hf(corr) 2σ 176Lu/177Hf(corr) 2σ 176Hf/177Hf(corr) 2σ 年龄/Ma (176Hf/177Hf)i εHf(t) TDM/Ma $T_{\mathrm{DM}}^{\mathrm{C}} $/Ma fs
    样品 NQC021-1
    NQC021-1-01 0.034248 0.000594 0.001129 0.000019 0.282194 0.000009 423 0.282185 −11.5 1497 2133 −0.97
    NQC021-1-02 0.033994 0.000152 0.001091 0.000004 0.282277 0.000010 423 0.282268 −8.5 1379 1947 −0.97
    NQC021-1-03 0.047536 0.000710 0.001466 0.000019 0.282236 0.000010 423 0.282224 −10.1 1451 2045 −0.96
    NQC021-1-04 0.027696 0.000124 0.000907 0.000002 0.282247 0.000012 423 0.282240 −9.5 1414 2011 −0.97
    NQC021-1-05 0.035441 0.000076 0.001206 0.000005 0.282207 0.000010 423 0.282198 −11.0 1481 2104 −0.96
    NQC021-1-06 0.044461 0.000392 0.001440 0.000012 0.282260 0.000010 423 0.282249 −9.2 1415 1991 −0.96
    NQC021-1-07 0.029350 0.000523 0.000956 0.000015 0.282277 0.000009 423 0.282270 −8.5 1374 1945 −0.97
    NQC021-1-08 0.035990 0.000026 0.001163 0.000002 0.282267 0.000011 423 0.282258 −8.9 1396 1971 −0.96
    NQC021-1-09 0.041318 0.000346 0.001328 0.000009 0.282243 0.000010 423 0.282232 −9.8 1436 2028 −0.96
    NQC021-1-10 0.050256 0.000847 0.001622 0.000028 0.282247 0.000010 423 0.282234 −9.7 1441 2023 −0.95
    NQC021-1-11 0.031623 0.000296 0.001050 0.000008 0.282267 0.000010 423 0.282258 −8.9 1392 1970 −0.97
    NQC021-1-12 0.027814 0.000151 0.000923 0.000004 0.282255 0.000010 423 0.282248 −9.2 1403 1993 −0.97
    NQC021-1-13 0.041611 0.000395 0.001372 0.000011 0.282266 0.000011 423 0.282255 −9.0 1404 1976 −0.96
    NQC021-1-14 0.038453 0.000236 0.001275 0.000009 0.282276 0.000011 423 0.282266 −8.6 1388 1953 −0.96
    NQC021-1-15 0.039464 0.000177 0.001343 0.000009 0.282255 0.000011 423 0.282244 −9.4 1420 2001 −0.96
    NQC021-1-16 0.062720 0.001202 0.002001 0.000039 0.282275 0.000010 423 0.282259 −8.8 1415 1967 −0.94
    NQC021-1-17 0.031225 0.000069 0.001036 0.000005 0.282248 0.000009 423 0.282240 −9.5 1417 2010 −0.97
    NQC021-1-18 0.029106 0.000137 0.000965 0.000003 0.282243 0.000009 423 0.282235 −9.7 1422 2022 −0.97
    NQC021-1-19 0.031030 0.000302 0.001068 0.000011 0.282283 0.000009 423 0.282275 −8.3 1369 1933 −0.97
    NQC021-1-20 0.036392 0.000577 0.001196 0.000016 0.282233 0.000009 423 0.282223 −10.1 1445 2047 −0.96
    NQC021-1-21 0.041738 0.000511 0.001393 0.000015 0.282247 0.000009 423 0.282236 −9.6 1432 2018 −0.96
    NQC021-1-22 0.038010 0.000197 0.001233 0.000004 0.282226 0.000010 423 0.282216 −10.3 1455 2063 −0.96
    NQC021-1-23 0.029763 0.000130 0.000993 0.000006 0.282260 0.000009 423 0.282252 −9.1 1399 1984 −0.97
