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基岩地质差异对活动断层地表几何形态的控制作用——以祁连山北缘佛洞庙-红崖子断层为例

杨勇忠 李占飞 任俊杰 徐锡伟 李康 程佳 康文君

杨勇忠, 李占飞, 任俊杰, 等, 2024. 基岩地质差异对活动断层地表几何形态的控制作用——以祁连山北缘佛洞庙-红崖子断层为例. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 348-362. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023129
引用本文: 杨勇忠, 李占飞, 任俊杰, 等, 2024. 基岩地质差异对活动断层地表几何形态的控制作用——以祁连山北缘佛洞庙-红崖子断层为例. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 348-362. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023129
YANG Yongzhong, LI Zhanfei, REN Junjie, et al., 2024. Control of bedrock geology on active structural deformation revealed by changes in geomorphic parameters: A case study of the Fodongmiao-Hongyazi Frontal Thrust, NE Tibet. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 348-362. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023129
Citation: YANG Yongzhong, LI Zhanfei, REN Junjie, et al., 2024. Control of bedrock geology on active structural deformation revealed by changes in geomorphic parameters: A case study of the Fodongmiao-Hongyazi Frontal Thrust, NE Tibet. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 348-362. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023129

基岩地质差异对活动断层地表几何形态的控制作用——以祁连山北缘佛洞庙-红崖子断层为例

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023129
基金项目: 

应急管理部国家自然灾害防治研究院基本科研业务专项 ZDJ2022-01

国家自然科学基金项目 U1839204

国家自然科学基金项目 41941016

中国科学院重点部署项目 KFZD-SW-422

详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨勇忠(1999—),男,在读硕士,主要从事自然灾害基础科学研究。Email: 1450844547@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    李占飞(1989—),男,助理研究员,主要从事自然灾害风险评估研究。Email: 876657683@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P315.2

Control of bedrock geology on active structural deformation revealed by changes in geomorphic parameters: A case study of the Fodongmiao-Hongyazi Frontal Thrust, NE Tibet

Funds: 

the Research Fund of National Institute of Natural Hazards, Ministry of Emergency Management of China ZDJ2022-01

the National Natural Science Foundation of China U1839204

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41941016

the Key Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences KFZD-SW-422

  • 摘要: 全球广泛分布的活动断层是孕育地表破裂型强震的天然载体,地球科学观测揭示活动断层的先存几何结构对地震地表破裂的发育演化具有很强的控制作用。目前针对活动断层地表构造变形特征与基岩地质背景关系的研究较少且仅局限于高温高压岩石力学实验尺度,缺乏数百千米尺度天然活动断层结构特征的直接参考,尤其是关于活动逆冲断层的研究相对更少。不断发展的高精度对地观测技术和活动构造定量研究方法能够更加精细地刻画活动断层大尺度几何结构,清晰揭示断层多参数错断地貌特征,深化断层活动行为的定量研究。利用青藏高原东北缘佛洞庙-红崖子逆冲断层上长约120 km的高精度地形数据(分辨率为0.5 m),系统分析了该断层浅表错断地貌参数特征,并将其与基岩地质背景进行综合对比。研究结果揭示出断层上断错地貌参数显著变化区与断层上盘沿走向的基岩地质界限、断层分段位置以及垂直位移显著衰减区明显对应。对比断层东段和西段,佛洞庙-红崖子断层中段志留系花岗岩发育区几何结构更加粗糙且浅表变形带宽度更大,断层阶跃宽度分布沿断层的变化也更为剧烈。研究结果进一步提示基岩地质背景对逆冲断层的浅表构造变形具有很强的控制作用,在活动断层地震危险性分析中也需要关注基础地质背景可能带来的影响。

     

  • 图  1  佛洞庙-红崖子断层及其周缘基础地质图(据Zuza et al., 2016修改;断层迹线数据源自基于高精度地形数据的解译和野外地质调查)

    a—印度板块和欧亚板块构造运动示意图;b—研究区地质图

    Figure  1.  Geological map of the Fodongmiao-Hongyazi Thrust and its surrounding area (modified from Zuza et al., 2016; Fault trace data derived from interpretation based on high-precision (0.5 m) DEM data and field geological surveys)

    (a) Schematic diagram of tectonic movements of the Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate; (b) Geological map of the study area

    图  2  佛洞庙-红崖子断层自西向东沿线高精度地形数据以及断层迹线的解译(位置见图 1)

    Figure  2.  The high-resolution (0.5 m) DEM data covering the Fodongmiao-Hongyazi thrust showed in hill-shaded pattern and the interpreted fault geometry (the location of these segments of data is indicated in Fig. 1)

