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桂西隆林−西林锑金矿集区成矿控制因素探讨

刘小虎 王新宇 肖昌浩 张文高 刘向冲 于萍萍 毛承安 付伟

刘小虎,王新宇,肖昌浩,等,2024. 桂西隆林−西林锑金矿集区成矿控制因素探讨[J]. 地质力学学报,30(3):427−442 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023120
引用本文: 刘小虎,王新宇,肖昌浩,等,2024. 桂西隆林−西林锑金矿集区成矿控制因素探讨[J]. 地质力学学报,30(3):427−442 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023120
LIU X H,WANG X Y,XIAO C H,et al.,2024. Discussion on the ore-controlling factors in the Longlin–Xilin Sb–Au mining district of western Guangxi, South China[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(3):427−442 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023120
Citation: LIU X H,WANG X Y,XIAO C H,et al.,2024. Discussion on the ore-controlling factors in the Longlin–Xilin Sb–Au mining district of western Guangxi, South China[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(3):427−442 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023120

桂西隆林−西林锑金矿集区成矿控制因素探讨

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023120
基金项目: 中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20240127,DD20230344,DD20230293);广西地矿局部门前期找矿选点项目(桂地矿地〔2021〕68号-8);中国地质科学院地质力学研究所基本科研业务费项目(DZLXJK202203)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘小虎(1998—),男,在读硕士,主要从事锑矿成矿作用研究。Email:liuxiaohu0120@126.com

    通讯作者:

    肖昌浩(1986—),男,博士,副研究员,主要从事矿田构造与成矿规律研究。Email:xiaochanghao1986@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P611;P612

Discussion on the ore-controlling factors in the Longlin–Xilin Sb–Au mining district of western Guangxi, South China

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Geological Survey Project of the China Geological Survey (Grants No. DD20240127, DD20230344, and DD20230293), the Preliminary Prospecting and Site Selection Project of the Guangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources (Grant No. 2021-68-8), and the CGS Research Fund (Grant No. DZLXJK202203).
  • 摘要: 华南锑成矿省锑资源储量占全国83%以上,位于成矿省西南部的滇黔桂锑矿带是华南锑成矿省的重要组成部分。文章以滇黔桂锑矿带中部桂西隆林−西林锑金矿集区为例,系统分析了区内82个矿床(点)的赋矿层位、赋矿围岩岩性、容矿构造特征及锑、金矿床共伴生关系,结合3个典型矿床调查及岩浆岩时空分布,探讨锑成矿作用与碎屑岩、岩浆岩的成因联系。研究结果表明:具有高锑背景值的炭质泥页岩和富黄铁矿砂岩是研究区锑成矿的有利岩性,为锑成矿提供了物质来源。岩浆作用对锑成矿既可以起到直接作用(Sb和S来源)也可以起到间接作用(热源),两者均有利于锑矿床的形成。容矿构造分析显示研究区经历了印支期南北向挤压,随后叠加中晚侏罗世北西—南东向挤压。北西西—南东东向和北东—南西向断裂及其交汇处是有利的容矿空间。隆林−西林矿集区锑、金矿床统计显示,区内以独立的锑、金矿床为主,暗示研究区锑、金成矿流体可能多为不同来源流体。在上述研究基础上,文章提出桂西隆林-西林锑金矿集区勘查有利区域:新州背斜核部下泥盆统郁江组炭质泥页岩和富黄铁矿粉砂岩是锑矿勘查的重点层位;隆林县弄桑−石家寨北西西—南东东向断裂带内隐伏岩体周边和西林县北西西—南东东向斗皇−西林断裂与北东—南西向断裂的交汇部位是锑矿勘查的有利区域。以上成果为研究区内锑金矿床成因和成矿规律认识提供新的思考,为区内锑矿床勘查提供方向。

     

  • 图  1  右江盆地区域地质图

    a—研究区大地构造位置图(据胡丽娟等,2023修改);b—右江盆地锑、金矿床分布图(据Xiao et al.,2022修改)

    Figure  1.  Regional geological map of the Youjiang basin

    (a) Tectonic map of Asia showing continental blocks and bounding sutures (modified after Hu et al., 2023); (b) Distribution map of Sb–Au deposits in the Youjiang basin (modified after Xiao et al.,2022)

    图  2  桂西隆林−西林锑金矿集区地质图

    Figure  2.  Geological map of the Longlin–Xilin Sb–Au district in western Guangxi

    图  3  马雄锑矿床矿体及矿物特征

    a—0号勘探线剖面图(据Yan et al.,2022修改);b—主矿体顶部为炭质页岩;c—容矿北西西—南东东向走滑断裂底面水平擦痕产状特征(走滑断裂底面水平擦痕矢量数据反演显示三轴主应力方向σ1为351°/12°、σ2为110°/67°、σ3为256°/20°,指示近南北向挤压应力场);d—脉状矿化的辉锑矿、石英和蚀变围岩中的黄铁矿;e—脉状矿化的辉锑矿、方解石、石英

