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勘查区找矿预测理论与方法及其应用案例

吕志成 陈辉 宓奎峰 张帮禄 谢月桥 庞振山 程志中 薛建玲 公凡影 段彬 吕鑫

吕志成,陈辉,宓奎峰,等,2022. 勘查区找矿预测理论与方法及其应用案例[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):842−865 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222816
引用本文: 吕志成,陈辉,宓奎峰,等,2022. 勘查区找矿预测理论与方法及其应用案例[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):842−865 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222816
LYU Z C,CHEN H,MI K F,et al.,2022. The theory and method of ore prospecting prediction for exploration area: Case studies of the Lala copper deposit in Sichuan, Muhu–Maerkantu manganese ore deposit in Xinjiang and Aonaodaba tin-polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):842−865 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222816
Citation: LYU Z C,CHEN H,MI K F,et al.,2022. The theory and method of ore prospecting prediction for exploration area: Case studies of the Lala copper deposit in Sichuan, Muhu–Maerkantu manganese ore deposit in Xinjiang and Aonaodaba tin-polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):842−865 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222816

勘查区找矿预测理论与方法及其应用案例

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222816
基金项目: 中国地质调查局矿产地质调查项目(DD20220166,DD20190166)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    吕志成(1966—),男,博士,研究员,主要从事矿产资源调查评价及矿床学等方面的研究。E-mail:zhichenglv@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P624

The theory and method of ore prospecting prediction for exploration area: Case studies of the Lala copper deposit in Sichuan, Muhu–Maerkantu manganese ore deposit in Xinjiang and Aonaodaba tin-polymetallic deposit in Inner Mongolia

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Geological Project of the China Geological Survey(Grants DD20220166, DD20190166)
  • 摘要: 降低勘查风险、实现科学找矿一直是国内外矿产勘查界不断探索的前缘领域和研究热点,而勘查区找矿预测理论与方法是解决这一难题的有效途径。该方法将成矿作用内因(元素的地球化学特征)和外因(地质作用类型)相结合,构建以成矿地质体、成矿构造与成矿结构面和成矿作用特征标志为主要内容的找矿预测地质模型,通过大比例尺构造蚀变填图、物化探测量和专题研究等综合方法,预测推断矿体赋存位置,最后通过工程施工,发现并查明工业矿体(矿床)。依据勘查区找矿预测理论与方法,在四川拉拉铜矿、新疆玛尔坎苏锰矿带穆呼‒玛尔坎土锰矿及内蒙古大兴安岭南段敖脑达坝地区锡多金属矿开展找矿预测,取得了较好效果。

     

  • 图  1  斑岩铜矿找矿预测地质模型(叶天竺等,20142017

    Figure  1.  Geological model of prospecting prediction for porphyry copper deposits(Ye et al.,20142017

    图  2  拉拉地区大地构造位置及矿田地质简图

    a—大地构造位置(据Zhou et al.,2014修改);b—矿田地质简图(据陈辉等,2021修改)

    Figure  2.  Geotectonic position and ore field geological sketch map of the Lala area

    (a) Geotectonic position (modified from Zhou et al., 2014); (b) Ore field geological sketch map (modified from Chen et al., 2021)

    图  3  拉拉铜矿找矿预测地质模型

    Figure  3.  Prospecting prediction model of the Lala copper deposit

    图  4  拉拉地区局部航磁ΔT平面图(据陈辉等,2021

    Figure  4.  Local aeromagnetic ΔT plan map of the Lala area (Chen et al.,2021)

    图  5  红泥坡南部外围铜矿纵剖面图

    Figure  5.  Longitudinal profile of the southern Hongnipo copper deposit

    图  6  西昆仑玛尔坎苏大型碳酸锰矿带大地构造简图和地质图

    a—西昆仑玛尔坎苏锰矿带大地构造简图(据覃英等,2014修改);b—玛尔坎苏大型碳酸锰矿带地质图(据Zhang et al.,2020修改)

