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造山带双层结构的厘定及意义

王根厚 李典 梁晓 唐宇

王根厚,李典,梁晓,等,2022. 造山带双层结构的厘定及意义[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):705−727 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222814
引用本文: 王根厚,李典,梁晓,等,2022. 造山带双层结构的厘定及意义[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):705−727 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222814
WANG G H,LI D,LIANG X,et al.,2022. Determination of the double-layer structure in orogenic belts and its geological significance[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):705−727 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222814
Citation: WANG G H,LI D,LIANG X,et al.,2022. Determination of the double-layer structure in orogenic belts and its geological significance[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):705−727 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222814

造山带双层结构的厘定及意义

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222814
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(42172259)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王根厚 (1968—),男,博士生导师,教授,从事构造地质学和区域构造地质研究研究。E-mail: wgh@cugb.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P542

Determination of the double-layer structure in orogenic belts and its geological significance

Funds: This research is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No. 42172259)
  • 摘要: 当前,增生型造山带和碰撞型造山带的研究均取得了丰富的成果和创新性认识。二者过渡期间常常发生陆壳俯冲。然而,该俯冲具有什么样的构造变形特点,并如何影响造山带演化过程,长期未受到足够的关注。基于此,文中选择曾发生了陆壳俯冲的两个新生代时期的造山带(中国台湾造山带和雅鲁藏布江造山带)和一个中生代时期的造山带(羌塘造山带)开展研究,以期阐明陆壳俯冲的独特构造变形特征以及和造山过程的交互作用。研究发现,陆壳俯冲常常在造山带形成双层结构,上部为一套由史密斯地层组成的逆冲叠瓦扇构造体系,下部为一套具“岩块–基质”结构特征的俯冲杂岩。双层结构的上下部分物质组成相似,均以斜坡相–海底扇相沉积为主,也有陆棚相沉积。因此,由于构造变形时间相近,双层结构应是由同一套被动陆缘物质俯冲形成的深浅不同的构造体系。研究认为,在陆壳俯冲过程中,早期的斜坡–海底扇俯冲是形成双层结构的主要因素。后续的陆棚俯冲则对碰撞作用的发生起到了主导作用,从而使应变逐渐向克拉通内部扩展,形成前陆褶皱–冲断带。随着碰撞作用的持续,双层结构常常遭到构造破坏,深部的俯冲杂岩因此得以剥露至浅表。因此,文章的研究强调了陆壳俯冲和深俯冲物质的折返在造山带演化中的重要意义。

     

  • 图  1  西藏羌塘造山带地质简图(据李典等,2021修改)

    Figure  1.  Simplified geological map of the Qiangtang orogenic belt in Tibet(modified from Li et al., 2021

    图  2  羌塘造山带物质组成示意图

    Figure  2.  Schematic diagram of the composition of the Qiangtang accretionary orogenic belt

    图  3  羌塘造山带双层构造体系示意图

    Figure  3.  Schematic diagram of the double-layer structure in the Qiangtang accretionary complex

    图  4  雅鲁藏布江造山带地质简图

    Figure  4.  Simplified geological map of the Yarlung Zangbo River orogenic belt

    图  5  加查增生杂岩物质组成示意图

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of the composition of the Jiacha accretionary complex

    图  6  雅鲁藏布江造山带双层构造体系示意图及中央直立带

    Figure  6.  Schematic diagram of the double-layer structure in the Yarlung Zangbo River orogenic belt and the central steep belt

    图  7  中国台湾造山带地质简图(据Huang et al.,2000修改)

    Figure  7.  Simplified geological map of the Taiwan orogenic belt in China (modified from Huang et al., 2000)

    图  8  中国台湾造山带地质剖面简图(剖面AB位置见图7;据Huang et al.,2000修改)

    Figure  8.  Simplified geological profile of the Taiwan orogenic belt in China (modified from Huang et al., 2000)

    图  9  中央山脉变质岩系片岩变形特征

    a—褶劈理S2;b—石英透镜体,具有右行剪切变形;c—构造片理被置换;d—长英质脉体揉流褶皱

    Figure  9.  Deformation characteristics of the schists in the Central Range complex

    (a) Crenulation S2; (b) Quartz vein lens with dextral shear sense; (c) Schistose foliation was imposed; (d) Flow folds of felsic veins

    图  10  中国台湾中央山脉变质岩系中大理岩变形特征

    a—XY面不对称褶皱;b、c—YZ面鞘褶皱;d—大理岩转折端流变加厚

    Figure  10.  Sheath folds of the marbles in the Central Range complex of Taiwan, China

    (a) Asymmetric fold on the XY profile; (b) and (c) Sheath fold on the YZ profile; (d) The hinge zone of the sheath fold was thickened

    图  11  中国台湾造山带深部结构示意图(据Huang et al. ,2015Chen et al. ,2019修改)

    Figure  11.  Schematic diagram of the deep structure of the orogenic belt in Taiwan, China (modified from Huang et al., 2015; Chen, 2019)

    图  12  陆壳两阶段俯冲过程示意图

    Figure  12.  Schematic diagram of the two-stage continental subduction process during the continent and ocean transformation

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  • 收稿日期:  2022-06-25
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