    Figure  3.  Ore body and mineral characteristics of the Maxiong antimony deposit

    (a) Geological cross-section along the exploration line 0 (modified after Yan et al.,2022); (b) The hanging wall of the main ore body composed of carbonaceous shales; (c) Occurrence characteristics of horizontal scratches on the bottom surface of NWW–SEE strike-slip ore-bearing fault (Inversion of horizontal scratches vector data on the bottom surface of strike-slip fault shows that the triaxial principal stress directions σ1 is 351°/12°, σ2 is 110°/67° and σ3 is 256°/20°, indicating the near NS compressive stress field); (d) Stibnite–quartz vein mineralization and pyrite in altered wall rocks; (e) Stibnite–quartz–calcite vein mineralization

    图  4  龙滩锑矿床矿体及矿物特征

    a—A12勘探线地质剖面图(据广西壮族自治区二七四地质队,1990修改);b—层状矿体;c—脉状矿体产于北东东—南西西向高角度走滑断裂中(高角度走滑断裂断层面擦痕矢量数据反演显示三轴主应力方向σ1为129°/9°、σ2为28°/53°、σ3为226°/36°,指示北西—南东向挤压应力场);d—方解石−辉锑矿矿石手标本;e—脉状矿化的辉锑矿、方解石

    Figure  4.  Ore body and mineral characteristics of the Longtan Sb deposit

    (a) Geological cross-section along the exploration line A12 (modified after No.274 Team of Guangxi Bureau of Geology, 1990); (b) Stratiform ore body in Luolou Formation sandstones; (c) Vein ore bodies occur in NEE–SWW high angle strike-slip faults (Inversion of the vector data of scratches on the fault plane of high-angle strike-slip fault shows that the triaxial principal stress directions σ1 is 129°/9°, σ2 is 28°/53° and σ3 is 226°/36°, indicating that it was formed in the NW–SE compressive stress field); (d) Calcite–stibnite hand specimen; (e) Stibnite–calcite vein mineralization

    图  5  马蒿锑矿床矿体及矿物特征

    a—6号勘探线地质剖面图(据广西金果子矿业有限公司,2011修改);b—马蒿锑矿床文洞矿段容矿断裂具有右行正断特征,金、锑矿体产在断裂下盘牵引褶皱核部虚脱空间;c—辉锑矿矿石手标本;d—辉锑矿−石英脉中石英与辉锑矿、黄铁矿共生

    Figure  5.  Ore body and mineral characteristics of the Mahao Sb deposit

    (a) Geological cross-section along the exploration line 6 (modified after Guangxi Jinguozi Mining Co., Ltd, 2011); (b) The ore-bearing fault in Wendong ore segement of Mahao Sb deposit characterized by right-lateral normal faulting, with the Au (Sb) ore bodies occurring in the core space of traction folds formed by footwall of faults; (c) Stibnite hand specimen; (d) Stibnite coexisting with quartz and pyrite

    图  6  桂西隆林−西林锑金矿床特征饼图

    a—主要赋矿地层占比图;b—赋矿围岩岩性占比图;c—容矿断裂走向占比图;d—金、锑共伴生组合占比图

    Figure  6.  Pie charts of Sb-Au deposit in the Longlin–Xinlin mining district, western Guangxi

    (a) Ore-bearing stratums; (b) Lithologies of ore-bearing rocks; (c) Ore-bearing faults; (d) Au and Sb co-existing assemblages

    图  7  隆林县大树脚北西西—南东东向逆冲断层错断中二叠世玄武岩露头剖面及素描图

    a—剖面图;b—素描图

    Figure  7.  The Outcrop profile and geologic sketch of Middle Permian basalt staggered by the NWW–SEE thrust fault in Dashujiao, Longlin County

    (a) Outcrop profile; (b) Geologic sketch

    图  8  隆林北西西—南东东向含矿断裂中锑、金矿床及长英质岩脉分布图

    a—隆林北西西—南东东向含矿断裂中锑、金矿床及晚侏罗世长英质岩脉分布图;b—大树脚长英质岩脉侵入中二叠世玄武岩;c—弄桑长英质岩脉;d—石家寨长英质岩

    Figure  8.  Distribution map of antimony deposits, gold deposits, and felsic dikes in NWW–SEE striking faults in Longlin Country

    (a) Distribution map of Sb deposit, Au deposits, and Late Jurassic felsic dikes in NWW–SEE ore-bearing faults; (b) Felsic dyke intruded into the Middle Permian basalt at Dashujiao, Longlin Country; (c) Felsic dyke occurred at Nongsang, Longlin Country; (d) Felsic rock occurred at Shijiazhai, Longlin Country

