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熊耳山矿集区蒿坪沟Ag–Au多金属矿床绿泥石特征及其找矿意义

刘松岩 张达 杨明建 张鑫明 未国栋 聂胜强 王轩 冯彦平 栗文杰 陈贵兰

刘松岩,张达,杨明建,等,2024. 熊耳山矿集区蒿坪沟Ag–Au多金属矿床绿泥石特征及其找矿意义[J]. 地质力学学报,30(1):129−146 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023121
引用本文: 刘松岩,张达,杨明建,等,2024. 熊耳山矿集区蒿坪沟Ag–Au多金属矿床绿泥石特征及其找矿意义[J]. 地质力学学报,30(1):129−146 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023121
LIU S Y,ZHANG D,YANG M J,et al.,2024. Characteristics of chlorites from the Haopinggou Ag–Au polymetallic deposit in the Xiong’ershan ore concentration area and its exploration implications[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(1):129−146 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023121
Citation: LIU S Y,ZHANG D,YANG M J,et al.,2024. Characteristics of chlorites from the Haopinggou Ag–Au polymetallic deposit in the Xiong’ershan ore concentration area and its exploration implications[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(1):129−146 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023121

熊耳山矿集区蒿坪沟Ag–Au多金属矿床绿泥石特征及其找矿意义

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023121
基金项目: 校企合作项目(No. 33112021007);国家自然科学基金(422020067)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘松岩(1996—),男,在读博士,构造地质学专业。Email:380126504@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    张达(1967—),男,教授,主要从事构造地质学与区域成矿规律研究。Email:zhangda@cugb.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P614

Characteristics of chlorites from the Haopinggou Ag–Au polymetallic deposit in the Xiong’ershan ore concentration area and its exploration implications

Funds: This research is financially supported by the School–Enterprise Cooperation Project (Grant No. 33112021007) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 42202067).
  • 摘要: 为理清蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床中多阶段矿化与热液蚀变之间的关系,文章选取与铅锌成矿阶段密切相关的绿泥石进行野外观察及电子探针分析。文章将蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床中的绿泥石分为3类:Ⅰ型分布在石英脉两侧的围岩中;Ⅱ型呈细粒、隐晶质填充于隐爆角砾岩基质;Ⅲ型与铅锌硫化物共生、或以蠕虫状广泛分布在石英颗粒间隙中。3种类型绿泥石均为斜绿泥石,并落在了铁镁绿泥石的范围内,指示其形成于偏还原的酸性环境中;在阳离子置换中,主要发生了Fe2+对Mg2+的置换,其余置换作用均不明显;3种绿泥石形成与镁铁质围岩关系密切。由校正后的绿泥石地质温度计估算出3种类型绿泥石的形成温度为196~239 ℃,属于中—低温热液蚀变范围。3类绿泥石与蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床银铅锌成矿阶段相匹配,对进一步找矿勘查具有重要意义。绿泥石化学特征表明岩浆热液参与了成矿流体的形成,绿泥石形成于熊耳山矿集区早白垩世大规模岩浆−成矿时期。

     

  • 图  1  华北克拉通南缘熊耳山矿集区地质简图(底图据Tian et al.,2023修改)

    a—华北克拉通南缘在中国东部的位置;b—熊耳山矿集区大地构造简图及矿产分布图

    Figure  1.  Simplified geological map of the Xiong’ershan ore concentration area along the southern margin of the North China Craton(Base map modified after Tian et al., 2023

    (a) The inset showing the tectonic location of the southern margin of the North China Craton in eastern China; (b) Geological map of the Xiong’ershan ore concentration area, showing the distribution of the major deposits

    图  2  蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床地质简图(底图据梁涛等,2015修改)

    Figure  2.  Geological map of the Haopinggou Ag-Au polymetallic deposit(Base map modified after Liang et al., 2015

    图  3  蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床勘探线剖面图(剖面位置见图2)

    Figure  3.  Representative cross-section of the Haopinggou Ag-Au polymetallic deposit (The position of the cross-section is shown in Fig. 2.)

