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古地震事件震级或强度大小限定的讨论

高云鹏 刘静 韩龙飞 邵延秀 姚文倩 徐晶 胡贵明 王子君 屈孜屹 徐恩民

高云鹏, 刘静, 韩龙飞, 等, 2023. 古地震事件震级或强度大小限定的讨论. 地质力学学报, 29 (5): 704-719. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023034
引用本文: 高云鹏, 刘静, 韩龙飞, 等, 2023. 古地震事件震级或强度大小限定的讨论. 地质力学学报, 29 (5): 704-719. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023034
GAO Yunpeng, LIU Jing, HAN Longfei, et al., 2023. Discussion on the magnitude or intensity limitation of paleoearthquake events. Journal of Geomechanics, 29 (5): 704-719. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023034
Citation: GAO Yunpeng, LIU Jing, HAN Longfei, et al., 2023. Discussion on the magnitude or intensity limitation of paleoearthquake events. Journal of Geomechanics, 29 (5): 704-719. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023034

古地震事件震级或强度大小限定的讨论

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2023034
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2021YFC3000605-04

详细信息
    作者简介:

    高云鹏(1999-), 男, 在读硕士, 从事活动构造和古地震的研究。E-mail: 1755357034@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    刘静(1969-), 女, 博士, 教授, 从事强震与断层活动性、构造地貌等方面研究。E-mail: liu_zeng@tju.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P65

Discussion on the magnitude or intensity limitation of paleoearthquake events

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2021YFC3000605-04

  • 摘要:

    震级是表征地震能量大小的重要参数, 但在古地震研究中, 由于难以精确给定与地震矩紧密相关的破裂参数, 故而无法直接计算事件的震级大小。研究者通常假定事件序列为震级相似的特征地震, 或基于震级已知的历史地震地表破裂参数获取经验关系来进行震级估算。但已有研究表明特征地震的假设过于简化, 而利用经验关系估算震级的方法也受限于各种误差, 因此亟需探索新方法以提升古地震事件震级或规模大小评估的合理性。近年来, 三维组合探槽的成功应用表明探槽内蕴含着丰富的事件变形信息, 进而证实了在探槽内评估事件规模大小的可行性。基于此, 文章以阿尔金断裂铜矿探槽为例, 利用探槽揭示的事件变形强度, 包括垂向位移量、变形带宽度和裂缝总拉张量, 来评估事件序列的规模。数据分析结果表明, 事件变形强度参数与震级相对大小具有一定的正相关性, 且各参数之间也呈现部分相关性。因此, 探槽中事件变形强度信息可以判断事件震级的相对大小, 充分挖掘探槽内的事件变形信息可为合理评估古地震事件的震级提供借鉴和参考, 在古地震研究中应加以重视。

     

  • 图  1  矩震级(MW)与地表破裂长度、最大位错量和平均位错量之间的经验关系

    a—矩震级(MW)与地表破裂长度(SRL)的经验关系(据Wells and Coppersmith, 1994修改);b—矩震级(MW)与最大位错量(MD)的经验关系(据Wells and Coppersmith, 1994修改);c—走滑历史地震的矩震级(MW)与地表破裂长度(SRL)的经验关系;d—走滑历史地震的矩震级(MW)与平均位错量(AD)的经验关系

    Figure  1.  The empirical relationship between moment magnitude (MW) and surface rupture length (SRL), maximum displacement (MD), and average displacement (AD)

    (a) The empirical relationship between moment magnitude (MW) and surface rupture length (adapted from Wells and Coppersmith, 1994); (b) The empirical relationship between moment magnitude (MW) and maximum displacement (adapted from Wells and Coppersmith, 1994); (c) The empirical relationship between moment magnitude (MW) and surface rupture length of strike-slip earthquakes with known historical seismicity; (d) The empirical relationship between moment magnitude (MW) and average displacement of strike-slip earthquakes with known historical seismicity

    图  2  阿尔金断裂中段古地震事件序列对比图(据袁兆德等,2020修改)

    字母代表各探槽内不同期次的地震事件

    Figure  2.  Comparison of event sequences in the middle part of the Altyn Taugh fault (modified from Yuan et al., 2020)

    The letter numbers represent different periods of paleoearthquake events in different trenches.

