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矿田构造岩相学填图理论及应用

方维萱 郭玉乾 李天成 贾润幸 马振飞

方维萱,郭玉乾,李天成,等,2024. 矿田构造岩相学填图理论及应用[J]. 地质力学学报,30(1):88−106 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023143
引用本文: 方维萱,郭玉乾,李天成,等,2024. 矿田构造岩相学填图理论及应用[J]. 地质力学学报,30(1):88−106 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023143
FANG W X,GUO Y Q,LI T C,et al.,2024. Theoretical innovation and applications of ore-field tectonic lithofacies mapping[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(1):88−106 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023143
Citation: FANG W X,GUO Y Q,LI T C,et al.,2024. Theoretical innovation and applications of ore-field tectonic lithofacies mapping[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(1):88−106 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023143

矿田构造岩相学填图理论及应用

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023143
基金项目: 云南省企业基础研究应用基础研究联合专项(202101BC070001-015);国家公益性行业科研专项(201511016-1);国家科技支撑计划(2006BAB01B09)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    方维萱(1961—),博士,研究员,主要从事造山带与沉积盆地、矿产普查与勘探等研究。Email:569026971@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P553

Theoretical innovation and applications of ore-field tectonic lithofacies mapping

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Joint Project of Applied Basic Research and Enterprise Basic Research in Yunnan Province ( No. 202101BC070001-015) ,the National Scientific Research Project of Public Welfare Industry ( No. 201511016-1) ,the National Sci-Tech Support Plan ( No. 2006BAB01B09).
  • 摘要: 开展成矿蚀变−构造岩相解析建相和建模预测研究已成为矿田构造与找矿预测的创新方向之一。文章对国内外8类重要的成矿蚀变−构造岩相模型和形成机制进行论述总结,南美洲智利科皮亚波地区IOCG型矿田受到主岛弧带−弧相关盆地及岩浆叠加−盆地变形样式的复合控制,而中国云南东川沉积岩型铜矿床(SSC型)+IOCG型铁铜矿田受陆缘裂谷盆地、盆地变形构造样式和岩浆叠加侵入构造系统的复合控制。中国内蒙古甲−查浅成低温热液型银铅锌矿田受火山洼地、火山穹隆构造、火山岩岩相类型和火山热液隐爆角砾岩的复合控制,而深成岩浆弧控制了蒙古国南戈壁斑岩型金铜钼−浅成低温热液金银矿田;中国秦岭热水沉积型(SEDEX)银铜铅锌−菱铁矿−重晶石矿田受到陆缘拉分盆地内三级热水沉积盆地、同生断裂带和热水沉积岩相的控制。大陆造山带内不同层次的脆韧性剪切带,控制了金矿田和金钼多金属矿田定位。在新疆塔西盆−山−原镶嵌区盆地系统内,侏罗系煤系烃矿源岩是金属矿田和天然气气田的成矿成藏物质供给源区;乌拉根砂砾岩型天青石−铅锌矿田受到山前挤压—伸展转换盆地、气成热流柱构造和山前冲断褶皱带的复合控制;萨热克铜多金属矿田赋存于旱地扇杂砾岩,受到对冲式厚皮型逆冲推覆断裂带和幔源热流柱带的复合控制。其中在矿集区−矿田尺度上,电气石热流柱构造、岩浆气囊构造、复合岩溶构造岩相等是成矿蚀变−构造岩相的3种新类型;在归纳前期对矿田构造岩相、矿田构造古地理单元和典型矿田构造岩相形成机制研究基础上,文章提出了矿田成矿蚀变−构造岩相类型的新划分方法和划分原则方案,并划分确定了12种变形构造岩相类型。研究成果为矿田构造研究和找矿预测提供了新理论和新方法支撑。

     

  • 图  1  汤丹铜矿床(SSC型)4号构造岩相学实测纵剖面

    1—震旦系陡山沱组;2—中元古界东川群落雪组二段;3—中元古界东川群落雪组一段; 4—中元古界东川群因民组三段;5—古元古界汤丹岩群平顶山组;6—铁质板岩;7—白云岩; 8—泥粉砂质板岩;9—碱性铁质辉绿辉长岩枝(墙);10—铜矿体(SSC型铜矿床);11—低品位铜矿体; 12—推测铜矿体;13—地质界线; 14—推测地质界线;15—断层;16—推测断层; 17—地质产状;18—中段标高和海拔高度

    Figure  1.  Measured No.4 longitudinal profiles of tectonic lithofacies in the Tangdan copper deposits (SSC-type)

    1−Sinian Doushantuo Formation; 2−the Second of member at Luoxue Formation of Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group; 3−the first member at Luoxue Formation of Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group; 4−the three member at Yinming Formation of Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group; 5−Pingdingshan Formation of Palaeoproterozoic Tangdan Rock Group; 6−irony slate; 7−dolomite; 8−argillaceous-silty slate; 9−alkaline Fe-rich diabase-gabbro apophyse or dike; 10−copper orebody(SSC-type copper deposit);11−copper orebody with low-grades; 12−presumed copper orebody;13−geological line; 14−presumable geological line;15−faults; 16−presumed faults; 17−geological occurrence; 18−adit level and above the sea level