    图  4  蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床矿物共生序列(据Tian et al., 2023修改)

    Figure  4.  Paragenetic sequence of the Haopinggou Ag-Au polymetallic deposit(modified after Tian et al., 2023

    图  5  蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床绿泥石分布情况

    Chl—绿泥石;Gn—方铅矿;Sp—闪锌矿;Py—黄铁矿;Ank—铁白云石a—铅锌矿脉两侧围岩绿泥石蚀变;b—石英脉两侧蚀变绿泥石;c—隐爆角砾岩基质中填充绿泥石与铁白云石;d—隐爆角砾岩中发生绿泥石蚀变的斑岩角砾

    Figure  5.  Distribution of chlorites in the Haopinggou Ag-Au polymetallic deposit

    (a) Chlorite alteration of surrounding rocks on both sides of Pb-Zn veins; (b) Altered chlorites occurred on both sides of quartz veins; (c) Chlorites and ankerites filled in breccia matrix; (d) Chlorite-altered porphyry breccia Chl–chlorite; Gn–galena; Sp–sphalerite; Py–pyrite; Ank–ankerite

    图  6  蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床绿泥石显微形态特征

    Chl—绿泥石;Ser—绢云母;Gn—方铅矿;Qz—石英;Sp—闪锌矿;Py—黄铁矿;Cal—方解石a—发育于石英脉两侧的绿泥石(正交偏光);b—隐爆角砾岩基质中填充的绿泥石(正交偏光);c—与黄铁矿、闪锌矿共生的绿泥石(正交偏光+反射光);d—填充在石英颗粒间隙的蠕虫状绿泥石(正交偏光);e—背散射镜下绿泥石电子探针打点位置分布,可见绿泥石与绢云母共生;f—背散射镜下绿泥石电子探针打点位置分布

    Figure  6.  Representative photomicrographs of chlorite characteristics of the Haopinggou Ag-Au polymetallic deposit

    (a) Chlorite developed on both sides of quartz veins (cross-polarized light); (b) Chlorite filled in breccia matrix (cross-polarized light); (c) Chlorite coexisting with pyrite and sphalerite (cross-polarized light+ reflected light) ; (d) Worm-like chlorite filling the interstices of quartz grains (cross-polarized light); (e) Backscattered electron images of the distribution of chlorite EMPA dots, showing coexistence with sericite; (f) Backscattered electron images of the distribution of chlorite EMPA dots Chl–chlorite; Ser–sericite; Gn–galena; Qz–quartz; Sp–sphalerite; Py–pyrite; Cal–calcite

    图  7  蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床绿泥石化学性质图解

    a—绿泥石Fe−Si图解(Deer et al.,1962);b—绿泥石Al+□-Mg−Fe图解(Zane and Weiss,1998);c—绿泥石Si−R2+图解(据刘燚平等,2016修改)

    Figure  7.  Chemical diagram of chlorite from the Haopinggou Ag-Au polymetallic deposit

    (a) Fe vs. Si diagram of chlorite (Deer et al., 1962); (b) Al+□–Mg–Fe plot (Zane and Weiss, 1998); (c) Si vs. R2+ diagram (modified after Liu et al., 2016)

    图  8  蒿坪沟Au-Ag多金属矿床绿泥石阳离子相关关系图(单位为a.p.f.u

    a—绿泥石Al-Al图解;b—绿泥石Fe2+-Mg2+图解;c—绿泥石Fe2+/(Fe2++Mg2+)-Al图解;d—绿泥石(Fe2++ Al)-Mg2+图解;e—绿泥石Mg2+-Al图解;f—绿泥石Si4+-Mg2+图解

    Figure  8.  Correlation of cations in chlorites from the Haopinggou Ag-Au polymetallic deposit(unit a.p.f.u

    (a) Al vs. Al diagram of chlorite; (b) Fe2+vs. Mg2+ diagram of chlorite; (c) Fe2+/(Fe2++Mg2+) vs. Al diagram of chlorite; (d) (Fe2++ Al) vs. Mg diagram of chlorite; (e) Mg2+ vs. Al diagram of chlorite; (f) Si4+ vs.Mg2+ diagram of chlorite

    图  9  蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床绿泥石形成温度频数(N)分布直方图

    a—绿泥石形成温度T1频数分布直方图;b—绿泥石形成温度T2频数分布直方图;c—绿泥石形成温度T3频数分布直方图

    Figure  9.  Hsitogram of formation temperatures of chlorites from the Haopinggou Ag-Au polymetallic deposit

    (a) Hsitogram of formation T1 of chlorites; (b) Hsitogram of formation T2 of chlorites; Hsitogram of formation T3 of chlorites

