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祁连山内部门源盆地地貌特征及构造意义

李红强 袁道阳 苏琦 文亚猛 苏瑞欢 孙浩 陈艳文 于锦超 张梨君

李红强,袁道阳,苏琦,等,2023. 祁连山内部门源盆地地貌特征及构造意义[J]. 地质力学学报,29(6):824−841 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023123
引用本文: 李红强,袁道阳,苏琦,等,2023. 祁连山内部门源盆地地貌特征及构造意义[J]. 地质力学学报,29(6):824−841 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023123
LI H Q,YUAN D Y,SU Q,et al.,2023. Geomorphic features of the Menyuan basin in the Qilian Mountains and its tectonic significance[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(6):824−841 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023123
Citation: LI H Q,YUAN D Y,SU Q,et al.,2023. Geomorphic features of the Menyuan basin in the Qilian Mountains and its tectonic significance[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(6):824−841 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023123

祁连山内部门源盆地地貌特征及构造意义

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023123
基金项目: 第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究项目(2019QZKK0901);国家自然科学基金项目(42172227)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李红强(1996—),男,在读硕士,主要从事构造地貌方面的研究工作。E-mail:lihq21@lzu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    袁道阳(1965—),男,博士,教授,主要从事新构造与活动构造方面的研究工作。E-mail:yuandy@lzu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P931.2

Geomorphic features of the Menyuan basin in the Qilian Mountains and its tectonic significance

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research Program (STEP) (Grant No. 2019QZKK0901) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 42172227)
  • 摘要:

    祁连山位于青藏高原东北部边缘,是青藏高原向北东方向挤压扩展的前缘部位,其典型流域地貌特征记录了该地区的新构造活动和地貌发育演化过程。门源盆地是位于祁连山中段内部的一个典型的山间盆地,其发育模式和地貌特征与构造活动有着直接的关系。为探究门源盆地北缘断裂及其不同区段构造活动性的差异及其成因,文中基于30m分辨率数字高程模型(DEM)数据,采用ArcGIS空间分析技术,提取了盆地北缘横穿山体的15条河道的面积−高程积分(HI)和积分曲线(HC),再利用克里金插值法得到HI值在盆地空间上的分布特征。结果表明,以门源盆地北缘断裂走向转折处——老虎沟为界,其西侧河道流域的HI值整体较高,东侧HI值普遍较低;结合野外活动构造调查结果,发现老虎沟东侧断裂已经挤压扩展到盆地内部,并发育一系列的活动逆断层−褶皱带,由此推断断裂走向变化及北东向断裂导致了流域HI值的分布差异。同时,盆地内部青石嘴镇附近出现一处HI高值异常,结合大地电磁探测结果推测盆地内部存在一条隐伏断层。另外,多数河道在主断裂通过上游一定位置时出现了河长坡降指数(SL)峰值波动,说明SL波动位置与断裂通过河道位置具有良好的相关性,即构造活动可以对SL产生显著影响;而处于岩性变化位置附近的波动异常,可能表明局部河段的岩性变化对SL也有一定影响。综合分析表明,门源盆地北缘东、西段的地貌发育具有显著差异,主要受该区域活动构造即门源盆地北缘断裂的控制和影响,上述地貌参数是较为敏感的构造活动性评价指标。

     

  • 图  1  门源盆地构造背景图

    F1—冷龙岭断裂;F2—门源盆地北缘断裂;F3—门源盆地南缘断裂;F4—达板山断裂;F5—托勒山北缘断裂

    Figure  1.  Geological background map of the Menyuan basin

    F1–Lenglongling fault; F2–North margin fault of the Menyuan basin; F3–South margin fault of the Menyuan basin; F4–Dabanshan fault; F5–North margin fault of Tuoleshan

    图  2  门源盆地地质图及穿盆剖面

    Pt1T—托赖岩群;O3k—扣门子组;S1a—肮脏沟组;D3l—老君山组;P3y—窑沟组;T1-2x—西大沟组;J1-2y—窑街组;K1x—下沟组;F1—冷龙岭断裂;F2—门源盆地北缘断裂;F3—门源盆地南缘断裂;F4—达板山断裂a—研究区地质图(据左群超等,2018;青海省1∶250000门源回族自治县幅建造构造图修改);b—地质剖面图

    Figure  2.  Geological map of the Menyuan basin and cross-basin section (Geological map modified from Zuo et al., 2018; 1∶250000 Structural Map of Menyuan County, Qinghai Province)

