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鲁西归来庄金矿田燕山期金成矿系统及成矿模式

于学峰 李大鹏 单伟 李增胜 耿科 舒磊 孙雨沁 宋英昕

于学峰,李大鹏,单伟,等,2022. 鲁西归来庄金矿田燕山期金成矿系统及成矿模式[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):821−841 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222815
引用本文: 于学峰,李大鹏,单伟,等,2022. 鲁西归来庄金矿田燕山期金成矿系统及成矿模式[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):821−841 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222815
YU X F,LI D P,SHAN W,et al.,2022. Yanshanian gold metallogenic system and metallogenic model of the Guilaizhuang gold ore field, western Shandong[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):821−841 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222815
Citation: YU X F,LI D P,SHAN W,et al.,2022. Yanshanian gold metallogenic system and metallogenic model of the Guilaizhuang gold ore field, western Shandong[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):821−841 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222815

鲁西归来庄金矿田燕山期金成矿系统及成矿模式

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222815
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(42272104,42172094,41372086,41672084,41772076,41503038)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    于学峰(1962—),男,博士,二级研究员,主要从事地质矿产研究。E-mail: xfengy@sohu.com

  • 中图分类号: P588.122;P597.3

Yanshanian gold metallogenic system and metallogenic model of the Guilaizhuang gold ore field, western Shandong

Funds: This research is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China ( Grants No. 42272104, 42172094, 41372086, 41672084, 41772076, 41503038)
  • 摘要: 鲁西归来庄金矿田是中国东部最重要的富碲型金矿田之一,也是鲁西地区迄今唯一的特大型金矿田。矿田中各金矿床受铜石潜火山穹隆控制,产出于不同深度、不同地质构造部位、不同的地质体中,矿化类型多样,但它们的形成环境、成矿地质背景、成矿作用特征总体一致:①归来庄金矿田是一个主要由前寒武纪基底岩石和早古生代碳酸盐岩盖层组成、中生代构造–岩浆作用较为发育的内生中低温热液金矿集区;②燕甘断裂是郯庐断裂带派生构造,控制着区内地层、岩浆岩、次级构造及金矿床/点的展布;燕甘断裂的次级断裂、潜火山穹隆的放射状、环状构造是矿液运移和沉淀聚集的良好场所;③金矿化以隐爆角砾岩型、镁质碳酸盐岩微细浸染型、斑岩型、矽卡岩叠加型及破碎带蚀变岩型为主,矿石普遍发育浸染状、细脉浸染状、网脉状、团块状和块状构造,反映其形成于岩浆期后热液环境;④具有碲与金超常富集共存的显著特征,金属矿物除常见的自然金、银金矿外,另有含碲矿物碲铜金矿、碲金银矿、碲银矿、碲金矿等;⑤早侏罗世中偏碱性岩浆侵位初步启动了该区的金成矿过程,为早白垩世的中碱性岩浆活动提供了母岩和成矿物质来源,早白垩世可能是鲁西归来庄金矿田的主要成矿时期;⑥成矿流体具有低温、低盐度特征,同位素特征具有多来源性,以岩浆水和大气降水为主,并有少量变质水的参与;⑦在成矿热液中可能是Au与Te、S结合生成可搬运的配合物进行运移;成矿热液中有较高的碲逸度,在中低温条件下碲易置换硫而进入硫化物晶格,在高碲逸度的条件下碲则易与Au、Ag、Pb等元素形成碲化物而参与成矿。这种区域上成矿特征表现出的一致性,表明鲁西归来庄地区中生代大规模金成矿作用受控于统一的地质事件,可划归为一个统一的潜火山中—低温热液金成矿系统。

     

  • 图  1  鲁西地区金矿地质简图(于学峰等,2016

    1—太古宙侵入岩类;2—元古宙侵入岩类;3—中生代侵入岩类;4—地层;5—已知和推断断层;6—金矿床(矿点);7—归来庄金矿田

    Figure  1.  Sketch geological map of the gold deposits in western Shandong( Yu et al., 2016

    1–Archean intrusions; 2–Proterozoic intrusions; 3–Mesozoic intrusions; 4–Stratum; 5–Faults and inferred faults; 6–Gold deposits ( occurrence ); 7–Guilaizhuang gold ore field