    Figure  6.  Tectonic sketch and geological map of the giant Malkansu manganese carbonate zone, northwestern portion of the West Kunlun Orogenic Belt (a modified from Qin et al., 2014; b modified from Zhang et al., 2020)

    (a)Tectonic sketch; (b) Geological map

    图  7  奥尔托喀讷什锰矿床地质图(A−A' 剖面显示矿区背斜构造)(据张帮禄等,2018修改)

    Figure  7.  Geological map of the Ortokarnash manganese carbonate ore deposit, and the profile A–A' shows the anticline of the mining area (modified from Zhang et al., 2018)

    图  8  穆呼–玛尔坎土锰矿床地质图(据董志国等,2020a修改)

    Figure  8.  Geological map of the Muhu–Maerkantu manganese carbonate ore deposit (modified from Dong et al., 2020a)

    图  9  海底热液过程与玛尔坎苏地区锰矿沉积模型(据Zhang et al.,2020修改)

    Figure  9.  Qualitative model of submarine hydrothermal processes and deposition of the manganese ore deposit in the Malkansu district (modified from Zhang et al, 2020)

    图  10  玛尔坎苏锰矿带晚石炭世地层沉积相恢复剖面图(Zhang et al., 2020

    Figure  10.  Recovered profile of the late Carboniferous sedimentary facies in the Malkansu manganese zone (Zhang et al., 2020)

    图  11  玛尔坎苏锰矿带上石炭统喀拉阿特河组(C2k)地层剖面分布及地层厚度等值线图

    Figure  11.  Distribution map for the sections of the upper Carboniferous Kalaatehe Formation, also showing the isolines for the thickness of the strata

    图  12  穆呼–玛尔坎土一带锰矿床找矿预测模型

    Figure  12.  Prospecting prediction model of the manganese deposits in the Muhu–Maerkantu area

    图  13  内蒙古黄岗梁–甘珠尔庙成矿带锡矿分布图(据Mi et al.,2020修改)

    Figure  13.  Locations of the tin polymetallic deposits in the Huanggangliang–Ganzhuermiao metallogenic belt (modified from Mi et al., 2020)

    图  14  维拉斯托锡多金属床综合勘查模型(邹滔等,2022

    Figure  14.  Prospecting prediction model of the Weilasituo tin polymetallic deposit (Zou et al., 2022)

    表  1  主要类型矿床的成矿地质体(叶天竺等,2014

    Table  1.   Geological bodies related to the mineralization of the main types of mineral deposits(Ye et al.,2014

    成矿地质作用矿床类型及主要矿种成矿地质体
    沉积地质作用 沉积型(铁、锰、铜、铀矿) 原型沉积盆地、隐蔽及同生断裂、含矿建造
    碎屑岩喷流沉积型(铅锌、铜、铁、锰矿) 含矿层位(以碎屑岩类为主)及成岩同生断裂
    砂岩型(铜、铀矿)(这里专指与后生地下水或者其他流体
    有关,富含在砂岩中的铜、铀矿)
    砂岩型铜矿成矿地质体主要为盆地含矿层位及边缘同生断裂;
    砂岩型铀矿成矿地质体主要为氧化−还原过渡带砂体
    碳酸盐岩容矿的非岩浆后生热液型(铅锌矿)(MVT型) 含矿岩层及(深源)断裂构造,或以盆地边缘和后生断裂构造为主
    火山地质作用 海相火山喷流沉积型(铜、铅锌矿)(VMS-SEDEX型) 次−火山岩体(深部岩浆来源)、同生−横向断裂(控制喷流口的产出)、
    含矿建造(海相火山−沉积地层)
    陆相次火山岩型(铁矿) 火山机构和次火山岩体
    陆相次火山热液型(金、银、铅锌、铜、铀矿) 火山机构中次火山岩体顶部突出小岩株(晚期次火山岩体)等
    侵入岩浆地质作用 正岩浆型及伟晶岩型矿床 岩浆房顶部的突出小岩体等
    接触交代型(铁、铜、金、铅锌、钨、锡矿) 侵位深度较大的侵入体
    高(中)温热液型(钨、锡、稀有、稀土矿) 高F、B的酸性岩浆形成的中深成侵入体(或酸性碱长花岗岩)
    斑岩型(铜、钼、金、钨、锡矿) 浅成、超浅成侵入体,少量为次火山岩体
    中低温热液型(金、银、铅锌、钼矿) 中浅成岩浆侵入体
    远成低温热液型(金、锑、汞、钨矿) 浅成侵入体(浅成脉岩)
    区域变质地质作用 受变质型(铁、磷、硼矿) 变质变形构造与含矿地层
    大型变形地质作用 韧性剪切带型(金矿) 韧性剪切带中的脆性部位变质建造
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  主要成矿构造系统的成矿结构面类型组合及空间格架(叶天竺等,2014