    (a) Geological map of the study area; (b) Geologic profile of the study areaPt1T–Tuolai Group; O3k–Koumenzi Formation; S1a –Angzanggou Formation; D3l–Laojunshan Formation; P3y–Yaogou Formation; T1-2x – Xidagou Formation; J1-2y – Yaojie Formation; K1x–Xiagou Formation F1– Lenglongling Fault; F2–North Margin Fault of Menyuan Basin; F3–South Margin Fault of Menyuan Basin; F4–Dabanshan Fault

    图  3  研究区平均HI值与面积阈值、平均面积、平均高差的相关关系图

    a—平均HI值和面积阈值;b—平均HI值和平均面积;c—平均HI值和平均高差;d—调整后的平均HI值和面积阈值;e—调整后的平均值HI和平均面积;f—调整后的平均HI值和平均高差

    Figure  3.  The correlation graph between the average HI value in the study area and the area threshold, the average area and the average altitude difference

    (a) Average HI value and area threshold; (b) Average HI value and average area; (c) Average HI value and average altitude difference; (d) Adjusted average HI value and area threshold; (e) Adjusted average HI value and average area; (f) Adjusted average HI value and average altitude difference

    图  4  面积−高程积分示意图(据Strahler,1952修改)

    h—流域内选定一点高程与出水口高差;H—河道河头与出水口高差;a—流域内选定一点对应的流域面积;A—整个流域的面积

    Figure  4.  Area–elevation integration diagram(Modified from Strahler, 1952

    h–Elevation difference between a selected point within the watershed and the outlet; H–Elevation difference between the riverhead and the outlet; a–Watershed area corresponding to a selected point within the watershed; A– Total area of the entire watershed

    图  5  SL与Hack剖面示意图(据Hack, 1973修改)

    图c、d中黑色虚线代表未受构造作用的Hack剖面形态与河道剖面形态,分别对应图a、b黑色实线;c、d中灰色实线与黑色实线代表随着构造作用Hack形态与河道剖面形态变化过程;图e中Ⅰ、Ⅱ对应不同阶段河道受到构造作用后的SL曲线形态,红色阶梯状曲线表示不同阶段的SLH—河道高程;L—河道距离a—未受构造扰动的Hack剖面;b—未受构造扰动的河流纵剖面;c—受构造抬升的Hack剖面;d—受构造抬升的河流纵剖面;e—SL与Hack剖面叠图

    Figure  5.  SL and Hack profile schematic(Modified from Hack, 1973

    (a) Hack profile without tectonic disturbance; (b) undisturbed river profile; (c) Hack profile uplifted by tectonics; (d) Tectonically uplifted river profile; (e) SL and Hack profile overlay H–Stream height; L–Stream lengthIn figures c and d, the black dashed lines represent the unaltered morphology of the Hack profile and river channel profile, corresponding to the black solid lines in figures a and b. The gray solid lines and black solid lines in figures c and d represent the evolution of the Hack morphology and river channel profile with tectonic influences. In figure e, I and II correspond to the SL curve forms of the river channel at different stages after being affected by tectonic forces, where the red stepped curve represents SL values at different stages.

    图  6  流域的HC曲线特征

    a—西侧河道R1—R7HC曲线;b—东侧河道R1—R8HC曲线

    Figure  6.  HC curve characteristics of watershed

    (a) HC curves of R1 to R7; (b) HC curves of R8 to R15

    图  7  面积−高程积分空间分布特征

    F1—冷龙岭断裂;F2—门源盆地北缘断裂;F3—门源盆地南缘断裂

    Figure  7.  Spatial distribution characteristics of area–elevation integral

    F1–Lenglongling fault; F2–North margin fault of the Menyuan basin; F3–South margin fault of the Menyuan basin

    图  8  河流纵剖面与河长坡降指数及盆地北缘断裂、河床地层岩性叠加图

    黑色曲线为河流纵剖面;红色阶梯状曲线表示SL/K变化趋势;黑色虚线F2表示门源盆地北缘断裂主断裂位置

    Figure  8.  Overlay diagrams of river longitudinal profile and stream length–gradient index, north margin fault and riverbed lithology The black curve represents the longitudinal profile of the river, the red stepped curve indicates the trend of SL/K variations, and the black dashed line F3 denotes the main fault location of the north margin fault of the Menyuan basin.

