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青藏高原东南缘金沙江下游新生代构造与地貌演化

王岸 王国灿 王团乐 施炎 魏杰 李皓若 吕甘雨

王岸,王国灿,王团乐,等,2023. 青藏高原东南缘金沙江下游新生代构造与地貌演化[J]. 地质力学学报,29(4):453−464 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023043
引用本文: 王岸,王国灿,王团乐,等,2023. 青藏高原东南缘金沙江下游新生代构造与地貌演化[J]. 地质力学学报,29(4):453−464 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023043
WANG A,WANG G C,WANG T L,et al.,2023. Cenozoic tectonics and geomorphic evolution of the lower Jinsha River on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(4):453−464 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023043
Citation: WANG A,WANG G C,WANG T L,et al.,2023. Cenozoic tectonics and geomorphic evolution of the lower Jinsha River on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(4):453−464 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023043

青藏高原东南缘金沙江下游新生代构造与地貌演化

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023043
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41972223, 41672195)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王岸 (1980—),男,副教授,主要从事构造地质、地貌学与低温热年代学研究。E-mail:anwang@cug.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P542

Cenozoic tectonics and geomorphic evolution of the lower Jinsha River on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

Funds: This research is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants No. 41972223 and 41672195).
  • 摘要:

    青藏高原东南缘发育数十万平方千米的广阔地貌过渡带与大面积低起伏地貌面,独特的地貌提供了解读高原构造拓展与地表隆升时间、过程以及机制的理想窗口。为揭示青藏高原东南缘新生代构造变形响应和地貌演化过程,通过构造解析、构造地貌以及低温热年代学数据分析对金沙江下游流域进行综合研究。结果表明青藏高原东南缘早在始新世即已处于北西向为主的区域性挤压条件下而发生广泛褶皱变形。尽管始新世存在区域性变形响应,但青藏高原东南缘金沙江下游地区在古近纪为低海拔丘陵地貌,地表隆升幅度极为有限。晚渐新世—早中新世研究区总体处于长期的低剥蚀速率环境,促进了低海拔平缓地貌的形成。晚新近纪以来,青藏高原东南缘发生区域性缩短变形与显著地表隆升,大型水系同步下蚀,共同塑造形成现今较高海拔的低起伏地貌面与深切峡谷并存的特征性地貌。研究结果支持青藏高原东南缘晚新近纪以来的隆升与地壳构造缩短及增厚密切相关,而中下地壳塑性流动增厚机制并非必不可少。

     

  • 图  1  青藏高原东南缘金沙江下游会理−昭通地区地质构造简图

    a—地质构造简图;b—研究区地理位置

    Figure  1.  Simplified geologic and structural map of the Huili–Zhaotong area in the lower Jinsha River of the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    (a) Simplified geologic and structural map; (b) Location of the study area on the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    图  2  金沙江下游北东向与近南北向构造(剖面位置见图1)及其赤平投影

    Pt—会理群变质褶皱基底;Zd—震旦系灯影组;Є1q-c—下寒武统筇竹寺组—沧浪铺组;Є-O—寒武系—奥陶系;D2-C2—中泥盆统—中石炭统;P1-2—下二叠统—中二叠统;P3e—上二叠统峨眉山玄武岩组;T1-3—下三叠统—上三叠统;T3J1bg—上三叠统—下侏罗统白果湾组;J1-2—下侏罗统—中侏罗统;J2y—中侏罗统益门组;K1x—下白垩统小坝组;其他岩石地层单元未细分。图中赤平投影显示褶皱翼部岩层产状与弯滑线理,箭头代表区域性主应力方向。a—会泽五星乡褶皱构造剖面;b—铅锌镇褶皱逆冲构造剖面

    Figure  2.  NE-trending and near SN-trending structures in the lower Jinsha River (See Fig. 1 for section locations) and their stereographic projections

    (a) Fold section across Wuxing Village in Huize; (b) Fold-thrust section across Qianxin Town Pt–Folded basement of the Huili Group; Zd–Sinian Dengying Formation; Є1q-c–Lower Cambrian Qiongzhusi Formation–Canglangpu Formation; Є-O–Cambrian–Ordovician; D2-C2–Middle Devonian–Middle Carboniferous; P1-2–Lower–Middle Permian; P3e–Upper Permian Emeishan Basalt Formation; T1-3–Lower–Upper Triassic; T3J1bg–Upper Triassic–Lower Jurassic Baiguowan Formation; J1-2–Lower–Middle Jurassic; J2y–Middle Jurassic Yimen Formation; K1x–Lower Cretaceous Xiaoba Formation; Alternative lithostratigraphic units are undivided. The stereographic projections show attitudes of limb beddings and fold-slip lineations, and arrows indicate regional principal stresses.