    图  10  绿泥石形成温度T与Al及Si4+相关性图解

    a—绿泥石AlT平均关系图解;b—绿泥石Si4+T平均关系图解;c—绿泥石AlT3关系图解;d—绿泥石Si4+T3关系图解

    Figure  10.  Correlation diagram of T vs. Al and Si4+

    (a) Al vs. Taverage diagram of chlorite; (b) Si4+ vs. Taverage diagram of chlorite; (c) Al vs. T3 diagram of chlorite; (d)Si4+ vs. T3 diagram of chlorite

    图  11  不同成因类型矿床中的绿泥石特征

    不同矿床类型中的绿泥石投图区域:1—活动的地热系统;2—块状硫化物矿床(Kranidiotis and Maclean,1987);3—热液铜(金)矿化带(Zane and Fyfe,1995);4—与铜金矿化相关的绿泥石(Dora and Randive,2015);5—云母石英岩中的绿泥石(Randive et al.,2015);6—与花岗岩相关的矿床(Trumbull et al.,1996);7—热液脉型矿床(Walshe,1986)a—绿泥石中Fe/(Fe+Mg)−(Si/Al)关系图解;b—绿泥石中Fe/(Fe+Mg)−Al关系图解(据周栋等,2018修改)

    Figure  11.  Chlorite characteristics in different genic types of deposits

    (a) Fe/(Fe+Mg) vs. (Si/Al) diagram of chlorite; (b) Fe/(Fe+Mg) vs. Al diagram of chlorite (modified after Zhou et al., 2018) Data source: 1−active geothermal system; 2−massive sulfide deposit (Kranidiotis and Maclean, 1987); 3−hydrothermal mineralization zone (Zane and Fyfe, 1995); 4−Chlorites related to Cu-Au mineralization (Dora and Randive, 2015); 5−green-mica quartzites (Randive et al., 2015); 6−deposits associated with granite (Trumbull et al., 1996); 7−hydrothermal vein-type deposit (Walshe, 1986)

    表  1  熊耳山矿集区蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床与康山金多金属矿床地质特征

    Table  1.   Geological characteristics of the Haopinggou Ag-Au polymetallic deposit and the Kangshan Au polymetallic deposit in the Xionger’ shan ore concentration area

    矿床名称蒿坪沟Ag-Au多金属矿床康山金多金属矿床
    矿床类型 岩浆热液型 岩浆热液型
    大地构造位置 华北克拉通南缘、熊耳山矿集区西北部 华北克拉通南缘、熊耳山矿集区西南部
    控矿构造 北东向陡倾断裂和局部隐爆角砾岩 北东向脆性断裂
    成矿阶段及矿物组合(Li et al.,2013 第一阶段:Qz-Sd-Mag-Elc 第一阶段:Qz-Py
    第二阶段:Gn-Sp-Qz-Ank 第二阶段:Qz-Py-Ccp-Au
    第三阶段:Qz-Cal-Fl 第三阶段:Gn-Sp-gold-Qz-Ank-
    第四阶段:Qz-Cal-Fl
    成矿时代 热液独居石125~123 Ma(Tian et al.,2023 热液独居石年龄为131 Ma(张哲铭等,2023
    流体特征及来源 含银硫化物来自蒿坪沟花岗岩体,表现为还原性的酸性流体(Li et al.,2016 含金流体来自隐伏花岗岩体, 表现为相对弱酸性的还原环境;其成矿机制为流体沸腾,第三阶段主要成矿机制为流体混合(Zhang et al.,2020
    成矿温度(Li et al.,2013徐进鸿,2021 Qz-Py:322~359 ℃
    Qz-Sd-Mag-Elc:217~349 ℃ Qz-Py-Ccp-Au:226~305 ℃(256~302 ℃)
    Gn-Sp-Qz-Ank:172~267 ℃(194~237 ℃) Gn-Sp-Au-Qz-Ank:185~246 ℃
    Qz-Cal-Fl:116~205 ℃ Qz-Cal-Fl:130~221 ℃
    绿泥石分类 主要为铁镁绿泥石 富铁种属的绿泥石,围岩属于铁镁绿泥石,与矿化相关的绿泥石为铁绿泥石(周栋等,2018
    注:成矿温度为流体包裹体测温数据(Li et al.,2013徐进鸿,2021),括号内为绿泥石EMPA数据所计算出T3温度
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-07-25
  • 修回日期:  2023-10-18
  • 录用日期:  2023-11-02
  • 预出版日期:  2024-01-31
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