    图  2  归来庄金矿田地质简图(于学峰等,2019

    1—第四系;2—白垩系;3—侏罗系;4—奥陶系;5—寒武系;6—新太古代泰山岩群山草峪组;7—燕山早期二长闪长玢岩;8—燕山早期二长斑岩;9—新太古代花岗闪长岩;10—新太古代二长花岗岩;11—隐爆角砾岩;12—角度不整合地质界线;13—断裂及编号;14—隐爆角砾岩型(归来庄式)金矿床;15—镁质碳酸盐岩微细浸染型(磨坊沟式)金矿床;16—其他热液型金矿床(点);F1—燕甘断裂;F2—归来庄断裂;F3—营子洼断裂

    Figure  2.  Sketch geological map of the Guilaizhuang gold ore field(Yu et al., 2019

    1–Quaternary; 2–Cretaceous; 3–Jurassic; 4–Ordovician; 5–Cambrian; 6–Shancaoyu formation of the Taishan group in the Neoarchean; 7–Early Yanshanian monzodiorite porphyrite; 8–Early Yanshanian monzonite porphyry; 9–Neoarchean granodiorite; 10–Neoarchean monzonitic granite; 11–Cryptoexplosive breccia; 12–Angular unconformity geological boundary; 13–Fault and its serial number; 14–Cryptoexplosive breccia type (Guilaizhuang type) gold deposit; 15–Micro-disseminated magnesium carbonate (Mofanggou type) gold deposit; 16–Other hydrothermal gold deposits (ore spots); F1–Yan–Gan fault; F2–Guilaizhuang fault; F3–Yingziwa fault

    图  3  归来庄金矿深部32 勘探线剖面图(于学峰等,2016

    1—寒武—奥陶纪三山子组+炒米店组+崮山组;2—寒武纪张夏组+馒头组+朱砂洞组;3—侏罗纪二长闪长玢岩;4—前寒武纪变质基底;5—蚀变角砾岩;6—金矿体

    Figure  3.  Section map of the No.32 prospecting line in the Guilaizhuang gold deposit(Yu et al., 2016

    1–Cambrian–Ordovician Sanshanzi group, Chaomidian group and Gushan group; 2–Cambrian Zhangxia group, Mantou group and Zhushadong group; 3–Jurassic monzonitic diorite porphyrite; 4–Precambrian metamorphic basement; 5–Broken alteration breccia; 6–Gold ore bodies

    图  4  卓家庄金矿富碲型金矿石矿相学特征(于学峰等,2019

    Alt—碲铅矿;Syl—针碲金银矿;Py—黄铁矿;Qtz—石英;Fl—萤石;Ser—绢云母;Hes—碲银矿;Am—辉银矿;Gn—方铅矿;Sp—闪锌矿;Ccp—黄铜矿;Pro—碲铁矿;Tel—自然碲a—石英–萤石–多金属硫化物–金–碲化物脉体沿早期石英–黄铁矿化的岩石裂隙充填,又被成矿后期的绢云母脉体充填穿插(单偏光);b—碲铅矿和针碲金银矿连生分布于黄铁矿周围,晚于黄铁矿形成(反射光);c—碲银矿与辉银矿呈不规则状交生体状,并见许多乳滴状碲银矿分布于石英粒间(反射光);d—碲银矿和黄铁矿分布于石英萤石粒间(反射光);e—碲铅矿和针碲金银矿分布于碲铁矿边部(反射光);f—自然碲及针碲金银矿连生分布于石英、萤石等非金属矿物中(反射光);g—碲铁矿和自然碲及针碲金银矿连生分布于非金属矿物石英、萤石中(反射光);h—自然碲分布于胶结物中(反射光)

    Figure  4.  Mineralogical characteristics of the Te-rich gold ores in the Zhuojiazhuang gold deposit(Yu et al., 2019

    (a) Zhuojiazhuang gold ores: Quartz, fluorspar-polymetallic sulfide-gold telluride vein bodies are filled along the early quartz-pyritization rock fractures, and then interspersed with the later sericite vein bodies; (b) Zhuojiazhuang gold ores: Altaite and sylvanite are distributed around pyrite and formed later than pyrite; (c) Guilaizhuang gold ores: Hessite and argentite are irregularly distributed together with galena, sphalerite and chalcopyrite. Tellurite deposits are metasomatized along the chalcopyrite edges. Many tellurite crystals are distributed between quartz grains; (d) Guilaizhuang gold ores: Hessite and pyrite are distributed among quartz fluorite minerals. The residual bulk pyrite is distributed between tellurite and quartz fluorite grains; (e) Zhuojiazhuang gold ores: Altaite and sylvanite are distributed at the edge of cuzticite. The micrograined pyrite is distributed in quartz, fluorite and so on; (f) Zhuojiazhuang gold ores: Native tellurium and sylvanite coexist in minerals such as quartz and fluorite; (g) Zhuojiazhuang gold ores: Cuzticite, native tellurium and sylvanite are symbiotically distributed in quartz and fluorite; (h) Zhuojiazhuang gold ores: Native tellurium is distributed in the cements Alt–Altaite; Syl–Sylvanite; Py–Pyrite; Qtz–Quartz; Fl–Fluorite; Ser–Sericite; Hes–Hessite; Am–Argentite; Gn–Galena; Sp–Sphalerite; Ccp–Chalcopyrite; Pro–Cuzticite; Tel–Native tellurium