    图  3  断错地貌参数分析基本原理图

    a—断层几何形态分析的基本参数;b—节点分析中采用的2种重新采样方法;c—断层走向变化计算的基本原理;d—断层粗糙程度计算的基本原理;e—断层变形宽度的基本计算原理

    Figure  3.  Cartoon showing the basic principle of deformed geomorphic parameters

    (a) Basic parameters for geometric analysis of faults; (b) Two resampling methods used in node analysis; (c) Basic principles for calculating fault strike changes; (d) Basic principles for calculating fault roughness; (e) Basic principles for calculating fault deformation width

    图  4  断层错断地貌参数分析结果

    W—标准化断层距离;x—沿断层方向距离;y—跨断层方向距离;m—中值梯度;n—断层节点数
    a—断层迹线分布;b—断层走向变化;c—断层粗糙度分布;d—断层变形带宽度变化

    Figure  4.  Analysis results of faulted landform parameters

    (a) Distribution of fault traces; (b) Changes in fault strike; (c) Distribution of fault roughness; (d) Variation in fault deformation zone width
    W-Normalized fault distance; x-Distance along the fault direction; y-Distance across the fault direction; m-Median gradient; n-Number of fault nodes

    图  5  利用3D fault offsets方法测量垂直位错

    a—在高精度数据上对断层位置和测量多边形的选择(背景为山影图);b—基于9个参数对最佳垂直位错的拟合

    Figure  5.  Measurement of vertical fault offset using 3D fault offsets method

    (a) Selection of fault location and measurement polygons on high-precision data (background: hillshade map); (b) Fitting of the optimal vertical fault offset based on nine parameters

    图  6  不同宽度的断层阶跃数量统计

    Figure  6.  Statistical analysis of the amounts of fault steps with different widths

    图  7  垂直位错沿断层分布特征

    a—断层迹线分布;b—垂直位错沿断层分布(注意位错沿断层走向在不同段落末端两侧的显著线性衰减)

    Figure  7.  Vertical offset distribution along the FFT thrust

    (a) Distribution of fault traces; (b) Distribution of vertical offsets along the thrust (The significant linear attenuation of offsets along the thrust strike on both sides at different segments'ends)

    图  8  基岩地质背景与断层分段以及浅表断错地貌参数变化分界的对应性

    a—佛洞庙-红崖子断层沿线断错地貌分布(背景为谷歌卫星影像;绿色圆点代表断层分段、断错地貌参数显著变化、垂直位错衰减界线);b—断层东段典型断层陡坎地貌;c—断层中段断层陡坎及基岩分布;d—断层西段断层陡坎及基岩分布

    Figure  8.  Correspondence between bedrock geology background, fault segmentation, and boundaries of shallow faulted landform parameter changes

    (a) Distribution of faulted landforms along the FFT thrust (background image from Google satellite imagery; green dots represent segments of the fault, significant changes in faulted landform parameters, and boundaries of vertical offset attenuation); (b) Typical fault scarp landform in the eastern section of the fault; (c) Fault scarp and bedrock distribution in the middle section of the fault; (d) Fault scarp and bedrock distribution in the western section of the fault

    表  1  佛洞庙-红崖子断层垂直位错测量结果(Li et al., 2021)

    Table  1.   Measurement results of vertical fault offsets for the FFT thrust (Li et al., 2021)