    图  2  白锡腊−中老龙IOCG型和SSC型铜矿床实测构造岩相学纵剖面

    1—中元古界东川群落雪组二段;2—中元古界东川群落雪组一段;3—中元古界东川群因民组三段;4—碱性铁质辉绿辉长岩枝;5—热液角砾岩相;6—铜矿体(SSC型铜矿床);7—低品位铜矿体;8—铁铜矿体(IOCG型铁铜矿床);9—地质界线;10. —推测地质界线;11—断层;12—穿脉垂直投影面;13—坑内钻孔及编号;14—中段标高和海拔高度;15—地质产状

    Figure  2.  Measured longitudinal profiles of tectonic lithofacies for IOCG-type and SSC-type copper deposits from Baixila to Zhonglaolong

    1−the second of member of the Luoxue Formation of the Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group; 2−the first member of the Luoxue Formation of the Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group; 3−the third member of the Yinming Formation of the Mesoproterozoic Dongchuan Group; 4−alkaline Fe-rich diabase-gabbro apophyse; 5−hydrothermal breccia facies; 6−copper orebody (SSC-type copper deposit); 7−low-grade copper orebody; 8−Fe-Cu orebody (IOCG-type deposit); 9−geological boundary; 10−inferred geological boundary; 11−fault; 12−transverse drift (vertical projection); 13−adit-in drillhole and its number; 14−adit elevation and altitude

    图  3  甲查银多金属矿田火山机构与矿田构造岩相图

    a—甲乌拉−查干银多金属矿田构造岩相图;b—e、h—j为甲乌拉银多金属矿床;f—g为查干银多金属矿床;b—540 m中段铅锌硫化物充填交代脉与边部菱沸石−铁绿泥石相;c—580 m中段石膏−蒙脱石−钾伊利石相;d—580 m中段伊蒙混层−伊利石相;e—475 m中段细脉状和微脉状闪锌矿方铅矿硫化物充填在伊利石热液角砾岩相中。 f—怡圣园西端18号矿体300 m中段216勘探线主巷道掌子面富银菱锰矿铁锰碳酸盐热液角砾岩相;g—怡圣园西端18号矿体300 m中段216勘探线主巷道掌子面富银菱锰矿铁锰碳酸盐热液角砾岩相;h—200 m中段5′—7′线含闪锌矿方铅矿马牙状石英脉;i—伟晶状方铅矿结晶核相;j—200 m中段5′—7′线2号矿体巨晶状方铅矿结晶核相的外缘中心相(具有海绵陨铁结构的铁闪锌矿−磁黄铁矿−黄铜矿矿石,磁化率151~114×10−3SI)

    Figure  3.  Mapping of volcanic edifice and ore-field tectonic lithofacies in the Jia–Cha Ag-polymetallic orefield

    (a) Tectonic lithofacies map of the Jiawula–Chagan Ag-polymetallic orefield; Fig.3b to 3e and 3h to 3i are photos from the Jiawula Ag-polymetallic deposit and Fig.3f to 3g are photos from the Chagan Ag-polymetallic deposit; (b) Chabasite-daphnite facies along both sides of the filling−replacement veins of Pb-Zn-sulfides at 540 m level; (c) Gypsum-semctite-K-illite facies at 580 m level; (d) Facies of illite-smectite formation and illite at 580 m level; (e) Fine-veined and microveined sphalerite-galena sulfides veins filling in lithofacies of illite hydrothermal breccia at 475 m level; (f) Fe-Mn-carbonate hydrothermal breccia lithofacies of Ag-rich rhodochrosite from No.18 orebody in the 216 exploration line at the tunnel face of 300 m level; (g) Fe-Mn-carbonate hydrothermal breccia lithofacies of Ag-rich rhodochrosite from No.18 orebody in the 216 exploration line at the tunnel face of 300 m level; (h) Sphalerite-galena sulfides quartz veins in horse-teeth-shape in the 5′–7′ exploration line at 200 m level; (i) Crystalline nuclear lithofacies of pegmatitic galena in the 5′–7′ exploration line at 200 m level; (j) Marmatite-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite ores in sideronitic texture around crystalline nuclear lithofacies of pegmatitic galena in the 5′–7′ exploration line at 200 m level; magnetic susceptibility is from 151×10−3 to 114×10−3SI

    图  4  个旧老厂矿田电气石热流柱构造与实测构造岩相学剖面图

    Figure  4.  Measured profiles of tectonic lithofacies of tourmaline plume tectonics in the Laochang orefield, Gejiu

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-07-25
  • 修回日期:  2023-10-18
  • 录用日期:  2023-11-02
  • 预出版日期:  2024-02-19
  • 刊出日期:  2024-02-28

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