    图  5  平邑磨坊沟金矿地质剖面图(于学峰等,2009

    1—石灰岩;2—白云质灰岩;3—含燧石结核灰岩;4—萤石化白云质灰岩;5—中生代燕山期二长斑岩;6—新太古代二长花岗岩;7—金矿体;8—早寒武世朱砂洞组

    Figure  5.  Geological profile of the Mofanggou gold deposit in Pingyi county (Yu et al., 2009)

    1–Limestone; 2–Dolomitic limestone; 3–Flint-bearing nodule limestone; 4–Fluoritized dolomitic limestone; 5–Mesozoic Yanshanian monzonitic porphyry; 6–Neoarchean admellite; 7–Gold ore body; 8–Early Cambrian Zhushadong formation

    图  6  燕甘断裂及其派生断裂构造展布图(据林景仟等,1997

    1—实测断层及倾角/(°);2—推测断层

    Figure  6.  Structural distribution map of the Yan–gan fault and its sub-faults(Lin et al., 1997

    1–Faults and dip angle(°); 2–Inferred faults

    图  7  碲铅矿–斜方碲金矿–自然碲共生体元素分布图

    Figure  7.  Element distribution of altaite–krennerite–tellurium symbiont

    图  8  Au–Ag–Te三角图解(底图据Cabri, 1965Afifi et al., 1988

    投点采用矿物元素的质量百分数

    Figure  8.  Triangular diagram of Au–Ag–Te(Base diagram after Cabri, 1965; Afifi et al., 1988

    Mass percentage of mineral elements is used in the diagram

    图  9  归来庄金矿田成矿模式图

    ①—隐爆侵入角砾岩型金矿床 (归来庄式);②—镁质碳酸盐岩微细浸染型金矿床 (磨坊沟式);③—隐爆崩塌角砾岩型金矿化(宝古山式);④—斑岩型金矿化 (银洞沟式);⑤—矽卡岩叠加型金矿化 (十字庄式)1—侏罗系;2—奥陶系;3—寒武系;4—新太古代泰山岩群山草峪组;5—古近纪砂砾岩;6—石灰岩;7—白云岩;8—二长斑岩;9—二长闪长玢岩;10—片麻状花岗闪长岩;11—黑云角闪变粒岩;12—隐爆角砾岩;13—金矿体;14—金矿化体;15—热液运移方向;16—前寒武纪基底;17—古生代地层;18—中生代地层;19—新生代地层;20—中生代岩浆岩;21—断层

    Figure  9.  Metallogenic model of the Guilaizhuang gold ore field

    1–Jurassic; 2–Ordovician; 3–Cambrian; 4–Shancaoyu formationin of the Neoarchean Taishan group; 5–Paleogene conglomerate; 6–Limestone; 7–Dolomite; 8–Monzonitic porphyry; 9–Monzonitic dioritic porphyry; 10–Gneissoid granodiorite;11–Biotite hornblende granulites; 12–Cryptoexplosive breccia; 13–Gold ore body; 14–Gold ore mineralization; 15–Hydrothermal migration direction; 16–Precambrian basement; 17–Palaeozoic strata; 18–Mesozoic strata; 19–Cenozoic strata; 20–Mesozoic magmatic rocks; 21–faults; ①–Cryptoexplosive intrusive breccia type gold deposit (Guilaizhuang type); ②–Magnesium carbonate micro-disseminated gold deposit (Mofanggou type); ③–Cryptoexplosive breccia type gold mineralization (Baogushan type); ④–Porphyry type gold mineralization (Yindonggou type); ⑤–Skarn-stacking type gold mineralization (Shizizhuang type)

    表  1  归来庄金矿田成矿系列划分表

    Table  1.   Division of the minerogenetic series of the Guilaizhuang gold ore field