    编号 位置 地貌单元 位错/m 误差/m 沿断层距离/km 编号 位置 地貌单元 位错/m 误差/m 沿断层距离/km
    52 39°31′6.400″N,98°25′15.231″E Q1 2.1 0.2 1.6 S10 39°20′3.711″N,98°57′49.278″E Q1 2.0 0.1 58.4
    51 39°31′6.579″N,98°25′16.466″E Q1 1.2 0.1 1.6 191 39°24′55.72″N,98°42′19.439″E Q1 0.9 0.1 30.3
    53 39°31′6.654″N,98°25′17.331″E Q1 1.5 0.1 1.6 T11 39°16′1.451″N,99°4′21.306″E Q1 2.2 0.2 72.7
    61 39°31′6.610″N,98°25′24.167″E Q1 2.6 0.2 1.8 T07 39°23′48.478″N,98°45′42.885″E Q1 1.5 0.1 35.6
    70 39°30′59.624″N,98°25′47.418″E Q1 1.6 0.1 2.3 358 39°13′27.416″N,99°8′1.821″E Q1 1.9 0.1 80.8
    69 39°31′2.293″N,98°26′1.329″E Q1 1.0 0.2 2.7 359 39°13′25.811″N,99°8′3.041″E Q1 1.2 0.1 80.8
    401 39°31′3.522″N,98°26′8.152″E Q1 1.3 0.1 2.8 380 39°11′52.574″N,99°9′27.564″E Q1 1.1 0.1 84.3
    75 39°31′3.909″N,98°26′10.210″E Q1 1.1 0.1 2.9 381 39°11′51.966″N,99°9′28.033″E Q1 2.0 0.1 84.3
    74 39°31′3.966″N,98°26′10.995″E Q1 1.2 0.1 2.9 387 39°11′14.031″N,99°10′14.180″E Q1 1.1 0.1 85.9
    73 39°31′4.008″N,98°26′11.854″E Q1 1.1 0.1 2.9 388 39°11′11.761″N,99°10′16.324″E Q1 2.5 0.3 86.1
    77 39°31′3.896″N,98°26′12.833″E Q1 1.1 0.1 3.0 389 39°11′8.890″N,99°10′19.493″E Q1 2.0 0.2 86.1
    76 39°31′3.743″N,98°26′13.473″E Q1 1.5 0.1 3.0 FD-4 39°13′7.179″N,99°10′31.183″E Q1 1.1 0.1 90.1
    78 39°31′2.797″N,98°26′15.857″E Q1 2.9 0.2 3.0 FD-5 39°13′7.081″N,99°10′47.249″E Q1 1.5 0.1 90.5
    79 39°31′2.154″N,98°26′16.865″E Q1 2.8 0.2 3.1 FD-6 39°13′9.001″N,99°11′3.138″E Q1 1.7 0.1 91.0
    89 39°30′49.016″N,98°26′38.174″E Q1 2.5 0.2 3.8 FD-12 39°13′11.919″N,99°11′34.461″E Q1 1.6 0.2 91.7
    95 39°30′30.237″N,98°27′43.896″E Q1 1.3 0.1 5.4 FD-11 39°13′12.715″N,99°11′41.579″E Q1 1.3 0.1 91.9
    402 39°30′27.655″N,98°28′4.057″E Q1 1.4 0.1 5.9 FD-29 39°11′1.708″N,99°14′56.572″E Q1 1.4 0.1 100.0
    106 39°30′26.815″N,98°28′8.652″E Q1 0.8 0.1 6.0 FD-31 39°11′0.871″N,99°14′56.348″E Q1 1.7 0.1 100.0
    107 39°30′26.248″N,98°28′9.930″E Q1 1.3 0.1 6.1 FD-49 39°8′40.218″N,99°15′47.224″E Q1 1.7 0.1 104.3
    137 39°29′12.353″N,98°30′21.917″E Q1 0.6 0.0 10.0 FD-50 39°8′36.554″N,99°15′46.859″E Q1 2.3 0.3 104.5
    136 39°29′11.633″N,98°30′22.922″E Q1 1.9 0.1 10.2 344 39°14′13.595″N,99°7′15.261″E Q2 2.8 0.1 78.6
    152 39°26′25.165″N,98°37′29.506″E Q1 0.9 0.1 21.3 FD-96 39°13′5.994″N,99°9′38.417″E Q2 0.6 0.3 89.0
    157 39°26′8.703″N,98°39′50.538″E Q1 2.5 0.1 24.7 FD-1 39°13′4.508″N,99°9′46.262″E Q2 1.0 0.1 89.2
    S19 39°30′41.422″N,98°27′6.333″E Q1 1.8 0.1 4.5 FD-0 39°13′4.093″N,99°9′48.952″E Q2 0.6 0.0 89.2
    167 39°25′55.230″N,98°41′31.717″E Q1 2.0 0.1 27.4 FD-3 39°13′3.250″N,99°9′53.761″E Q2 1.0 0.1 89.4
    168 39°25′54.929″N,98°41′33.039″E Q1 1.4 0.1 27.5 FD-40 39°9′43.974″N,99°15′28.878″E Q2 1.8 0.2 102.4
    169 39°25′54.255″N,98°41′34.163″E Q1 1.0 0.1 27.5 FD-41 39°9′46.209″N,99°15′26.700″E Q2 2.0 0.2 102.4
    247 39°20′6.106″N,98°54′30.186″E Q1 3.0 0.3 53.3 FD-39 39°9′41.926″N,99°15′30.080″E Q2 1.9 0.2 102.6
