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四川大岗山水库蓄水对2022年泸定MS 6.8地震及余震的影响

朱家正 孙玉军 谢志远 吴刚

朱家正, 孙玉军, 谢志远, 等, 2024. 四川大岗山水库蓄水对2022年泸定MS 6.8地震及余震的影响. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 363-376. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023095
引用本文: 朱家正, 孙玉军, 谢志远, 等, 2024. 四川大岗山水库蓄水对2022年泸定MS 6.8地震及余震的影响. 地质力学学报, 30 (2): 363-376. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023095
ZHU Jiazheng, SUN Yujun, XIE Zhiyuan, et al., 2024. The impact of the Dagangshan Reservoir impoundment in Sichuan Province on the 2022 Luding MS 6.8 earthquake and its aftershocks. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 363-376. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023095
Citation: ZHU Jiazheng, SUN Yujun, XIE Zhiyuan, et al., 2024. The impact of the Dagangshan Reservoir impoundment in Sichuan Province on the 2022 Luding MS 6.8 earthquake and its aftershocks. Journal of Geomechanics, 30 (2): 363-376. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023095

四川大岗山水库蓄水对2022年泸定MS 6.8地震及余震的影响

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023095
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 42022029

国家自然科学基金项目 4187411

国家重点研发项目 2022YFC2805503

详细信息
    作者简介:

    朱家正(1995—),男,硕士,主要从事地质灾害数值模拟研究。Email:zjz4911@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    孙玉军(1983—),男,研究员,主要从事地球动力学数值模拟研究。Email:sunyujunabc@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P584

The impact of the Dagangshan Reservoir impoundment in Sichuan Province on the 2022 Luding MS 6.8 earthquake and its aftershocks

Funds: 

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 42022029

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 4187411

the National Key R&D Program of China 2022YFC2805503

  • 摘要: 2022年9月5日四川省泸定县发生MS 6.8地震,2023年1月发生MS 5.6余震。该次地震发生在鲜水河断裂南段,位于泸定地震震中东南部70 km的大岗山水库。该水库自建成蓄水后,引起库区北西侧磨西断裂的地震活动性显著变化:2014年11月水库达到预定水位之前的3年内,磨西段地震震级较小,多为0~2级微震;11月之后的3年内该区域地震震级和数量明显增加。文章利用高精度DEM数据、精准的地表断裂信息和地层地质信息,建立了三维孔隙弹性有限元数值模型,并根据震源机制解得到断层参数,定量计算了水库水位变化对地层孔隙压力、断层库仑应力的影响。在相关参数约束下的结果表明:水库蓄水造成MS 6.8地震震源位置在发震时刻的地层孔隙压力增加5 kPa,库仑应力增加3.6 kPa,对其发生具有一定促进作用。对于MS 5.6正断层型余震,水库蓄水造成其震源位置孔隙压力增加0.32 kPa,库仑应力降低0.69 kPa,对其所处断层面的滑动具有抑制作用。

     

  • 图  1  大岗山水库构造背景图

    a—研究区构造背景图;b—研究区高程图

    Figure  1.  Tectonic background of the Dagangshan Reservoir

    (a) Tectonic background of the study area; (b) Elevation map of the study area

    图  2  泸定MS 6.8地震的构造背景和余震分布(据Zhang et al., 2023修改)

    图 2a中红色矩形表示图 2b的区域,蓝色和黄色椭圆分别表示1700年至1900年和1900年至今强震的地表破裂,区域上不同颜色代表不同构造单元,白色箭头表示构造块大致运动方向,一对黑色箭头表示鲜水河断裂带左旋运动,主要断裂用灰线表示,红线表示鲜水河断层,黑线和蓝线分别表示主要和次要块边界,箭头代表地块的移动方向;图 2b中震源球大小与震级正相关,两条黑色实线cut1和cut2代表图 6的剖面位置
    a—泸定MS6.8地震的构造背景;b—余震分布

    Figure  2.  Tectonic setting and aftershock distribution of the Luding MS 6.8 earthquake (modified from Zhang et al., 2023)

    (a) Tectonic setting of Luding MS 6.8 earthquake; (b) Aftershock distribution
    In Fig. 2a, the red rectangle represents the area shown in Fig. 2b; the blue and yellow ellipses respectively indicate surface ruptures of strong earthquakes from 1700 to 1900 and from 1900 to the present; different colors in the area represent different tectonic units; white arrows indicate the approximate movement direction of tectonic blocks; a pair of black arrows indicates left-lateral movement of the Xianshuihe fault zone; major faults are represented by gray lines; the red line represents the Xianshuihe fault; black and blue lines respectively represent the primary and secondary block boundaries; arrows denote the movement direction of blocks. In Fig. 2b, the size of the focal sphere is positively correlated with the magnitude of the earthquake; the two solid black lines cut1 and cut2 represent the position of the profile in Fig. 6.

