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新生代晚期挤压作用下活动背斜区的构造变形特征及其地震地质灾害效应

杨晓平 陈杰 李安 黄伟亮 张玲 杨海波 胡宗凯 左玉琦

杨晓平, 陈杰, 李安, 等, 2024. 新生代晚期挤压作用下活动背斜区的构造变形特征及其地震地质灾害效应. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 225-241. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023136
引用本文: 杨晓平, 陈杰, 李安, 等, 2024. 新生代晚期挤压作用下活动背斜区的构造变形特征及其地震地质灾害效应. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 225-241. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023136
YANG Xiaoping, CHEN Jie, LI An, et al., 2024. Structural deformation characteristics of active anticline and their implications for seismogeological disaster effect under compression setting in the Late Cenozoic. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 225-241. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023136
Citation: YANG Xiaoping, CHEN Jie, LI An, et al., 2024. Structural deformation characteristics of active anticline and their implications for seismogeological disaster effect under compression setting in the Late Cenozoic. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 225-241. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023136

新生代晚期挤压作用下活动背斜区的构造变形特征及其地震地质灾害效应

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023136
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金面上项目 42072249

国家自然科学基金面上项目 41772221

国家自然科学基金面上项目 40572126

第二次青藏高原综合科学考察 2019QZKK0901

中国地震局地质研究所基本科研业务专项 IGGEA1704

地震行业科研专项 200808013

详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨晓平(1963—),男,博士,研究员,主要从事活动构造、构造地貌与地震地质灾害理论和应用研究。Email: yangxiaoping-1@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P542; P315

Structural deformation characteristics of active anticline and their implications for seismogeological disaster effect under compression setting in the Late Cenozoic

Funds: 

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 42072249

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41772221

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 40572126

the Second Comprehensive Scientific Investigation on the Tibet Plateau 2019QZKK0901

the Special Project of Basic Scientific Research of Institute of Geology, China Earthquake Administration IGGEA1704

the Special Project on Scientific Research of Earthquake Industry 200808013

  • 摘要: 活动背斜是第四纪晚期以来在活动挤压构造区域内吸收地壳缩短变形的主要地质构造之一,其是在挤压背景下形成的一个复杂的构造系统,由多种活动构造变形组成。发生在挤压构造区的大地震可以使褶皱相关断层、褶皱陡坎、翼部地形倾斜和地质体缩短等发生同震破裂或地面倾斜,进而引发严重的地震地质灾害,从理论研究和工程抗震两方面均需重视。因此,文章立足现有的逆断层相关褶皱、褶皱侧向扩展等理论,通过典型的主逆冲断层、反冲断层、弯矩断层、弯滑断层、共轭剪切断层和褶皱陡坎等实例,探讨了与褶皱相关的同震活动构造变形对建筑物的影响和破坏作用。研究认为,在强震导致的活动背斜地壳缩短、垂向隆升和侧向扩展过程中,背斜两翼和倾伏端的地面掀斜对重大工程建筑的安全运行构成威胁;同时,区域地壳缩短引发的弯曲变形给跨越活动背斜的重大线状工程造成的潜在地震危险和诱发的地质灾害值得关注。

     

  • 图  1  弯滑断层与弯矩断层模型(Yeats,1986Burbank and Anderson, 2011)

    a—弯滑断层形成模式图;b—弯矩断层形成模式图

    Figure  1.  Models of flexural-slip fault and flexural fault (Yeats, 1986; Burbank and Anderson, 2011)

    (a) Formation pattern diagram of flexural-slip fault; (b) Formation pattern diagram of flexural fault

    图  2  膝折带迁移作用生成的活动褶皱陡坎几何学模型(Li et al., 2015a)

    H—褶皱陡坎高度;Φ—褶皱陡坎坡度;θ1θ2—断层倾角;S—断层滑动增量;abcd—轴面初始位置;a′、b′、c′、d′—轴面迁移后位置

    Figure  2.  Geometric model of active fold scarp generated by the migration of a kink band (Li et al., 2015a)

    H-Height of fold scarp; Φ-Slope of fold scarp; θ1, θ2-Fault dip angles; S-Fault slip increment; a, b, c, d-Initial positions of axial planes; a′, b′, c′, d′-Positions after migration

    图  3  活动背斜的隆升和侧向扩展示意图(据Ramsey et al., 2008修改)

    Figure  3.  Uplift and lateral propagation of active anticlines (modified after Ramsey et al., 2008)

    图  4  塔里木盆地及周边地区活动褶皱分布图

    DF—博罗可努-阿其克库都可断裂;TFF—塔拉斯-费尔干纳断裂;AFT—阿尔金断裂;KLF—昆仑断裂;RRF—红河断裂;MFT—喜马拉雅主前缘断裂;Tianshan—天山;Qilian—祁连山;Tarrim—塔里木盆地;Tibet—青藏高原;Himalaya—喜马拉雅山;India—印度高原

    Figure  4.  Sketch map of active folds in and around the Tarim Basin

    DF-Bolokenu-Aqikekuduk fault; TFF-Talas-Fergana fault; AFT-Altyn fault; KLF-Kunlun fault; RRF-Honghe fault; MFT-Himalaya main frontal fault

    图  5  哈尔莫敦背斜区的活动断裂分布特征

    a—和静活动背斜中段影像图(引自谷歌地球2010年11月10日影像;黑色线段及字母表示实测地形剖面图 6位置及编号);b—建设在反冲活动断层带上的光伏电站(引自谷歌地球2016年10月15日影像);c—和静背斜区的断层分布图(Huang et al., 2014黄伟亮,2015);d—横跨和静背斜实测地质剖面图(Huang et al., 2014)