    图  9  15条河道Hack剖面形态示意图

    Figure  9.  Hack profile morphology of 15 river channels

    图  10  研究区现代冰川分布特征(具体位置见图7;数据来自国家青藏高原科学数据中心https://data.tpdc.ac.cn/home

    红色箭头指示冰川融化后汇入方向a—河道R8西侧现代冰川覆盖情况;b—河道R8东侧现代冰川覆盖情况

    Figure  10.  Distribution characteristics of modern glacier cover in the study area (The position is shown in Figure 7; Data sources: national science data center of the qinghai-tibet plateau at https://data.tpdc.ac.cn/home)

    (a) Modern glacier cover on the west side of R8; Modern glacier cover on the east side of R8 The red arrows indicate the direction of glacier meltwater runoff.

    图  11  门源盆地中发育的断层及其变形表现(具体位置见图7

    a—门源盆地北缘断裂东段多排逆断层−褶皱带;b—门源盆地北缘断裂西段岗什卡滩高漫滩逆断层陡坎;c—门源盆地北缘断裂西段狼洞沟逆断层陡坎;d—门源盆地内部青石嘴镇处推测逆断层;e—铁迈附近断层槽谷及山脊位错;f—铁迈附近断层垭口及小的断层陡坎

    Figure  11.  The field photos of the Menyuan basin (The position is shown in Fig. 7)

    (a) Multi-row reverse fault-fold belt in the east section of the north margin fault of the Menyuan basin; (b) Gangshikatan high overplain reverse fault in the west section of the north margin fault of the Menyuan basin; (c) Langdonggou reverse fault in the west section of the north margin fault of the Menyuan basin; (d) The reverse fault presumed in Qingshizui town, Menyuan basin; (e) Fault troughs and ridges dislocations near Tiemai; (f) Fault pass and small fault steepes near Tiemai

    图  12  横穿研究区的地貌剖面和二维大地电磁结构模型(大地电磁剖面位置见图1a;据赵凌强等,2022修改)

    HCL—地壳中的低阻结构;HRB—地壳中的高阻结构a—地貌剖面(具体位置见图7);b—大地电磁剖面

    Figure  12.  Geomorphic profile and two-dimensional magnetotelluric structural model obtained across the study area(The position of the geomorphic profile is shown in Fig. 7; The position of magnetotelluric profile is shown in Fig. 1a; Modified from Zhao et al., 2022) HCL–Low-resistivity structures in the crust; HRB–High-resistivity structures in the crust; a–Geomorphic profile; b–Magnetotelluric profile

    表  1  面积阈值定义的次级集水流域属性

    Table  1.   Attributes of the sub-catchment basins defined by area threshold

    面积阈值
    /km2
    次集水盆地
    个数
    平均面积/km2平均高差
    /m
    平均HI
    0.948181.3273750.4417
    1.823332.7244740.4345
    2.716403.8615300.4317
    3.611875.3105740.4271
    4.59556.5906010.4240
    5.47967.8876300.4216
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  门源盆地北侧15条河道主要地貌参数

    Table  2.   Main geomorphic parameters of 15 river channels in the north side of the Menyuan basin

    河道编号河道名称长度/km面积/km2最大高程/m最小高程/m坡度/(°)HI
    R1 无名沟1 2.25 4 3849 3541 7.87 0.54
    R2 无名沟2 9.21 19 4341 3334 6.28 0.46
    R3 黑沟 3.01 9 4062 3412 12.47 0.53
    R4 岗龙沟 5.81 14 4072 3336 7.28 0.52
    R5 外力沟 3.18 6 4000 3489 9.25 0.55
    R6 无名沟3 3.94 15 3910 3456 6.62 0.49
    R7 小萨拉沟 2.46 4 3826 3503 7.54 0.46
    R8 老虎沟 26.79 250 4396 3200 2.56 0.47
    R9 北沟 6.16 29 3820 3241 5.39 0.44
    R10 歪里沟 9.71 38 3850 3035 4.81 0.36
    R11 无名沟4 10.54 39 4234 3251 5.35 0.48
    R12 三岔河 7.49 14 3561 2996 4.33 0.33
    R13 无名沟5 7.96 27 4086 3260 5.96 0.46
    R14 卡石头沟 5.32 8 3556 3173 4.13 0.31
    R15 无名沟6 8.12 19 3722 3152 4.03 0.41
    注:长度是基岩河道长度,面积表示基岩河道所对应的流域面积
    下载: 导出CSV
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