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2022年9月17日中国台湾地震序列的触发机制及其动力学成因

黄少华 万永革 冯淦 李枭 关兆萱

黄少华, 万永革, 冯淦, 等, 2023. 2022年9月17日中国台湾地震序列的触发机制及其动力学成因. 地质力学学报, 29 (5): 674-684. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023056
引用本文: 黄少华, 万永革, 冯淦, 等, 2023. 2022年9月17日中国台湾地震序列的触发机制及其动力学成因. 地质力学学报, 29 (5): 674-684. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023056
HUANG Shaohua, WAN Yongge, FENG Gan, et al., 2023. Trigger mechanism and dynamic causes of the Taiwan earthquake sequence on September 17, 2022. Journal of Geomechanics, 29 (5): 674-684. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023056
Citation: HUANG Shaohua, WAN Yongge, FENG Gan, et al., 2023. Trigger mechanism and dynamic causes of the Taiwan earthquake sequence on September 17, 2022. Journal of Geomechanics, 29 (5): 674-684. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023056

2022年9月17日中国台湾地震序列的触发机制及其动力学成因

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023056
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 42174074

国家自然科学基金项目 41674055

中央高校科研业务费专项 ZY20215117

河北省地震动力学重点实验室开放基金项目 FZ212105

详细信息
    作者简介:

    黄少华(1998-), 男, 在读硕士, 主要从事震源机制、应力场反演等方面的研究工作。E-mail: 1961921173@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    万永革(1967-), 男, 研究员, 主要从事构造应力场、地震应力触发等方面研究。E-mail: wanyg217217@vip.sina.com

  • 中图分类号: P315

Trigger mechanism and dynamic causes of the Taiwan earthquake sequence on September 17, 2022

Funds: 

the fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China 42174074

the fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41674055

the Special Fund for Scientific Research of Central Universities ZY20215117

the Open Fund Project of the Hebei Key Laboratory of Earthquake Dynamics FZ212105

  • 摘要:

    2022年9月17—18日, 中国台湾先后发生台东县MS6.5和花莲县MS6.9两次强震及多次余震。两次强震均为逆走滑型地震, 且震中都位于台湾纵谷断裂带, 该地区构造复杂, 为晚中生代古太平洋板块朝东亚陆缘的消减带, 具有逆冲型构造应力背景。对纵谷断裂带周围地区历史上发生过的地震进行统计发现, 大部分地震为逆断型。为探究该地区此次发生逆走滑型地震的原因及其与构造应力场的关系, 首先通过搜集研究区相关的地震震源机制, 反演该地区的构造应力场, 明确其是以走向为北西西向的压应力为主的应力场; 然后将应力场投影到走向、倾角不同的断层面上, 发现一些节面上表现出较大的相对剪应力和较小的相对正应力, 说明这些节面上具有较强的剪切作用和较小的摩擦力, 容易发生错动而产生逆断型、逆走滑型和走滑型的地震。同时, 为明确短时间内两次强震间的触发关系, 通过计算MS6.5地震在MS6.9地震破裂面和滑动方向上产生的库伦破裂应力变化发现, MS6.9地震约在0.02MPa的库伦破裂应力触发下发生。相关结论对研究台湾纵谷带地震的发震机理和地球动力学具有一定的指导意义。

     

  • 图  1  2022年9月17—18日中国台湾地震序列中MS>5的7个地震分布

    Figure  1.  Distribution of seven earthquakes with MS>5 in the Taiwan earthquake sequence on September 17-18, 2022

    图  2  2022年9月17—18日中国台湾两次强震的地震震源机制中心解计算结果

    N、S、W、E表示地理方位;U、D表示上、下;红色箭头表示压轴(P轴)方向;蓝色箭头表示张轴(T轴)方向;黑色弧线是震源机制中心解的两个节面;绿色区域为不确定性范围;红点、蓝点、黄点表示中心解的P轴、T轴、B轴(中间轴);红、黄、蓝3个圆圈范围是中心解的P轴、T轴、B轴不确定性范围;黑点、绿点是各震源机制解T轴、P轴的投影;紫色弧线表示各研究机构和此次的震源机制解节面;蓝色球表示压缩区;红色球表示膨胀区
    a—台东县MS6.5地震震源机制中心解的等面积投影和空间三维辐射花样;b—花莲县MS6.9地震震源机制中心解的等面积投影和空间三维辐射花样

    Figure  2.  The central focal mechanism solutions for two strong earthquakes in Taiwan on September 17-18, 2022