    图  3  研究区近东西向挤压变形

    a—铅锌镇北北东向向斜翼部小坝组近东西向顺层弯滑线理;b—侵入会理群的变质闪长岩向东低角度逆冲至金沙江河道砾石层之上

    Figure  3.  Near EW-trending shortening deformation observed in the study area

    (a) Fold-slip lineations developed on the Xiaoba Formation in the limb of the NNE-trending syncline across Qianxin Town; (b) The metamorphosed diorite intruded in the Huili Group being thrusted eastward above the fluvial gravels of the Jinsha River

    图  4  金沙江下游会理−昭通地区数字高程地形、坡度分布以及主干支流纵剖面χ图解

    a—研究区数字地形及主干水系;b—研究区坡度与主干水系分布,坡度分布显示研究区低起伏地貌面与陡边坡地貌的突变界线,坡度分析区域为图4a中白色虚线范围;c—主干支流χ纵剖面图解,河流纵剖面χ图解中不同颜色曲线代表不同的支流,数字表示相应河流纵剖面的投影高度,作为地表隆升幅度的指标,河流位置及编号详见图4a

    Figure  4.  Digital elevation topography, slope distribution in the Huili–Zhaotong area of the lower Jinsha River and χ plots of longitudinal profiles of the main tributaries

    (a) Digital elevation topography and major tributaries of the study area; (b) Slope distribution with major tributaries. Note the abrupt boundary between the low-relief area and the steep hillslopes. See Fig. 4a for the analyzed area indicated by the white dashed box; (c) χ plots of the longitudinal profiles analyzed. Colors are used to distinguish distinctive tributaries, and the numbers marked indicate the projected stream heights, representing magnitudes of surface uplift. See Fig. 4a for tributary labels and locations.

    图  5  青藏高原东南缘川滇地块区热年代学冷却年龄直方图(数据引自Xu and Kamp,2000Clark et al., 2005b来庆洲等,2006安艳芬等,2008谭锡斌等,2010Ouimet et al.,2010Wilson and Fowler,2011Wang et al., 2012, 2017, 2022Tian et al., 2014, 2015Tan et al., 2014Deng et al., 2015, 2018bZhang et al., 2015, 2016, 2017, 2022Meng et al., 2016Yang et al., 2016, 2020Shen et al., 2016, 2022Liu-Zeng et al., 2018Cao et al., 2019Replumaz et al., 2020Gourbet et al., 2020Zhu et al., 2021Pitard et al., 2021Tao et al., 2022Lei et al., 2022)

    a—磷灰石(U-Th)/He年龄直方图;b—锆石(U-Th)/He年龄直方图;c—磷灰石裂变径迹年龄直方图;d—锆石裂变径迹年龄直方图

    Figure  5.  Histogram of thermochronological cooling ages in the Sichuan–Yunnan Block area of the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau (Data after Xu and Kamp, 2000; Clark et al., 2005b; Lai et al., 2006; An et al., 2008; Tan et al., 2010; Ouimet et al.,2010; Wilson and Fowler, 2011; Wang et al., 2012, 2017, 2022; Tian et al., 2014, 2015; Tan et al., 2014; Deng et al., 2015, 2018b; Zhang et al., 2015, 2016, 2017, 2022; Meng et al., 2016; Yang et al., 2016, 2020; Shen et al., 2016, 2022; Liu-Zeng et al., 2018; Cao et al., 2019; Replumaz et al., 2020; Gourbet et al., 2020; Zhu et al., 2021; Pitard et al., 2021; Tao et al., 2022; Lei et al., 2022)

    (a) Apatite (U-Th)/He cooling-age histogram; (b) Zircon (U-Th)/He cooling-age histogram; (c) Apatite fission-track cooling-age histogram; (d) Zircon fission-track cooling-age histogram

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  • 收稿日期:  2023-03-29
  • 修回日期:  2023-06-10
  • 录用日期:  2023-06-12
  • 预出版日期:  2023-06-14

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