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鄂尔多斯活动地块边界带第四纪晚期构造活动特征及强震孕育机制

郑文俊 孙鑫 雷启云 龚志康 王银 刘兴旺 李传友 冯子鉴

郑文俊, 孙鑫, 雷启云, 等, 2024. 鄂尔多斯活动地块边界带第四纪晚期构造活动特征及强震孕育机制. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 206-224. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023154
引用本文: 郑文俊, 孙鑫, 雷启云, 等, 2024. 鄂尔多斯活动地块边界带第四纪晚期构造活动特征及强震孕育机制. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 206-224. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023154
ZHENG Wenjun, SUN Xin, LEI Qiyun, et al., 2024. Late Quaternary tectonic activity and strong earthquake generation mechanism around the boundary zone of the Ordos active-tectonic block, central China. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 206-224. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023154
Citation: ZHENG Wenjun, SUN Xin, LEI Qiyun, et al., 2024. Late Quaternary tectonic activity and strong earthquake generation mechanism around the boundary zone of the Ordos active-tectonic block, central China. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 206-224. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023154

鄂尔多斯活动地块边界带第四纪晚期构造活动特征及强震孕育机制

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023154
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划专项 2017YFC1500100

国家自然科学基金项目 42174062

详细信息
    作者简介:

    郑文俊(1972—),男,教授,主要从事新构造、活动构造、构造地貌与地震危险性方面研究。Email: zhengwenjun@mail.sysu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P546;P315

Late Quaternary tectonic activity and strong earthquake generation mechanism around the boundary zone of the Ordos active-tectonic block, central China

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2017YFC1500100

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 42174062

  • 摘要: 鄂尔多斯地块是位于中国大陆中心位置的典型活动地块,由于受西南部青藏地块和东部太平洋板块远程作用的影响,地块各边界带构造活动特征和变形具有明显的特殊性和差异性。文章总结了多年来围绕鄂尔多斯活动地块周缘边界带开展的活动断裂定量、地震孕育机制及活动特征等的已有研究结果,对地块周缘断裂活动特征及强震孕育机制进行系统总结。鄂尔多斯活动地块不同边界带断裂第四纪晚期活动特征的不同是强震孕育环境差异的最直接的证据。鄂尔多斯活动地块西边界构造变形样式复杂,受青藏高原向北东挤压扩展的影响,西边界南段断裂以走滑、逆走滑和逆冲为主要特征。而向北到西边界北段,以右旋走滑为主要特征;以青藏高原最新扩展前缘的三关口-牛首山断裂为界,北部的银川盆地表现为典型的断陷盆地,边界断裂有右旋走滑特征,地震活动多以正走滑型为主。北边界的河套盆地以北侧的正断层为其控盆构造,历史和古地震多集中在北侧边界断裂上。南边界的渭河盆地构造特征相对较为复杂,由两组正断层组成,历史大地震多发生在盆地南缘,盆地中北部有中强地震发生。东边界的山西地堑系由多个裂谷型盆地斜列组成,历史大地震表现为南强北弱,北部盆地受张-渤构造带的影响,盆地走向和断层运动性质均发生了明显变化,多具备发生7级左右地震的构造条件。综合认为,断裂活动特征典型的鄂尔多斯活动地块周缘各边界带,未来强震多发生在大地震离逝时间长的地震空区/空段,或是构造带的转换和交汇区。

     

  • 图  1  鄂尔多斯地块及周缘地震构造图(断裂及地震据郑文俊等, 2020, 2022修改)

    F1—狼山山前断裂; F2—色尔滕山山前断裂; F3—乌拉山山前断裂; F4—大青山山前断裂; F5—和林格尔断裂; F6—鄂尔多斯北缘断裂; F7—桌子山西麓断裂; F8—正谊关断裂; F9—巴彦乌拉山山前断裂; F10—贺兰山西麓断裂; F11—贺兰山东麓断裂; F12—黄河断裂; F13—三关口-牛首山断裂; F14—罗山东麓断裂; F15—烟筒山断裂; F16—香山-天景山断裂; F17—海原断裂; F18—六盘山东麓断裂; F19—固关-虢镇断裂; F20—歧山-马召断裂; F21—西秦岭北缘断裂; F22—秦岭北缘断裂; F23—渭河断裂; F24—扶风-三原断裂; F25—口镇-关山断裂; F26—渭南塬前断裂; F27—华山山前断裂; F28—中条山北麓断裂; F29—韩城断裂; F30—罗云山山前断裂; F31—双泉-临猗断裂; F32—峨眉台地北缘断裂; F33—霍山山前断裂; F34—太谷断裂; F35—交城断裂; F36—系舟山北麓断裂; F37—云中山山前断裂; F38—五台山北麓断裂; F39—太白-维山断裂; F40—恒山南麓断裂; F41—恒山北麓断裂; F42—蔚广盆地南缘断裂; F43—口泉断裂; F44—六棱山北麓断裂; F45—阳高-天镇断裂; F46—怀安盆地北缘断裂; F47—张家口断裂; F48—岱海-黄旗海盆地边缘断裂带; F49—集宁盆地北缘断裂; F50—供济堂-商都断裂。图中虚线框标出其他图的范围(图 2a图 4a图 5a)