    (a) The equal-area projection and three-dimensional radiation pattern of the central focal mechanism solution for the MS6.5 earthquake in Taitung County; (b) The equal-area projection and three-dimensional radiation pattern of the central focal mechanism solution for the MS6.9 earthquake in Hualien County
    N, S, W, E represent geographical directions; U, D represent up and down; red arrows indicate the principal (P-axis) direction; blue arrows indicate the tensional (T-axis) direction; the black arcs represent the two fault planes of the central focal mechanism solution; the green area represents the uncertainty region; red dots, blue dots, and yellow dots represent the central solution′s P-axis, T-axis, and B-axis (intermediate axis); the red, yellow, and blue circles represent the uncertainty regions of the central solution′s P-axis, T-axis, and B-axis; black dots and green dots are the projections of the T-axis and P-axis for each seismic source mechanism solution; purple arcs represent the fault planes of different research institutions and the current mechanism solution; blue spheres represent compression zones; red spheres represent expansion zones.

    图  3  研究区1978—2019年间发生地震的类型分类

    NS为正走滑型,采用粉色海滩球表示;SS为走滑型,用黑色海滩球表示;N为正断型,用红色海滩球表示;RS为逆走滑型,用绿色海滩球表示;R为逆断型,用蓝色海滩球表示
    a—研究区范围及历史上发生的地震位置;b—历史上发生地震的分类统计

    Figure  3.  Classification of earthquake types occurred in the study area between 1978 and 2019

    (a) Location of historical earthquakes within the study area; (b) Classification of historical earthquakes
    NS stands for normal slip, represented by pink beach balls; SS stands for strike-slip, represented by black beach balls; N stands for normal fault, represented by red beach balls; RS stands for reverse slip, represented by green beach balls; R stands for reverse fault, represented by blue beach balls.

    图  4  研究区反演应力状态

    N、S、W、E表示地理方位;U、D表示上、下;黑色弧线对应震源机制解的各个节面;红色大箭头表示主压应力轴的最优方向;红色小箭头代表断层理论滑动方向;蓝色小箭头代表观测滑动方向;绿色弧线覆盖区域是90%置信度下应力场的最大剪应力节面;黄色小箭头则为该节面的最大剪应力方向;红黄色球表示挤压,蓝色球表示拉张
    a—研究区应力场反演结果;b—三维应力图

    Figure  4.  Inferred stress state in the study area

    (a) Result of stress field inversion in the study area; (b) Chart displaying the three-dimensional stress distribution
    N, S, W, E represent geographical directions; U, D indicate up and down; black curves represent various fault planes corresponding to earthquake focal mechanism; red large arrows indicate the optimal direction of the principal stress axis; red small arrows represent the theoretical slip direction of faults; blue small arrows indicate the observed slip direction; green curves represent the maximum shear stress planes of the stress field at a 90% confidence level; yellow small arrows represent the maximum shear stress direction on that plane; red and yellow spheres represent compression, while blue spheres represent tension.

    图  5  研究区应力场在各种节面上的相对应力

    黑色沙滩球表示逆断型地震;粉色沙滩球表示逆走滑型地震;紫色沙滩球表示走滑型地震;SS标记走滑型总体震源机制解位置;R标记逆断型总体震源机制解位置;红色沙滩球标记此次MS>6地震位置
    a—节面上的相对剪应力;b—节面上的相对正应力

    Figure  5.  Relative stress on each plane in the Study Area

    (a) Relative shear stress on each plane; (b) Relative normal stress on each plane
    Black beach balls represent reverse fault earthquakes; pink beach balls represent reverse slip earthquakes; purple beach balls represent strike-slip earthquakes; SS marks the location of overall strike-slip focal mechanism solutions; R marks the location of overall reverse fault focal mechanism solutions; red beach balls mark the locations of earthquakes with MS>6.

    图  6  2022年9月17—18日中国台湾两次MS>6地震的推测断层状态

    a—台湾MS6.5地震断层运动方式;b—台湾MS6.5地震断层与应力场关系;c—台湾MS6.9地震断层运动方式;d—台湾MS6.9地震断层与应力场关系

    Figure  6.  Inferred fault status of two earthquakes with MS>6 in Taiwan on September 17-18, 2022

    (a) Fault movement type of the Taiwan MS6.5 earthquake; (b) Relationship between the Taiwan MS6.5 earthquake fault and the stress field; (c) Fault movement type of the Taiwan MS6.9 earthquake; (d) Relationship between the Taiwan MS6.9 earthquake fault and the stress field

    图  7  台东县MS6.5地震在花莲县MS6.9地震节面上产生的库伦破裂应力变化

    Figure  7.  Coulomb failure stress changes generated on the fault plane of the Taitung MS6.5 earthquake by the Hualien MS6.9 Earthquake