    Figure  5.  Distribution map of active faults in the Halmoton Anticline area

    (a) Image of the middle section of the Hejing active anticline (taken from Google Earth imagery on November 10, 2010; black lines and letters indicate the location and numbering of measured topographic profile 6); (b) Photovoltaic power station constructed on the reverse fault zone (taken from Google Earth imagery on October 15, 2016); (c) Fault distribution map of the Hejing anticline area (Huang et al., 2014; Huang, 2015); (d) Measured geological cross-section across the Hejing anticline (Huang et al., 2014)

    图  6  哈尔莫敦背斜区的断层陡坎实测地形剖面(剖面位置见图 5a李安,2010)

    Figure  6.  Measured topographic profile of fault scarps in the Halmodon anticline area (profile location is shown in Fig. 5a; Li, 2010)

    图  7  明尧勒背斜南翼河流阶地与褶皱陡坎分布特征(39°30′41.9″N,75°19′33.6″E;李涛等,2014)

    a、b—Google Earth影像及其地质地貌图;c、d—T3b阶地上褶皱陡坎照片;e—T3b阶地上弯滑断层陡坎照片;f—T3b阶地上弯滑断层陡坎实测地形剖面(度数为阶地面坡度);g—T2阶地上褶皱陡坎实测地形地质剖面;h—T3b阶地上褶皱陡坎实测地形地质剖面(度数为褶皱陡坎坡度,紫线带圆点代表测量地层产状的位置,线条的倾斜程度为地层倾角大小,黄色和白色条带表示地层)

    Figure  7.  Distribution characteristics of river terraces and fold scarps on the southern flank of the Mingyaole anticline (39°30′41.9″N, 75°19′33.6″E; Li et al., 2014)

    (a, b) Google Earth images and geological geomorphological maps; (c, d) Photos of the flexural-slip fault on the T3b terrace; (e) Measured topographic profile of the flexural-slip on the T3b terrace (degree represents the slope of the terrace surface); (f) Photo of the fold scarp on the T3b terrace; (g) Measured geological profile of the fold scarp on the T2 terrace; (h) Measured geological profile of the fold scarp on the T3b terrace (degree represents the slope of the fold scarp, purple dotted lines represent the measurement positions of bedding attitudes, the slope of the lines indicates the dip angle of the beds, yellow and white bands represent bedding)

    图  8  活动背斜区的共轭剪切断层

    a—麻扎塔格褶皱带中的左旋走滑断层和右旋走滑断层(38°33′41.4″N,80°41′13.5″E);b—明尧勒背斜区的左旋走滑断层(39°31′57.9″N,75°26′13.8″E);c—基岩山脊的左旋错动;d、e—喀浪勾勒河阶地上的断层陡坎和微地貌左旋错动;f—背斜内部共轭剪切断层模型(S、D和C分别表示志留纪、泥盆纪和石炭纪地层,σ1—最大主应力)

    Figure  8.  Conjugate shear faults in the active anticline area

    (a) Left-lateral strike-slip fault and right-lateral strike-slip fault in the Mazatag fold zone (38°33′41.4″N, 80°41′13.5″E); (b) Left-lateral strike-slip fault in the Menyaole anticline area (39°31′57.9″N, 75°26′13.8″E); (c) Left-lateral faulting on the bedrock ridge; (d, e) Fault scarps and microtopographic left-lateral faulting on the Kalanggoule river terrace; (f) Model of conjugate shear faults within the anticline (S, D, and C represent Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous strata, respectively, σ1 is the maximum principal stress)

    图  9  活动背斜生长演化与地震地质灾害效应示意图

    A—H—建筑物;DF—滑脱断层;RF—逆断层:RFS—逆断层陡坎;CF—剪切断层;BRF—反冲逆断层;FMF—弯矩断层;FSF—弯滑断层;FOS—褶皱陡坎;△S1、△S2—地震事件中滑脱断层上的位移量;粉色区表示褶皱陡坎;紫色区表示断层陡坎;灰色、白色条带表示地层;
    黑色点线表示初始轴面;绿色点线表示迁移后的轴面
    此图仅用来说明挤压背景下活动背斜同震生长变形过程中形成的地质灾害,并不代表活动背斜区褶皱相关断层、褶皱陡坎的类型和形成顺序,同样也不代表主逆断层(RF)断错至地表的顺序

    Figure  9.  Schematic illustration of the growth and evolution of active anticlines and their seismic geological disaster effects

    A-H-buildings; DF-detachment fault; RF-reverse fault; RFS-reverse fault scarp; CF-shear fault; BRF-back reverse fault; FMF-flexural fault; FSF-Flexural-slip fault; FOS-fold scarp; △S1, △S2-displacement on detachment faults during seismic events; Pink area represents fold-related scarps, purple area represents fault scarps, gray and white bands represent strata, black dotted lines represent initial axial planes, and green dotted lines represent migrated axial planes.
    This figure is intended solely to illustrate the geological disasters formed during the co-seismic growth deformation process of active anticlines under compression, and does not represent the types and formation sequence of fold-related faults and fold-related scarps in the active anticline area, nor does it represent the sequence of the main reverse faults (RF) faulting to the surface.

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-01
  • 修回日期:  2023-10-08
  • 录用日期:  2024-01-22
  • 预出版日期:  2024-04-09
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-28

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