    成矿系列成矿亚系列矿床式成因
    类型
    成因亚
    类型
    代表矿
    床(点)
    主要
    矿种
    产出环境及矿化特征
    鲁西中生代侵入岩Au、Cu、Fe成矿系列 归来庄燕山早期中偏碱性潜火山杂岩Au、Cu、Fe成矿亚系列 归来庄式 隐爆角砾岩型 脉状型 归来庄 Au、Ag、Te 大型金矿,产于杂岩体东边缘脉状隐爆角砾岩带中,围岩为碳酸盐岩;矿体呈脉状,长550 m、斜深650 m以上,平均厚度为6.21 m;金品位平均为8.10×10−6
    筒状型 卓家庄 中型金矿,产于杂岩体边部筒状隐爆角砾岩中;金平均品位156.77×10−6,最高达2000×10−6以上
    磨坊沟式 镁质碳酸盐岩微细浸染型 磨坊沟 Au、Ag 中型金矿,产于杂岩体西南边缘,寒武系底部碳酸盐岩中;矿体呈似层状,长300 m以上,厚2.05~2.82 m,金品位一般为4.5×10−6~11.6×10−6
    斑岩型 脉状型 银洞沟 Au、Ag 小型金矿,产于杂岩体中部的二长斑岩岩墙中;矿化体呈脉状,长350 m以上,厚1.5~3 m,金品位一般为2× 10−6~5×10−6,蚀变为硅化、黄铁矿化
    似层状型 黄家庄 产在杂岩体中部的二长斑岩岩床中,金矿化不均匀、规模较小
    含铁矽卡岩上叠加型 十字庄 Fe、Cu、Au 小型铁矿,伴生铜、金;在二长闪长玢岩与石灰岩的接触带生成的含铁夕卡岩带上,有后期金矿化叠加,金矿化不均匀
    破碎带蚀变岩型 董李 Au 金矿点,位于杂岩体南边部,在断裂破碎带内的蚀变角砾岩、碎裂岩中形成金矿化体,金矿化不均匀、规模较小
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  归来庄金矿田主要碲化物和自然金电子探针波谱定量分析结果

    Table  2.   Results of the EMPA spectroscopic quantitative analysis of main telluride and native gold in the Guilaizhuang gold ore field

    矿物种类含量/%总计/%
    FeCoNiCuZnHgBiTeAuAgSbSe
    自然碲 0.06 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.11 98.77 0.68 0.07 99.75
    自然碲 0.02 0.01 0.13 0.07 99.14 0.05 0.65 100.08
    自然碲 0.11 98.84 0.65 0.03 99.65
    自然碲 0.03 0.02 0.05 99.01 0.01 0.67 0.07 99.87
    斜方碲金矿 0.01 0.16 0.29 59.01 30.32 8.20 0.40 0.08 98.45
    斜方碲金矿 0.01 0.16 0.34 59.11 30.31 8.40 0.39 0.04 98.76
    斜方碲金矿 0.19 0.01 0.29 59.16 30.60 8.18 0.40 0.03 98.88
    斜方碲金矿 0.01 0.18 0.38 58.48 30.06 8.62 0.41 98.15
    斜方碲金矿 0.01 0.04 0.08 1.65 0.31 59.31 29.18 9.25 0.36 100.23
    针碲金银矿 0.02 0.08 0.01 0.02 0.22 61.92 25.81 12.13 100.22
    针碲金银矿 0.01 0.24 61.63 27.00 11.30 100.20
    碲银矿 0.02 0.02 39.04 0.04 60.02 99.15
    碲银矿 0.59 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.56 39.15 0.03 59.78 100.26
    碲银矿 0.94 0.04 0.06 0.05 1.25 41.11 57.14 100.60
    碲银矿 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.50 38.40 60.31 99.37
    碲银矿 0.02 0.51 0.04 38.30 60.66 99.55
    碲金银矿 0.03 0.03 0.04 0.25 33.16 25.78 41.79 101.07
    碲金银矿 0.01 0.05 0.22 33.34 26.18 41.64 101.45
    碲金银矿 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.09 0.18 33.02 25.09 41.84 100.31
    自然金 0.11 0.05 0.05 0.36 0.68 0.07 89.80 10.52 101.67
    自然金 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.08 0.11 0.85 0.07 90.09 10.55 101.83
    自然金 0.02 0.02 0.05 0.04 0.76 0.01 86.69 13.15 100.74
    自然金 0.02 0.04 0.04 0.85 0.03 87.44 12.60 101.02
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-05-11
  • 修回日期:  2022-07-20
  • 预出版日期:  2022-11-02

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