    248 39°20′5.966″N,98°54′36.697″E Q1 2.4 0.3 53.5 FD-68 39°5′9.240″N,99°20′23.640″E Q2 0.7 0.1 114.5
    250 39°20′5.623″N,98°54′41.229″E Q1 2.7 0.1 53.6 FD-69 39°5′6.773″N,99°20′31.440″E Q2 0.9 0.1 114.8
    255 39°20′4.501″N,98°57′53.613″E Q1 1.9 0.1 58.5 FD-62 39°6′4.116″N,99°19′3.899″E Q3 1.8 0.1 112.1
    271 39°19′12.727″N,98°59′14.263″E Q1 2.5 0.5 61.8 FD-73 39°4′40.353″N,99°21′23.369″E Q3 1.3 0.2 115.9
    270 39°19′13.440″N,98°59′15.000″E Q1 2.1 0.3 61.8 FD-74 39°4′40.057″N,99°21′27.551″E Q3 1.2 0.1 116.1
    272 39°19′14.662″N,98°59′17.181″E Q1 2.9 0.2 61.9 FD-83 39°4′9.619″N,99°22′0.124″E Q3 0.9 0.1 117.3
    293 39°17′6.408″N,99°2′57.950″E Q1 2.5 0.3 69.1 FD-90 39°4′10.223″N,99°22′16.336″E Q3 1.8 0.1 117.9
    292 39°17′6.334″N,99°2′59.229″E Q1 1.7 0.1 69.2 FD-92 39°4′9.120″N,99°22′17.760″E Q3 2.8 0.3 118.0
    302 39°16′59.760″N,99°3′7.925″E Q1 2.2 0.3 69.6 FD-93 39°4′8.827″N,99°22′18.695″E Q3 1.9 0.1 118.1
    313 39°16′0.243″N,99°4′17.027″E Q1 1.6 0.5 72.7 201 39°28′29.930″N,98°31′57.209″E T1 1.9 0.1 12.6
    330 39°14′37.583″N,99°5′54.579″E Q1 1.2 0.1 76.7 156 39°26′15.273″N,98°38′50.902″E T1 2.0 0.2 23.5
    336 39°14′16.589″N,99°6′20.801″E Q1 2.4 0.2 77.5 202 39°28′29.838″N,98°31′57.840″E T1 1.8 0.1 12.6
    337 39°14′16.553″N,99°6′21.925″E Q1 1.6 0.2 77.5 S4 39°21′18.407″N,98°49′2.971″E T1 1.7 0.1 43.8
    348 39°13′54.561″N,99°7′29.624″E Q1 1.4 0.1 79.3 158 39°25′52.838″N,98°41′16.634″E T1 1.3 0.1 27.1
    S21 39°21′48.422″N,98°47′30.257″E Q1 1.1 0.1 40.6 338 39°14′16.595″N,99°6′23.446″E T1 1.6 0.1 77.7
    S23 39°20′3.577″N,98°54′18.734″E Q1 1.3 0.1 53.1 T03 39°23′39.742″N,98°44′27.684″E T1 0.9 0.1 33.7
    S24 39°18′26.351″N,99°1′9.873″E Q1 1.9 0.4 65.3 T04 39°23′40.686″N,98°44′29.295″E T1 1.3 0.2 33.7
    S25 39°17′58.308″N,99°0′56.699″E Q1 1.5 0.2 66.1 S15 39°32′54.410″N,98°23′45.904″E T3 1.7 0.1 -2.9
    S0 39°25′44.639″N,98°41′59.328″E Q1 1.6 0.1 28.2 S16 39°32′51.425″N,98°23′51.211″E T3 1.7 0.1 -2.7
    S1 39°24′41.663″N,98°42′25.855″E Q1 2.2 0.1 30.8 S17 39°32′48.633″N,98°23′54.546″E T3 1.8 0.1 -2.6
    S3 39°22′53.807″N,98°46′20.936″E Q1 1.4 0.1 37.7 S18 39°32′46.197″N,98°23′57.462″E T3 1.5 0.1 -2.5
    S5 39°21′9.426″N,98°50′40.849″E Q1 2.1 0.2 46.4 S12 39°32′54.357″N,98°23′31.462″E T4 1.9 0.1 -3.2
    S6 39°21′18.984″N,98°51′18.382″E Q1 1.6 0.1 47.4 S13 39°32′54.385″N,98°23′39.885″E T4 1.9 0.1 -3.0
    S7 39°20′8.964″N,98°55′18.838″E Q1 1.7 0.1 54.7 S14 39°32′54.630″N,98°23′35.608″E T4 1.5 0.1 -3.1
    S8 39°20′2.760″N,98°57′44.640″E Q1 1.6 0.1 58.3 FD-15 39°13′12.352″N,99°12′19.827″E T4 1.3 0.1 92.8
    S9 39°20′4.348″N,98°57′52.596″E Q1 1.5 0.1 58.5 FD-18 39°13′8.358″N,99°12′50.389″E T4 1.6 0.2 93.5
    注:T1—第一级河流阶地;Q1—第一级洪积扇;T2—第二级河流阶地;Q2—第二级洪积扇;Q3—第三级洪积扇
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-01
  • 修回日期:  2024-01-15
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  • 预出版日期:  2024-04-09
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