    Table  2.   Types and composites of the metallogenetic structural planes in the main metallogenetic systems (Ye et al., 2014)

    构造系统分类成矿结构面矿床类型结构面空间格架
    沉积构造系统 陆相 ①盆缘同生断裂面;②岩相界面;③特殊岩性层;④氧化还原界面/转换带;⑤酸碱转换界面;⑥古风化面 风化型 ①+⑥上下结构
    砂岩铜、铀矿 ①+②+③+④+⑤上下、左右结构
    海相 ①盆缘盆内同生断裂面和横张断裂面;②次级隆拗变换带;③沉降中心部位;④特殊岩性层;⑤岩相带界面;⑥潟湖沙坝;⑦古水温、古水流、古生物变化带;⑧物理化学变换带/面;⑨后生深源断裂;⑩不整合面;⑪古风化面 化学沉积型 ②+③+④+⑤+⑥+⑦+⑧+⑩+⑪+⑨上下、左右结构
    同生热水沉积型 ①+④左右结构
    后生热液沉积型 ①+④+⑨左右结构
    火山构造系统 陆相 ①火山通道;②火山岩性岩相界面;③次火山原生裂隙;④次火山喷发间断面;⑤次火山岩体顶部裂隙带;⑥爆破角砾岩体;⑦叠加区域断裂 次火山热液型 ⑦+③+①+②+⑥+④+⑤上下、左右结构
    海相 ①次火山岩体顶部网脉状裂隙带;②火山岩和沉积岩界面;③喷流管道;④叠加区域断裂 火山喷流沉积型 ②+①+③+④上下结构
    岩浆侵入构造系统 侵入体 ①岩体底部/侧伏端;②岩体同生边界断裂;③构造岩片;④岩性岩相带 基性、超基性岩浆型 ②+①+④上下结构
    地幔岩铬铁矿 ①+③+④上下结构
    侵入体接触带 ①叠加区域同生断裂;②岩体接触面;③捕虏体;④岩体顶部网脉状裂隙;⑤岩体外接触带褶曲/“硅钙面” 斑岩型 ①+②+④上下结构
    接触交代型 ①+③+①+⑤左右结构
    中高温热液型 ①+②+④上下结构
    中低温热液型 ①+②上下结构
    褶皱构造系统 褶曲、同生断裂 ①向形构造轴部;②背斜转折端/轴部 沉积变质型
    ①褶皱同生断裂;②背斜褶曲层间破碎带 接触交代型、
    中低温热液型
    ①+②左右、上下结构
    断裂构造系统 剪切带 ①韧性剪切带脆性叠加部位 韧性剪切带型 ①上下结构
    ①脆性断裂侧伏;②叠加于一切成岩原生构造 中低温热液型 ①+②上下结构
    断裂系统 ①层间破碎带;②沉积不整合界面 卡林型金矿 ①+②上下结构
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-08-09
  • 修回日期:  2022-09-14
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  • 预出版日期:  2022-11-02

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