    图  9  隆林−西林地区不同时代地层锑丰度

    Є2—中寒武统;Є3—上寒武统;D3—上泥盆统;D1y—下泥盆统郁江组;D2d—中泥盆统东岗岭组;C—石炭系;C2—中石炭统;P1—下二叠统;P2—上二叠统;T1—下三叠统;T2—中三叠统;T2b—中三叠统板纳组;T2l—中三叠统兰木组a—隆林地区不同时代地层锑丰度(数据引自杨怀顺,2007);b—三林地区不同时代地层锑丰度(数据引自韦文灼,1993

    Figure  9.  Sb abundance in different strata in the Longlin–Xilin area

    (a) Sb abundance in stratigraphic units of different ages in the Longlin area (data from Yang, 2007); (b) Sb abundance stratigraphic units of different ages in the Sanlin area (data from Wei, 19932–the Middle Cambrian; Є3–the Upper Cambrian; D3–the Upper Devonian; D1y–the Yujiang Formation of the Lower Devonian; D2d–the Donggangling Formation of the Middle Devonian; C–the Carboniferous; C2–the Middle Carboniferous; P1–the Lower Permian; P2–the Upper Permian; T1–the Lower Triassic; T2–the Middle Triassic; T2b–the Banna Formation of the Middle Triassic; T2l–the Mulan Formation of the Middle Triassic

    表  1  国内外典型锑矿床赋矿围岩岩性

    Table  1.   Lithology of the surrounding rocks of typical antimony deposits at home and abroad

    国家地区矿床名称赋矿围岩主要岩性参考文献
    中国湖南锡矿山锑矿床灰岩、黑色页岩、砂岩Hu and Peng,2018
    贵州半坡锑矿床石英砂岩、砂质泥岩、页岩肖宪国,2014
    云南木利锑矿床硅质岩、黑色页岩韩江,2020
    西藏扎西康Sb-Pb-Zn矿床灰黑色页岩、泥质和钙质页岩Liang et al.,2018
    澳大利亚VictoriaCosterfield Sb-Au矿床富黄铁矿粉砂岩、炭质页岩Wilson et al.,2017
    New England OrogenHillgrove锑矿床页岩、石英砂岩、灰岩Boyle and Hill,1988
    加拿大New BrunswickThe Lake George锑矿床砂岩、泥岩Scratch et al.,1984
    NewfoundlandBeaver Brook锑矿床黑色页岩、砂岩、砾岩Lake and Wilton,2006
    俄罗斯The kolyvan-tomsk folded areaSemiluzhinskoe Au-Sb矿床炭质页岩、钙质页岩Kalinin et al.,2015
    美国CaliforniaMcLaughlin锑矿床泥岩、粉砂岩、灰岩、砾岩Sherlock et al.,1995
    吉尔吉斯斯坦Kadamzhai and Khaidarkan锑矿床灰岩、灰绿色页岩、黑色页岩Hnylko et al.,2019
    Atebayue锑矿床砂岩、粉砂岩Zhou et al.,2018
    西班牙SAN Antonio, BadajozAlburquerqu锑矿床角砾岩、钙质页岩组、硅质层Gumiel and Vindel,1983
    Ciudad RealSan Felipe锑矿床砂质页岩、石英岩
    Ciudad RealNazarena 锑矿床砂质页岩、石英岩
    葡萄牙BragancaBraganca锑矿床砾岩、石英岩、黑色板岩Neiva et al.,2008
    PortoAlto do Sobrido锑矿床黑色泥页岩、砂岩、黑色泥质片岩Simoes,1997
    德国Rhenish地块北部Arnsberg锑矿床富黄铁矿的黑色页岩和硅质灰岩Wagner and Boyce,2003
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  国内外典型锑−金矿床Au-Sb品位

    Table  2.   Au–Sb ore grade of typical antimony gold deposits at home and abroad

    国家矿床名称Au品位/×10−6Sb品位/%参考文献
    中国湘中沃溪Sb–Au–W矿床8.13.50陈明辉,2016
    湘中龙山Au–Sb矿床2.51~5.911.93~6.63文琴和刘涛,2019
    西藏马扎拉Au–Sb矿床2~18.63.16~41.67莫儒伟等,2013
    西秦岭早子沟Au–Sb矿床3.341.34耿建珍等,2019
    捷克Krásná Hora Sb–Au矿床3~51.5~3Němec and Zachariáš,2018
    俄罗斯Sarylakh and Sentachan Au–Sb矿床8~3520~30Bortnikov et al.,2010
    俄罗斯Semiluzhinskoe Au–Sb矿床20.1~21Kalinin et al.,2015
    澳大利亚Hillgrove Au–Sb 矿床4~53~4Ashley et al.,2000
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-07-19
  • 修回日期:  2024-03-05
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