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中国锂矿十年来勘查实践和理论研究的十个方面新进展新趋势

王登红 代鸿章 刘善宝 李建康 王成辉 娄德波 杨岳清 李鹏

王登红,代鸿章,刘善宝,等,2022. 中国锂矿十年来勘查实践和理论研究的十个方面新进展新趋势[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):743−764 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222811
引用本文: 王登红,代鸿章,刘善宝,等,2022. 中国锂矿十年来勘查实践和理论研究的十个方面新进展新趋势[J]. 地质力学学报,28(5):743−764 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222811
WANG D H,DAI H Z,LIU S B,et al.,2022. New progress and trend in ten aspects of lithium exploration practice and theoretical research in China in the past decade[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):743−764 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222811
Citation: WANG D H,DAI H Z,LIU S B,et al.,2022. New progress and trend in ten aspects of lithium exploration practice and theoretical research in China in the past decade[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,28(5):743−764 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222811

中国锂矿十年来勘查实践和理论研究的十个方面新进展新趋势

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.20222811
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划专项项目(2021YFC2901900);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20221695, DD20190379, DD20160346)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    王登红(1967—),男,博士,二级研究员,主要从事矿产资源研究。E-mail: wangdenghong@vip.sina.com

    通讯作者:

    代鸿章(1985—),男,博士,副研究员,主要从事战略性矿产调查评价。E-mail: Daihz_cags@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P618.71; P612

New progress and trend in ten aspects of lithium exploration practice and theoretical research in China in the past decade

Funds: This research is financially supported by the National key R & D plan (Grant 2021 YFC2901900) and the Project of China Geological Survey (Grants DD20221695, DD20190379, DD20160346)
  • 摘要: 中国锂矿资源丰富,其中盐湖锂矿虽然储量巨大,但开发利用技术尚待发展,目前开发的主要是硬岩型锂矿。硬岩型锂矿以伟晶岩型为主,集中分布在新疆和四川等地;成矿时代以中生代最为重要;成矿背景以强烈造山运动之后相对稳定的构造环境最为有利。经过十年来的勘查实践与理论研究,中国锂矿的类型已不再单一,卤水型从地表卤水扩展到浅部卤水与深部卤水并重,硬岩型从花岗伟晶岩型一枝独秀到蚀变花岗岩型、伟晶岩型、角砾岩筒型、沉积型等多种类型并重;成矿时代从中新生代拓展到古生代等多个期次;成矿区带从12个增加到16个,并在川西的甲基卡、可尔因及新疆的大红柳滩、砂锂沟等地探获了一批新的矿产地,新的资源格局正在形成;找矿方法与勘查技术也从单一的地表踏勘填图发展到遥感定区(远景区)—地质定型(类型)—化探定性(矿种)—物探定位(孔位)—钻探定量(资源量)及生物找矿、深穿透深部探矿等新技术新方法成体系化的新时代。鉴于战略性新兴产业快速发展对于锂资源的刚性需求,建议加强对以锂云母为主要工业矿物的新类型锂资源及以含锂黏土为主的沉积型锂资源的调查研究与开发利用;除了中生代之外,加强对古生代乃至前寒武纪锂矿的研究与找矿;加强阿尔金、喜马拉雅、冈底斯、大兴安岭西坡等新的锂矿成矿区带的勘查力度;加强对市场经济条件下锂资源动态管理的新机制研究;加强对锂同位素作为可控核聚变原材料的超前研究与资源储备,为开发高端矿业作出示范和引领。

     

  • 图  1  中国主要成锂带分布简图(据陈毓川等,2010a2015李建康等,2014王登红等,2020修改)

    Figure  1.  Distribution of the main lithium metallogenic belts in China(modified after Chen et al., 2010a, 2015; Li et al., 2014; Wang et al., 2020

    图  2  中国锂矿的成矿体系

    岩浆期与地壳演化阶段的划分依据程裕淇(1994);地质时代的绝对年龄依据全国地层委员会(2002);矿床成矿系列或矿床成矿系列组以编号简称标示,依据陈毓川等(2007),新发现者尚未编号

    Figure  2.  Lithium mineralization series in China

    The division of magmatic and crustal evolution stages refers to Cheng et al., 1994;Absolute geological ages according to National Stratigraphic Commission(2002);Mineralization series or series groups are marked by abbreviation of serial number (Chen et al., 2007

    图  3  新疆和田县大红柳滩锂矿田509道班西-507锂矿矿产地质图(据梁婷等,2021修改)

    1—雪被区;2—第四系冲积物;3—巴颜喀拉山群上组;4—巴颜喀拉山群中组;5—巴颜喀拉山群下组;6—中细粒石英闪长岩;7—黑云母二长花岗岩;8—石英脉;9—未矿化伟晶岩脉;10—矿体及编号;11—矿区范围