    NQC021-1-24 0.038654 0.000512 0.001306 0.000012 0.282232 0.000009 423 0.282222 −10.2 1450 2051 −0.96
    样品 NQC022-1
    NQC022-1-01 0.103309 0.000606 0.003111 0.000014 0.282782 0.000013 370 0.28276 7.7 706 877 −0.91
    NQC022-1-02 0.083531 0.000728 0.002551 0.000020 0.282785 0.000013 370 0.28277 8.0 691 861 −0.92
    NQC022-1-03 0.115297 0.000260 0.003376 0.000008 0.282756 0.000013 370 0.28273 6.8 750 938 −0.90
    NQC022-1-04 0.077607 0.000398 0.002522 0.000009 0.282722 0.000018 370 0.28270 5.7 783 1003 −0.92
    NQC022-1-05 0.090154 0.000649 0.002648 0.000010 0.282749 0.000012 370 0.28273 6.7 746 945 −0.92
    NQC022-1-06 0.073166 0.000918 0.002312 0.000042 0.282717 0.000016 370 0.28270 5.6 786 1012 −0.93
    NQC022-1-07 0.054888 0.000462 0.001788 0.000012 0.282720 0.000013 370 0.28271 5.9 770 996 −0.95
    NQC022-1-08 0.129764 0.000560 0.003796 0.000018 0.282767 0.000012 370 0.28274 7.1 742 920 −0.89
    NQC022-1-09 0.116006 0.001672 0.003686 0.000060 0.282747 0.000018 370 0.28272 6.3 771 965 −0.89
    NQC022-1-10 0.098911 0.000872 0.002868 0.000021 0.282767 0.000012 370 0.28275 7.3 723 906 −0.91
    NQC022-1-11 0.090238 0.000438 0.002785 0.000015 0.282766 0.000016 370 0.28275 7.2 723 907 −0.92
    NQC022-1-12 0.119983 0.000770 0.003562 0.000028 0.282790 0.000015 370 0.28277 7.9 702 864 −0.89
    NQC022-1-13 0.113965 0.000512 0.003316 0.000006 0.282766 0.000013 370 0.28274 7.1 733 915 −0.90
    NQC022-1-14 0.084701 0.001645 0.002555 0.000032 0.282731 0.000011 370 0.28271 6.1 770 983 −0.92
    NQC022-1-15 0.108632 0.000480 0.003333 0.000021 0.282676 0.000021 370 0.28265 3.9 869 1118 −0.90
    NQC022-1-16 0.104501 0.000712 0.003021 0.000029 0.282741 0.000012 370 0.28272 6.3 765 968 −0.91
    NQC022-1-17 0.107449 0.001432 0.003214 0.000024 0.282760 0.000014 370 0.28274 6.9 740 927 −0.90
    NQC022-1-18 0.087261 0.000626 0.002681 0.000011 0.282729 0.000016 370 0.28271 6.0 775 989 −0.92
    NQC022-1-19 0.073360 0.001430 0.002150 0.000023 0.282740 0.000013 370 0.28272 6.5 749 957 −0.94
    NQC022-1-20 0.088215 0.000424 0.002697 0.000012 0.282725 0.000017 370 0.282706 5.8 782 999 −0.92
    NQC022-1-21 0.122924 0.001106 0.003478 0.000041 0.282822 0.000018 370 0.282798 9.1 653 792 −0.90
    NQC022-1-22 0.068908 0.000702 0.002339 0.000031 0.282685 0.000023 370 0.282669 4.5 832 1082 −0.93
    NQC022-1-23 0.133672 0.001358 0.003873 0.000049 0.282771 0.000013 370 0.282745 7.2 737 912 −0.88
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-11-02
  • 修回日期:  2024-02-19
  • 录用日期:  2024-03-11
  • 预出版日期:  2024-03-28
  • 刊出日期:  2024-06-28

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