    图  3  加利福利亚州华莱士溪附近探槽揭露的同震位移量(据Liu et al., 2004修改)

    a—探槽开挖布设及所揭露出的断层两侧的对应冲沟,颜色指示对应关系,灰黑色点线表示断层对盘没有对应冲沟;b—断层东北盘揭露的多期冲沟;c—冲沟揭示的水平和垂向位错量,矩形框内的字母-数字序号对应断层两侧相应冲沟

    Figure  3.  The coseismic displacement revealed by the trench of the Wallace Creek area in California (modified from Liu et al., 2004)

    (a) Map views of buried channels at site (Colors indicate correlations across fault, and Gray and black dot lines are channels with no known correlatives across fault.); (b) Multiple incised channels exposed on the northeastern side of the fault block; (c) Horizontal and vertical offsets revealed by the incised channels (Letter-number pairs in boxes are correlated channels.)

    图  4  多期地震造成的地层位错(据Liu-Zeng et al., 2007修改)

    Figure  4.  The effects of multiple earthquake events on stratigraphic faulting (modified from Liu-Zeng et al., 2007)

    图  5  铜矿探槽古地震事件层位事件证据评分统计图(据Yuan et al., 2018修改)

    Figure  5.  Histograms of event indicators of Copper Mine Trench (adapted from Yuan et al., 2018)

    图  6  铜矿探槽内的拉张裂缝(据Yuan et al., 2018修改)

    a—事件A在T1SW造成的拉张裂缝;b—事件F在T1SW造成的疑似拉张裂缝;c—事件I在T1SW造成的拉张裂缝

    Figure  6.  Tensional fractures of the Copper Mine Trench (modified from Yuan et al., 2018)

    (a) Tensional fractures caused by Event A in T1SW; (b) Tensional fractures caused by Event B in T1SW; (c) Tensional fractures caused by Event I in T1SW

    图  7  不同探槽壁上事件A、B、G、H的垂向位移量大小对比图

    Figure  7.  Vertical displacement comparison diagram of events A, B, G, and H on different trench walls

    图  8  不同探槽壁上各事件变形带宽度范围对比图

    Figure  8.  Comparison diagram of the width range of deformation zones for each event on different trench walls

    图  9  不同探槽壁上各事件裂缝总拉张量对比图

    Figure  9.  Comparison diagram of total tensional displacement of cracks for each event on different trench walls

    图  10  基于事件A、B、G的变形强度参数间的相关性分析图

    Figure  10.  Correlation analysis diagram of deformation intensity parameters based on Events A, B, and G

    表  1  铜矿探槽各事件的震级估算大小

    Table  1.   Estimation of magnitude for each event in the copper mine trench

    古地震事件 A B C D E F G H I
    同震位错/m ~5 ~5 ~7 ~6.5 - - - - -
    破裂长度/km >350 >350 ~300 ~200 ~200 ~200 ~300 ~200 ~300
    矩震级(MW) 7.8~8.1 7.8~8.1 7.8~7.9 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.9 7.7 7.9
    注:引自袁兆德,2018
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同探槽壁各事件垂向位移量值

    Table  2.   Vertical displacement values for each events on different trench wall

    古地震事件 1号探槽 2号探槽
    T1NE T1SW T2NE T2SW
    垂向位移量/cm A 28.6 11.1 6.3 18.7
    B 26.4 25.8 10.3 19.4
    C 42.6 59.6
    D 18.2 22
    E 0.4 -
    F - - - -
    G - 56.7 39.4 21.9
    H 4.5 3.6 7.2 7.9
    I - - - -
    注:“空白”指无法测量其垂向位移量值
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同探槽壁各事件变形带宽度范围

    Table  3.   Width of the deformation zone for each event on different trench walls

    古地震事件 1号探槽 2号探槽
    T1NE T1SW T2NE T2SW
    变形带宽度范围/m A 13.0 13.0 11.7 11.2
    B 24.1 24.8 15.0 11.2
    C 7.0 5.7 - -
    D 2.6 1.6 - -
    E 1.3 1.4 1.9 2.4
    F - 2.5 2.7 2.3
    G 16.3 18.0 11.5 11.9
    H 2.7 0.5 - 2.9
    I 0.9 1.5 - -
    注:“空白”指无法测量其变形带宽度范围
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同探槽壁各事件裂缝总拉张量

    Table  4.   Total fracture tension tensor for each event on different trench walls

    古地震事件 1号探槽 2号探槽
    T1NE T1SW T2NE T2SW
    裂缝总拉张量/m A 2.20±0.12 2.12±0.10 0.42±0.31 0.97±0.11
    B 2.59±0.12 2.12±0.11 1.02±0.80 2.03±0.76
    C 0.49±0.08 0.95±0.07 - -
    D - - - -
    E 0.13±0.06 - 0.18±0.02 -
    F - 0.19±0.01 - -
    G 0.90±0.07 0.25±0.08 0.03±0.03 1.15±0.10
    H - - - -
    I - 1.56±0.10 - -
    注:“空白”指无法测量其裂缝总拉张量
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-03-15
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