    Figure  3.  Mineral geological map of the Track 509 West-Track 507 lithium deposit in the Dahongliutan ore field in Hetian,Xinjiang(Modified after Liang et al., 2021

    1−Snow area; 2−Quaternary alluvial deposits; 3−Upper Formation of Bayankhara Mountain Group; 4−Middle Formation of Bayankhara Mountain Group; 5−Lower Formation of Bayankhara Mountain Group; 6−Medium-fine grained quartz diorite; 7−Biotite monzogranite; 8−Quartz vein; 9−Unmineralized pegmatite dike; 10−Ore body and number; 11−Scope of mining area

    图  4  新疆阿尔金成锂带典型含锂伟晶岩矿石

    a—新疆阿尔金砂锂沟矿区锂云母伟晶岩岩心;b—新疆阿尔金塔木切矿区锂辉石伟晶岩手标本;c—新疆阿尔金塔木切矿区锂云母锂电气石伟晶岩

    Figure  4.  Typical lithium-bearing pegmatite ores in the Altyn Tagh Li-metallogenic belt, Xinjiang

    (a) Drilling core of lepidolite pegmatite from the Shaligou deposit;(b) Hand specimen of spodumene pegmatite from the Tamuqie deposit;(c) Hand specimen of lepidolite-elbaite pegmatite from the Tamuqie deposit

    表  1  中国成锂带简表

    Table  1.   Main lithium metallogenic belts in China

    编号成锂带名称典型矿床主要成矿时代相关成矿区带相关成矿区带名称构造背景
    Li1 阿尔泰锂成矿带 可可托海 海西−燕山期 Ⅲ-01 北阿尔泰稀有−Pb−Zn−Au−白云母−宝石成矿带 阿尔泰造山带
    Li2 唐巴勒锂成矿带 合什哈西哈力 Ⅲ-04 唐巴勒−卡拉麦里Cr−Cu−Au−Sn−硫铁矿−
    石墨−石棉−水晶成矿带
    准噶尔地块及周缘造山带
    Li3 西天山锂成矿带 沙音图拜 Ⅲ-09 伊犁微板块北东缘(造山带)Au−Cu−Mo−Pb−Zn−Fe−W−Sn−P石墨成矿带 古生代为主造山带
    Li4 东天山锂成矿带 镜儿泉 海西−印支期 Ⅲ-08 觉罗塔格−黑鹰山Fe−Cu−Ni−Au−Ag−Mo−W−石膏−硅灰石−膨润土−煤成矿带 多旋回造山带
    Li5 西昆仑锂成矿带 大红柳滩 印支–燕山期 Ⅲ-27 西昆仑Fe−Cu−Pb−Zn−RM−REE−硫铁矿−
    水晶−白云母−宝玉石成矿带
    多旋回造山带
    Li6 藏北锂成矿带 扎布耶 第四纪 第四纪封闭的高蒸发环境
    Li7 柴达木锂成矿带 察尔汗 第四纪 Ⅲ-25 柴达木盆地Li−B−K−Na−Mg−盐类−石膏−
    油气成矿区
    第四纪封闭的高蒸发环境
    Li8 松潘−甘孜锂成矿带 甲基卡 印支−燕山期 Ⅲ-30 北巴颜喀拉−马尔康Au−Ni−Pt−Fe−Mn−Pb−Zn−Li−Be−云母成矿带 造山带
    Li9 四川盆地锂成矿带 自贡 三叠纪 Ⅲ-74 四川盆地Fe−Cu−Au−石油−天然气−石膏−钙芒硝−盐−煤和煤成气成矿区 凹陷盆地
    Li10 秦岭锂成矿带 官坡 加里东期 Ⅲ-66 东秦岭Au−Ag−Mo−Cu−Pb−Zn−Sb−
    非金属成矿带
    多旋回造山带
    Li11 潜江凹陷锂锂成矿带 潜江 第三纪 Ⅲ-72 江汉–洞庭(断陷)石膏−盐−石油−天然气成矿区 断陷盆地
    Li12 华南锂成矿带 宜春 印支–燕山期
    印支–燕山期
    II-12 华南成矿省 板内多旋回造山带
    南平 加里东期 Ⅲ-71 武功山–杭州湾Cu−Pb−Zn−Ag−Au−W−Sn−Nb−Ta−Mn−
    海泡石−萤石−硅灰石成矿带
    Li13 阿尔金成锂带 砂锂沟 加里东期 Ⅲ-19 阿尔金Au−Cu−Cr−Fe−Pb−Zn−石棉−玉石成矿带 多旋回造山带
    Li14 冈底斯成锂带 念青唐古拉、羊八井 喜马拉雅期 Ⅲ-42 班戈–腾冲(岩浆弧)Sn−W−Be−Li−Fe−Pb−Zn成矿带 板块缝合带两侧
    Li15 喜马拉雅成锂带 库局 喜马拉雅期 Ⅲ-45 喜马拉雅(造山带)Au−Sb−Fe−白云母成矿带 板内造山带
    Li16 大兴安岭西坡成锂带 维拉斯托 燕山晚期 Ⅲ-50 突泉–翁牛特Pb−Zn−Ag−Fe−Sn−REE成矿带 多旋回陆内造山带
    注: 此表在李建康等(2014)、陈毓川等(2015)基础上加以补充,相关成矿区带的代号及名称依据徐志刚等(2008)。需要注意到是,单矿种的成矿区带与单矿种综合性成矿区带的范围不完全一致。
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  中国主要硬岩型锂矿床及相关地质单元的同位素年代数据