    Figure  1.  Seismotectonic map of the Ordos active block and its surrounding areas (Faults and earthquakes modified from Zheng et al., 2020, 2022)

    Names of main faults: F1-Langshan frontal fault; F2-Seertengshan frontal fault; F3-Wulashan frontal fault; F4-Daqingshan frontal fault; F5-Helinge fault; F6-Northern margin fault of Ordos; F7-Western piedmont fault of Zhuozishan; F8-Zhengyiguan fault; F9-Bayanwula frontal fault; F10-Western piedmont fault of Helanshan; F11-Eastern piedmont fault of Helanshan; F12-Huanghe fault; F13-Sanguankou-Niushoushan fault; F14-Eastern piedmont fault of Luoshan; F15-Yantoushan fault; F16-Xiangshan-Tianjingshan fault; F17-Haiyuan fault; F18-Eastern piedmont fault of Liupanshan; F19-Guguan-Guozhen fault; F20-Qishan-Mazhao fault; F21- Northern margin fault of Western Qinling Mountains; F22-Northern margin fault of Qinling Mountains; F23-Weihe fault; F24-Fufeng- Sanyuan fault; F25-Kouzhen-Guanshan fault; F26-Weinan fault; F27-Huashan frontal fault; F28-Northern piedmont fault of Zhongtiaoshan; F29-Hancheng fault; F30-Luoyunshan frontal fault; F31-Shuangquan-Linyi fault; F32-Northern margin fault of Emei Platform; F33-Huoshan frontal fault; F34-Taigu fault; F35-Jiaocheng fault; F36-Northern piedmont fault of Xizhoushan; F37-Yunzhongshan frontal fault; F38-Northern piedmont fault of Wutaishan; F39-Taibai-Weishan fault; F40-Southern piedmont fault of Hengshan; F41-Northern piedmont fault of Hengshan; F42-Southern margin fault of Weiguang Basin; F43-Kouquan fault; F44-Northern piedmont fault of Liulengshan; F45-Yanggao-Tianzhen fault; F46-Northern margin fault of Huai′an Basin; F47-Zhangjiakou fault; F48-Margin fault belt of Daihai-Huangqihai Basin; F49-Northern margin fault of Jining Basin; F50-Gongjitang-Shangdu fault. Dashed boxes in the figure outline the scope of other figures (Figures 2a, 4a, and 5a)

    图  2  鄂尔多斯活动地块北缘断裂展布与断裂活动特征

    红色箭头指示断裂经过的位置;T2—T5指示不同期的洪积台地
    F51—磴口-本井断裂; F52—五原-杭锦后旗断裂; F53—乌拉山北缘断裂; F1—F8名称与图 1相同
    a—鄂尔多斯活动地块北缘地貌特征及断裂分布(据邓起东等,1999修改);b—狼山山前断裂基岩断层面; c—沿色尔腾山山前断裂的多级洪积地貌断错; d—乌拉山山前断裂基岩断面及断错地貌特征; e—大青山山前洪积台面地断错

    Figure  2.  Distribution of faults and fault activity characteristics on the northern margin of the Ordos active block

    (a) Geomorphological characteristics and distribution of faults on the northern margin of the Ordos active block (modified from Deng et al., 1999); The fault names in the figure are F1-F8, which are the same as in Fig. 1. Other fault names are as follows: F51-Dengkou-Benjing fault; F52-Wuyuan-Hangjinhouqi fault; F53-Northern margin fault of Wulashan; (b) Bedrock fault plane of the Langshan frontal fault; (c) Multi-stage alluvial geomorphic faulting along the Sertengshan frontal fault; (d) Bedrock fault plane and fault topography of the Wulashan frontal fault; (e)Offset of the alluvial platform of the Daqingshan.
    The red arrows indicate the location of the faults; T2-T5 indicate the alluvial terrace in different periods

    图  3  鄂尔多斯活动地块西北缘正谊关断裂运动特征

    a—断裂沿线不同级冲沟左旋断错(蓝色线标出了水系及流向,红色单侧箭头指示的运动方向,白色数字表示冲沟的左旋位错值); b—冲沟及阶地左旋位错(蓝色线标出了水系及流向,白线虚线标出了阶地边界,红色单侧箭头指示的运动方向,数字表示冲沟或阶地边缘左旋位错值); c—冲沟位错和地貌陡坎(红色箭头标出断裂及陡坎延伸位置,蓝色线标出了水系及流向,数字表示冲沟或阶地边缘左旋位错值); d—断层剖面,显示明显有逆冲特征(箭头标示断层陡坎位置,T2为冲阶沟阶地面)

