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2022年6月10日四川马尔康MS6.0震群同震地质灾害发育特征及其控制因素分析

孙东 覃亮 蒙明辉 杨涛 章旭 胡骁

孙东,覃亮,蒙明辉,等,2024. 2022年6月10日四川马尔康MS6.0震群同震地质灾害发育特征及其控制因素分析[J]. 地质力学学报,30(3):443−461 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023038
引用本文: 孙东,覃亮,蒙明辉,等,2024. 2022年6月10日四川马尔康MS6.0震群同震地质灾害发育特征及其控制因素分析[J]. 地质力学学报,30(3):443−461 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023038
SUN D,QIN L,MENG M H,et al.,2024. Analysis of the development characteristics of co-seismic geological hazards and their controlling factors in the Maerkang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm, Sichuan, on June 10, 2022[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(3):443−461 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023038
Citation: SUN D,QIN L,MENG M H,et al.,2024. Analysis of the development characteristics of co-seismic geological hazards and their controlling factors in the Maerkang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm, Sichuan, on June 10, 2022[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,30(3):443−461 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023038

2022年6月10日四川马尔康MS6.0震群同震地质灾害发育特征及其控制因素分析

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023038
基金项目: 四川省自然科学基金项目(2023NSFSC0784);四川省科技计划项目(2023YFS0435)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    孙东(1982—),男,博士,正高级工程师,从事构造地质及地质灾害防治研究。Email:sundong2003@126.com

    通讯作者:

    覃亮(1988—),男,硕士,高级工程师,从事地质灾害防治与生态修复研究。Email:569201324@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P694

Analysis of the development characteristics of co-seismic geological hazards and their controlling factors in the Maerkang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm, Sichuan, on June 10, 2022

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Sichuan (Grant No. 2023NSFSC0784) and the Sichuan Provincial Science and Technology Project (Grant No. 2023YFS0435).
  • 摘要: 为了揭示震群型同震地质灾害的分布规律和特征,理清不同类型地震诱发地质灾害的差异性,进一步认识巴颜喀拉地块周边和内部的地震风险,从而高效指导地震诱发次生地质灾害预测与防治工作,文章以2022年马尔康MS6.0震群同震地质灾害为研究对象,通过对震群序列数据、区域构造环境研究成果、区域地壳形变研究数据、震后短期内的地质灾害数据等进行系统分析研究,揭示马尔康MS6.0震群的区域和深部构造环境、同震地质灾害的主控因素。结果表明:马尔康MS6.0震群是发生在周缘边界活动性极强的巴颜喀拉地块内部次级断裂上强震空区内的深部粘滑型地震,多次震级相近的地震可能是由于松岗断裂的次级断裂破裂和之间的隔堤相继破裂的结果;地震新增地质灾害隐患83处,导致地质灾害隐患点变形加剧106处,并诱发了多处高位滑坡和系列震裂山体,震后震中草登乡地质灾害极高、高、中风险区面积分别占比1.62%、4.80%和12.37%;地震诱发同震地质灾害的控制因素由主到次为发震断裂及其关联断裂、地震震级及能量衰减、地形坡度及高差、岩体结构及结构面密度。此次发震的松岗断裂与龙日坝活动断裂交切区未来强震风险高,发震断裂及与其有联动效应的断裂周边在地震时发生地质灾害风险高。

     

  • 图  1  研究区区域构造纲要图

    DKLF—东昆仑断裂;TZF—塔藏断裂;ABF—阿坝断裂;LRQF—龙日曲断裂;MRGF—毛尔盖断裂;GYQF—观音桥断裂;DRF—达日断裂;SGF—松岗断裂;FBHF—抚边河断裂;MYLF—米亚罗断裂;MJF—岷江断裂;HYF—虎牙断裂;XSHF—鲜水河断裂带;LMSF—龙门山断裂带;GLF—甘孜−理塘断裂;LTF—理塘断裂;DLSF—大凉山断裂;ANHF—安宁河断裂a—研究区构造区位图 ; b—研究区区域构造图

    Figure  1.  Outline Map of Regional Structure in the Study Area

    (a) Location map of the study area; (b) Regional structural map of the study areaDKLF–East Kunlun Fault; TZF–Tazang Fault, ABF–Aba Fault; LRQF–Longriqu Fault; MRGF–Maoergai Fault; GYQF–Guanyinqiao Fault; DRF–Dari Fault; SGF–Songgang Fault; FBHF–Fubianhe Fault; MYLF–Miyaluo Fault; MJF–Minjiang Fault; HYF–Huya Fault; XSHF–Xianshuihe Fault Zone; LMSF–Longmenshan Fault Zone; GLF–Ganzi–Litang Fault; LTF–Litang Fault; DLSF–Daliangshan Fault; ANHF–Anninghe Fault

    图  2  马尔康MS6.0震群地震序列和能量释放图

    Figure  2.  Plot showing the earthquake sequence and energy release of the Maerkang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm

    图  3  马尔康MS 6.0震群地震地质略图(数据来源:中国地震局官网 http://www.cea.gov.cn)

    Figure  3.  Seismic geological sketch of the Maerkang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm(data source: China Earthquake Administration Official Website http://www.cea.gov.cn)

    图  4  马尔康MS6.0震群地震震源区破裂过程图

    a—地震震中(引自颜利君等(2022)、张建勇等(2022),有修改;地震统计时间为 2022 年 6 月 10 日 0 —12 时);b—马尔康MS 6.0震群地震断层滑移分布投影;c—马尔康MS 6.0震群地震断层面滑动分布(引自张建勇等(2022),地震统计时间为 2022 年 6 月 10 日 0 —7 时)

    Figure  4.  Diagrams showing the rupture process in the source area of the Markang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm

    (a)Earthquake epicenter; (b)Projection of fault slip distribution of the MS 6.0 Maerkang earthquake; (c)Surface slip distribution of the faults in the MS 6.0 Maerkang earthquake Note: Fig 4a was modified from Yan et al., 2022, Zhang et al., 2022; Earthquake statistics were taken from June 10, 2022, 0:00~12:00. Fig. 4b and 4c were adapted from Zhang et al., 2022; Earthquake statistics were taken from June 10, 2022, 0:00~7:00.

