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原位地应力测量与实时监测在强构造活动区深埋地下工程中应用的思考

谭成轩 张鹏 王继明 丰成君 戚帮申 王惠卿 李滨 陈群策 吴满路 孙炜锋 秦向辉 张重远

谭成轩,张鹏,王继明,等,2023. 原位地应力测量与实时监测在强构造活动区深埋地下工程中应用的思考[J]. 地质力学学报,29(6):757−769 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023122
引用本文: 谭成轩,张鹏,王继明,等,2023. 原位地应力测量与实时监测在强构造活动区深埋地下工程中应用的思考[J]. 地质力学学报,29(6):757−769 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023122
TAN C X,ZHANG P,WANG J M,et al.,2023. Considerations on the application of in-situ stress measurement and real-time monitoring in deep underground engineering in strong tectonic activity region[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(6):757−769 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023122
Citation: TAN C X,ZHANG P,WANG J M,et al.,2023. Considerations on the application of in-situ stress measurement and real-time monitoring in deep underground engineering in strong tectonic activity region[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(6):757−769 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023122

原位地应力测量与实时监测在强构造活动区深埋地下工程中应用的思考

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023122
基金项目: 中国地质调查局项目( DD20160267,DD20190317,DD20221738)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    谭成轩(1964—),男,博士,研究员,主要从事活动构造、构造应力场、区域地壳稳定性评价等研究。E-mail:tanchengxuan@tom.com

    通讯作者:

    张鹏(1986—),男,博士,副研究员,主要从事地应力测量、构造应力场、岩体稳定性评价等研究。E-mail:zhangpeng0713@sina.com

  • 中图分类号: P315.72+7;P642.2

Considerations on the application of in-situ stress measurement and real-time monitoring in deep underground engineering in strong tectonic activity region

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Geological Survey Projects of the China Geological Survey (Grants No. DD20160267, DD20190317, and DD20221738)
  • 摘要:

    强构造活动区,因其原位地应力集中突出、变化复杂、各向异性显著,已成为亟待解决的重大工程地质安全问题和挑战。文章首先分析了原位地应力测量在强构造活动区深埋地下工程应用的经验和不足,然后研究了原位地应力实时监测在强构造活动区深埋地下工程中的应用方法、技术及作用,最后给出了原位地应力测量与实时监测在强构造活动区深埋地下工程中应用建议。研究表明在强构造活动区,不能仅仅依据有限深孔地应力测量结果确定深埋地下工程总体地应力设计参数,而应开展三维地应力场综合研究,揭示其三维地应力场空间分布特征,针对深埋地下工程不同位置采用不同的地应力设计参数,避免因地应力设计参数偏大或偏小造成工程建设浪费或工程病害;在强构造活动区,饼状岩芯密度与地应力测量大小成反比,在饼状岩芯发育深度范围之下未来会形成但仍未形成饼状岩芯的深度范围往往地应力最高、应力最为集中,深埋地下工程应避免该深度范围;原位地应力实时监测可以动态揭示某一构造部位地应力大小的相对变化趋势和演化过程,并可计算地应力实时监测期间不同时域地应力状态绝对值,当大地震或重大工程地质问题发生后,不用开展新的地应力绝对测量,就可以快速评价区域地壳稳定性、深埋地下工程地质安全风险等,为深埋地下工程损毁修复提供量化设计地应力参数及预防变形破坏应力应变预留阈值,评价断层活动危险性。研究成果可为强构造活动区重大工程规划建设和安全运维提供科学依据。

     

  • 图  1  河北省昌黎县钻孔饼状岩芯

    Figure  1.  Cake-shaped core drilled in Changli County, Hebei Province

    图  2  河北省昌黎县钻孔水压致裂地应力测量压力−时间曲线

    Figure  2.  Pressure–time curves of hydrofracturing stress measurement in boreholes in Changli County, Hebei Province

    图  3  压磁法地应力实时监测原理示意图

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of the principle of real-time in-situ stress monitoring by piezomagnetic inductance method

    图  4  林芝地应力实时监测结果与2015年尼泊尔地震事件

    Figure  4.  Results of stress monitoring in Linzhi with the 2015 Nepal earthquake event

    图  5  4个测向(夹角45°)正应力与最大水平主应力示意图

    Figure  5.  Diagram between normal stresses of four directions (angle of 45 degrees) and maximum horizontal principal stress

    图  6  西藏山南地区乃东县地应力实时监测结果

    红色箭头点线表示北东方向地应力呈长期缓慢积累增大趋势;绿色箭头点线表示北西方向地应力呈长期缓慢松弛减小趋势

    Figure  6.  In-situ stress real-time monitoring results in Naidong County, Shannan region, Tibet

    The red arrow dotted line indicates a long-term slow and cumulative increase trend of the NE in-situ stress, while the green arrow dotted line indicates a long-term slow and relaxed decrease trend of the NW in-situ stress.

    表  1  地应力判定划分标准

    Table  1.   Standard for determining in-situ stress classification

    应力级别强度应力比σc/σmaxσmax/MPa陶振宇法:SHmax/Sv杨子文法:R/σmax
    国外国内
    法国隧
    道协会
    日本应用
    地质协会
    苏联顿
    巴斯矿区
    日本国
    铁隧规
    岩土工程
    国家标准
    铁路工程
    行业标准
    公路工程
    行业标准
    水电工程
    国家标准
    低地应力 >4 >4 >4 >6>7>7>7 >7 <101.0~1.510~100
    中等地应力2~42~42.2~44~64~710~201.5~2.04~10
    高地应力<2<2 <2.2<44~74~74~72~420~40>22~4
    极高地应力<4<4<4 <2 ≥40 <2
    注:σc为岩石饱和单轴抗压强度,MPa;σmax为最大地应力,MPa;SHmax为最大水平主应力,MPa;Sv为垂向主应力,MPa; R=245×(σc/300)0.99Kw0.99Kw为岩体的完整性系数
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-07-29
  • 修回日期:  2023-10-28
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