    Figure  3.  Movement characteristics of the Zhengyiguan fault on the northwestern margin of the Ordos active block

    (a) Sinistral dislocations of gullies of different level along the fault, with blue lines indicating the water system and flow direction, red single-sided arrows indicating the direction of movement, and white numbers indicating the the value of sinistral dislocations; (b) Sinistral dislocations of gullies and terraces, with blue lines indicating the water system and flow direction, white dashed lines indicating the boundaries of the terraces, red single-sided arrows indicating the direction of movement, and numbers indicating the sinistral dislocation values of the gullies or terrace edges; (c) Gully dislocations and fault scarp, with red arrows indicating the extension positions of the fault and scarp, blue lines indicating the water system and flow direction, and numbers indicating the sinistral dislocation values of the gullies or terrace edges; (d) Fault profile showing obvious thrust characteristics, with arrows indicating the location of fault scarp, and T2 represents the gully terrace

    图  4  鄂尔多斯活动地块东缘山西地堑系断层与盆地展布

    红色箭头指示断层位置;单侧红箭头指示断层运动方向
    F54—岱海盆地北缘断裂; F55—阳原盆地北缘断裂; F56—怀安盆地南缘断裂; F57—怀仁断裂; F58—离石断裂; F59—中条山南麓断裂; F60—铁炉子断裂;F27—F50名称同图 1
    a—山西地堑系断裂与盆地展布; b—口泉断裂南段黄土台塬断层貌; c—恒山北麓断裂北东段断层剖面(Q3表示晚更新世沉积,Q4表示全新世沉积);d—峨眉台地北缘断裂断错地貌特征(T1~T3为冲沟阶地); e—中条山北麓断裂盐池一带断错地貌特征

    Figure  4.  Distribution of faults and basins in the Shanxi graben system on the eastern margin of the Ordos active block

    (a) Distribution of faults and basins in the Shanxi graben system (The fault names of F27-F50 are the same as in Fig. 1; F54-Northern margin fault of Daihai Basin; F55-Northern margin fault of Yangyuan Basin; F56-Southern margin fault of Huai' an Basin; F57-Huairen fault; F58-Lishi fault; F59-Southern piedmont fault of Zhongtiaoshan; F60-Tieluzi fault); (b) The fault landforms on the southern segment of the Kouquan fault; (c) Fault profile of the northeastern of the Hengshan northern piedmont fault (Q3 represents Late Pleistocene deposits, Q4 represents Holocene deposits); (d)The geomorphological characteristics of the northern margin fault of the Emei platform (T1-T3 indicate the gully terraces); (e) The tectonic geomorphology of the Yanchi area along the northern piedmont fault of Zhongtiaoshan
    Red arrows indicate the fault locations; single-sided red arrows indicate the direction of fault movement

    图  5  集宁盆地北缘断裂的展布及地貌特征

    a—集宁盆地北缘卫星影像及断裂解译;b—胜利房子断层剖面(红色箭头指示断层面的位置;Q3指示晚更新世沉积;Q4指示全新世沉积);c—集宁机场北断层陡坎及高度(T3—T5指示不同期洪积台地面; 红色箭头指示断陡坎位置,数字表示所在位陡坎高度)

    Figure  5.  Fault distribution and geomorphic characteristics of the northern margin of the Jining basin

    (a) Satellite image features and interpretation of fault distribution on the northern edge of the Jining basin; (b) Fault profile at the Shenglifangzi village (Red arrows indicate the location of the fault plane, Q3 indicates Late Pleistocene sedimentation, and Q4 indicates Holocene sedimentation; (c) Fault scarp with height at the north of the Jining airport (T3-T5 indicate the surfaces of the alluvial platform in different periods, red arrows indicate the locations of fault scarps, and numbers indicate the heights of fault scarps)

    图  6  鄂尔多斯活动地块及周缘构造变形及强震孕震机制模式

    断层及盆地据国家地震局《鄂尔多斯周缘活动断裂系》课题组, 1988郑文俊等, 2020, 2022修改;地块运动及变形方向据Hao et al., 2021Luo et al,2021修改

    Figure  6.  Tectonic deformation and strong earthquake generation mechanism model of the Ordos active-tectonic block and its surrounding areas

    The distribution of faults and basins are modified from RGOSSB, 1988; Zheng et al, 2020; 2022. The movement and deformation direction of the active-tectonic block are modified from Hao et al., 2021 and Luo et al., 2021

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  • 收稿日期:  2023-09-14
  • 修回日期:  2023-12-20
  • 录用日期:  2024-01-04
  • 预出版日期:  2024-01-05
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-28

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