This paper takes the Gagarin region on the far side of the moon as the research object, interprets multi-source remote sensing data, and reveals the geological characteristics of the typical region on the far side of the moon through quantitative statistics of geological elements, distribution characteristics and genetic analysis, and then discusses the regional geological evolution history of the Gagarin region. The relationship between the geological characteristics of this area and the evolution of the moon has been preliminarily established. The results show that: (1) The longest deep fault in the whole moon developed in the region is the result of the combined action of the South Pole Aiken impact event and the lunar thermal expansion and other internal and external stresses. (2) The linear anomalies of the thickness of the lunar crust extending outward from the South Pole-Aiken Basin extend to the major basins on the frontal side of the moon, indicating that the influence range of the South Pole-Aiken basin on the far side of the moon can radiate to the frontal side of the moon at the depth of the moon. (3) The variation of the number and area of impact craters in the Gagarin region on the far side of the moon is related to the evolution of the Earth-Moon system and the Solar System. (4) According to the quantitative statistical results of the impact crater and the dating results of the basalt units, the regional geological evolution history was clarified, and the active periods of geological processes in Gagarin region are divided.