    图  5  马尔康MS6.0震群震中分布图(剖面位置见图3,统计时间截止2022年6月30日)

    a—垂直断层方向(剖面AB);b—沿断层方向(剖面CD)

    Figure  5.  Distribution map of the epicenters of the Maerkang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm (The cross-sectional position is shown in Fig. 3)

    (a)Vertical fault direction (Profile AB);(b)Along the fault direction (Profile CD), with statistics up to June 30th,2022

    图  6  马尔康MS6.0震群构造环境剖面图(GPS水平速度场数据来源:Wang and Shen,2020;陈长云等,2022地球物理数据来源:Bai et al.,2010

    a—区域地震构造环境;b—AB剖面各构造单元地壳运动特征及水准垂直速度(1980—2010年):c—深部构造剖面;

    Figure  6.  Structural environment profile of the Maerkang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm ( GPS horizontal velocity field data source in Fig 6a and 6b is from Wang and Shen, 2020, Chen et al., 2022; Geophysical data in Fig.6c is from Bai et al., 2010.)

    (a) Regional seismic tectonic environment; (b) Crustal movement characteristics and vertical velocity of each tectonic unit along profile AB (1980–2010); (c) Deep structural profile

    图  7  2022年6月10日马尔康MS6.0震群地震灾区地质灾害分布图(烈度分区数据来源:中国地震局官网 http://www.cea.gov.cn

    Figure  7.  Distribution map of geological disasters in the earthquake-stricken area of the Maerkang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm (Intensity zoning data source: China Earthquake Administration Official Website http://www.cea.gov.cn)

    图  8  草登乡政府后山同震高位滑坡特征

    a—草登乡政府后山全貌;b—滑坡全貌及危险区范围;c—滑坡后缘下错陡坎;d—滑坡后缘平台卸荷解体区

    Figure  8.  Characteristics of the co-seismic high-position landslide in the back hill of Caodeng Township Government

    (a) Overview of the back hill of Caodeng Township Government; (b) Overview of the landslide and the hazardous zone; (c) Steep slope at the back edge of the landslide; (d) Unloading and disintegration area of the platform at the back edge of the landslide

    图  9  草登乡科拉机村俄热塘滑坡特征

    a—滑坡全貌图;b—滑坡后缘下错裂缝;c—滑坡前缘

    Figure  9.  Characteristics of the Eretang landslide in Kelaji Village, Caodeng Town

    (a) Overview of the landslide; (b) Cracks at the back edge of the landslide; (c) Front edge of the landslide

    图  10  典型公路边坡崩塌(滑)体特征

    a—典型松散堆积物崩滑体;b—典型基岩崩塌体

    Figure  10.  Photos showing characteristics of typical landslides at highway slopes

    (a) Typical loose accumulation landslide; (b) Typical bedrock collapse

    图  11  震中草登乡地质灾害评价图

    a—灾害易发性;b—危险性;c—易损性;d—风险性

    Figure  11.  Geological hazard assessment maps of Caodeng Town

    (a) Susceptibility assessment map; (b) Hazard assessment map; (c) Vulnerability assessment map; (d) Risk assessment map

    图  12  不同地震同震地质灾害对比图

    a—不同地震震级与同震地质灾害数量关系;b—不同地震同震地质灾害体积与灾害数量关系

    Figure  12.  Comparison plots of co-seismic geological hazards caused by different earthquakes

    (a) Relationship between different earthquake magnitudes and the number of co-seismic geological hazards; (b) Relationship between the volume of co-seismic geological hazards and the number of hazards

    表  1  马尔康MS6.0级震群地震序列统计表

    Table  1.   Statistical table of the earthquake sequence of the Maerkang MS 6.0 earthquake swarm

    统计时段 地震频次 总频次 最大震级(MS
    MS 2.0~2.9 MS 3.0~3.9 MS 4.0~4.9 MS 5.0~5.9 MS 6.0~6.9
    2022-06-09—2022-06-10 247 43 4 2 1 297 6.0
    2022-06-11—2022-06-13 127 7 134 3.9
    2022-06-14~2022-06-20 118 15 1 134 4.4
    2022-06-21—2022-06-30 73 4 77 3.7
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  震后地质灾害数量分类统计

    Table  2.   Classification and statistics of post-earthquake geological disasters

    县(市)震前在库灾害点数/处新增点/处变形加剧点/处灾种类型及数量/处总威胁户数/户总威胁人数/人总威胁财产/万元
    滑坡崩塌泥石流
    马尔康市316639617723179333316030145590
    阿坝县815135348817583544071
    红原县192213171228726970
    壤塘县1641377216891311750890945
    合计5808310629743323558330245287576
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-03-27
  • 修回日期:  2023-11-24
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