    图  3  大岗山库区蓄水位与地震情况关系图(庄园旭等,2022)

    a—大岗山库区N-T图;b—大岗山库区蓄水位与地震日频次关系图

    Figure  3.  Diagrams showing the relationship between water level in Dagangshan Reservoir and seismic activity(Zhuang et al., 2022)

    (a)N-T plot of Dagangshan Reservoir; (b) Relationship between water level in Dagangshan Reservoir and daily seismic frequency

    图  4  三维孔隙弹性有限元模型

    Figure  4.  Three-dimensional poroelastic finite element model

    图  5  MS6.8泸定地震发震时刻16 km深度处孔隙压力和库仑应力平面分布图

    黄色五角星代表震源位置,红色实线代表断裂,黑色实线包围区域为水库蓄水区域
    a—孔隙压力分布;b—不考虑孔隙压力计算得到的震源深度处库仑应力;c—考虑孔隙压力计算得到的震源深度处库仑应力

    Figure  5.  Plane distribution diagram of pore pressure and Coulomb stress at 15 km depth in the reservoir during the occurrence of the Luding MS 6.8 earthquake

    (a)Distribution of pore pressure; (b) Coulomb stress at the hypocenter depth calculated without considering pore pressure; (c) Coulomb stress at the hypocenter depth calculated considering pore pressure
    The yellow pentagon represents the hypocenter location, red solid lines represent the faults, and the black solid line encloses the reservoir storage area

    图  6  MS 6.8泸定地震发震时刻震源位置的孔隙压力和库仑应力剖面分布图

    a、c、e是以震源点的纬度线对模型的剖面cut1的结果图,b、d、f是以震源点的经度线对模型的剖面cut2的结果图,图中黄色五角星代表震源位置
    a、b—孔隙压力分布;c、d—不考虑孔隙压力计算得到的库仑应力;e、f—考虑孔隙压力计算得到的库仑应力

    Figure  6.  Profile distribution diagram of pore pressure and Coulomb stress at the hypocenter during the occurrence of the Luding MS 6.8 earthquake

    (a, b) Distribution of pore pressure; (c, d) Coulomb stress calculated without considering pore pressure; (e, f) Coulomb stress calculated considering pore pressure
    Figures a, c, and e represent the results of cross-sectional cut1 of the model along the latitude line of the hypocenter; b、d、f represent the results of cross-sectional cut2 of the model along the longitude line of the hypocenter. The yellow pentagon represents the hypocenter location

    图  7  MS 6.8泸定地震震源位置的孔隙压力及库仑应力随水库水位变化图

    Figure  7.  Variation of pore pressure and Coulomb stress at the hypocenter of the Luding MS 6.8 earthquake with changes in reservoir water level

    图  8  MS 5.6泸定地震余震发震时刻10 km深度处库仑应力平面分布图

    图中黄色圆代表2022年9月至2023年1月3级以上余震的震源位置,红色圆代表主震震源位置,绿色圆代表MS 5.6余震震源位置,红色实线代表断裂,黑色实线包围区域为水库蓄水区域
    a—孔隙压力分布;b—不考虑孔隙压力计算得到的库仑应力;c—考虑孔隙压力计算得到的库仑应力

    Figure  8.  Plane distribution diagram of Coulomb stress at 10 km depth in the reservoir during the occurrence of the Luding MS 5.6 aftershock

    (a)Distribution of pore pressure; (b) Coulomb stress calculated without considering pore pressure; (c) Coulomb stress calculated considering pore pressure.
    Yellow circles represent the hypocenter locations of aftershocks with magnitudes above 3 from September 2022 to January 2023, red circles represent the epicenter locations of the mainshock, and green circles represent the epicenter location of the MS 5.6 aftershock. Red solid lines represent the faults, and the black solid line encloses the reservoir storage area.

    图  9  MS 5.6余震震源位置的孔隙压力及库仑应力随水库水位变化图

    Figure  9.  Variation of pore pressure and Coulomb stress at the hypocenter of the Luding MS 5.6 aftershock with changes in reservoir water level

    表  1  模型所采用的计算参数

    Table  1.   Calculation parameters used in the model

    断层弹性模量Ef/GPa 非断层区弹性模量E/GPa 断层区域扩散系数cf/(m2/s) 断层区扩散系数c/(m2/s) 非断层区域排水泊松比ν
    12.5 82.5 2.5 0.1 0.25
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  泸定地震主震及MS 5.6余震的震源机制解

    Table  2.   Source mechanism solutions for the mainshock and MS 5.6 aftershocks of the Luding earthquake

    时间 经度 纬度 深度/km 震级/MS 走向/(°) 倾角/(°) 滑动角/(°)
    2022-09-05 102.08°E 29.59°N 16 6.8 162.31 83.42 1.68
    2023-01-26 102.01°E 29.63°N 11 5.6 165.16 55.47 -95.75
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-06-12
  • 修回日期:  2023-12-05
  • 录用日期:  2023-12-15
  • 预出版日期:  2024-04-02
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-28

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