    图  8  2022年9月17—18日中国台湾两次MS>6地震共同产生的同震位移场

    Figure  8.  The coseismic displacement field generated by two earthquakes with MS6 in Taiwan, China on September 17-18, 2022

    表  1  中国台湾台东县MS6.5地震震源机制中心解结果和标准差

    Table  1.   Results and standard deviation of the central focal mechanism solution for the MS6.5 earthquake in Taitung County, Taiwan, China

    序号 各震源机制解(走向,倾角,滑动角)/(°) 机构 作为初始解计算出的中心震源机制解(走向,倾角,滑动角)/(°) 标准差(S)/ (°) S最小的中心解与各震源机制解的最小空间旋转角/(°)
    1 202,63,13 USGS 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499554 8.38
    2 208,44,9 CPPT 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499550 19.63
    3 199,76,15 GFZ 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499544 19.07
    4 212,62,53 OCA 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499547 29.65
    5 214,50,26 IPGP 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499576 10.71
    6 206,39,11 中国地震台网中心 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499550 21.71
    7 207,57,39 RMT 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499550 17.39
    8 197,74,10 台湾地震科学资料中心(P波结果) 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499543 18.62
    9 206,62,21 台湾地震科学资料中心(W震相结果) 205.4,58.16,20.9 16.499525 3.73
    10 204,62,19 GCMT 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499572 4.19
    11 205.0,55.0,16.3 GRMT 205.4,58.2,20.8 16.499573 5.43
    注:台湾地震科学资料中心的计算结果包括两种,一种根据地震波的P波初动计算,另一种由地震波W震相计算得到
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  中国台湾花莲县MS6.9地震震源机制中心解结果和标准差

    Table  2.   Results and standard deviation of the central focal mechanism solution for the MS6.9 earthquake in Hualien County, Taiwan, China

    序号 各震源机制解(走向,倾角,滑动角)/(°) 机构 作为初始解算得的中心震源机制解(走向,倾角,滑动角)/(°) 标准差(S)/ (°) S最小的中心解与各震源机制解的最小空间旋转角/(°)
    1 201,61,31 GCMT 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815634 4.40
    2 205,60,31 CPPT 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815623 3.28
    3 204,54,31 GFZ 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815624 5.79
    4 215,60,48 OCA 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815633 12.12
    5 200,52,30 IPGP 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815634 8.43
    6 210,77,19 USGS 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815631 25.07
    7 207,40,26 中国地震台网中心 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815622 21.26
    8 206.7,53.2,36.5 GRMT 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815642 6.14
    9 205.0,61.3,46.6 RMT 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815644 12.67
    10 199.4,72.7,43.4 台湾地震科学资料中心(W震相结果) 205.4,59.1,34.3 13.815638 18.65
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  5次MS<6的地震震源机制中心解汇总表

    Table  3.   Table of central focal mechanism solution of the five earthquakes with MS < 6

    序号(震级/MS) 发震时刻(北京时间) 中心解参数 地震类型
    日期 时分 节面Ⅰ/(走向,倾角,滑动角)/(°) 节面Ⅱ/(走向,倾角,滑动角)/(°)
    1(5.5) 2022-9-17 22∶45 104.4,88.1,168.8 194.7,78.8,1.9 走滑型
    2(5.7) 2022-9-18 13∶19 208.6,66.1,24.9 108.0,67.3,154.0 逆走滑型
    3(5.1) 2022-9-18 14∶32 200.3,80.7,9.19 108.8,80.9,170.6 走滑型
    4(5.8) 2022-9-18 17∶39 169.9,31.1,46.9 37.4,67.9,112.4 逆断型
    5(5.7) 2022-9-19 10∶07 195.0,63.8,43.0 82.6,52.3,146.1 逆走滑型
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  应力张量在各类型地震的总体震源机制节面上的相对剪应力和相对正应力统计表

    Table  4.   Relative shear stress and relative normal stress of stress tensor on the focal mechanism nodal plane of each type of earthquake focal mechanism

    总体震源机制节面Ⅰ (走向,倾角,滑动角)/(°) 总体震源机制节面Ⅱ (走向,倾角,滑动角)/(°) 应力张量在节面Ⅰ上的相对剪应力/相对正应力 应力张量在节面Ⅱ上的相对剪应力/相对正应力
    走滑型 163.51,85.24,6.27 72.99,83.76,175.21 0.700/-0.551 0.698/-0.302
    逆走滑型 200.15,56.94,45.60 81.03,53.22,137.07 0.929/-0.503 0.706/0.220
    逆断型 210.02,63.68,88.42 33.58,26.36,93.19 0.819/-0.697 0.806/0.455
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-07-08
  • 修回日期:  2023-07-28
  • 录用日期:  2023-09-04

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