    Table  2.   Isotopic age data of main hard-rock lithium deposits in China

    矿床名称矿床或岩石类型定年方法年龄/Ma参考文献
    福建南平 花岗伟晶岩型 K−Ar 364~412 仇年铭和杨岳清,1985
    广西恭县栗木 花岗岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 214 杨锋等,2009
    河南卢氏南阳山 花岗伟晶岩型 K−Ar 396 陈西京,1976
    湖南道县正冲 云英岩型 全岩Rb−Sr 14~153 陈廷愚等,1986李耀菘等,1986
    湖南临武尖峰岭 花岗岩型 K−Ar 167 黄蕴慧等,1988
    湖南幕府山断峰山 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 127.7~130.5 李鹏等,2017
    湖南幕府山仁里 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 136.6 黄小强等,2021
    湖南幕府山 幕府山复式花岗岩体 122~155 转引自李鹏等,2020
    湖南白沙窝 花岗伟晶岩型 辉钼矿Re−Os 140 ±6.7 文春华等,2020
    江西广昌西港 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 150~160 研究中资料
    江西宜春雅山 花岗岩型 K−Ar 131~157 林传仙,1994
    江西于都上坪 石英脉型 K−Ar 177 袁忠信和白鸽,2001
    陕西宝鸡杨家湾 花岗伟晶岩型 K−Ar 132 陈好寿,1975
    四川甲基卡 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 195~199 王登红等,2005Li et al., 2013
    四川甲基卡104号锂辉石伟晶岩 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 195.7 ± 0.1 王登红等,2005
    四川甲基卡134号锂辉石伟晶岩 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母 Ar−Ar 198.9 ± 0.4 王登红等,2005
    四川甲基卡 二云母花岗岩 锆石U−Pb 223 ± 1 郝雪峰等,2015
    四川甲基卡新3号锂辉石伟晶岩 花岗伟晶岩型 铌钽铁矿U−Pb 214 ± 2 郝雪峰等,2015
    四川可尔因 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 152~176 李建康等,2007b
    四川可尔因 白云母钠长石伟晶岩 白云母 Ar−Ar 159 ± 1 Li et al., 2019
    四川可尔因 二云母花岗岩 锆石 U−Pb 207 ± 1 Zhao et al., 2019
    四川可尔因 黑云母二长花岗岩 锆石 U−Pb 206.7~229 赵永久,2007岳相元等,2019
    四川可尔因 石英闪长岩 锆石 U−Pb 206.4~223.8 岳相元等,2019; Zheng et al., 2020
    四川可尔因 二云母花岗岩 锆石 U−Pb 202~219 研究中资料
    四川可尔因党坝 花岗伟晶岩型 锡石U−Pb 199~208 费光春等,2020
    四川可尔因李家沟 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石 U−Pb 198 ± 3 Fei et al., 2018
    四川可尔因加达 花岗伟晶岩型 铌钽铁矿U−Pb 195~206 研究中资料
    四川雪宝顶 石英脉型 白云母 Ar−Ar 195 ± 1 Zhang et al., 2014
    四川雪宝顶 伟晶岩 白云母 Ar−Ar 190 ± 2 李建康等,2007a
    四川雪宝顶 羊拱海花岗岩 锆石 U−Pb 221 ± 4 Zhang et al., 2006
    四川扎乌龙 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 236 四川省地矿局,1987
    四川扎乌龙14号伟晶岩 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母 Ar−Ar 180 ± 2 Li et al., 2019
    四川扎乌龙14号伟晶岩 花岗伟晶岩型 铌钽铁矿 U−Pb 205 ± 2 Li et al., 2019
    四川扎乌龙97号伟晶岩 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母 Ar−Ar 174 ± 2 Li et al., 2019
    四川扎乌龙 白云母花岗岩 锆石 U−Pb 212 ± 5 Li et al., 2019
    四川打枪沟 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石 U−Pb 147.5 ± 2.3 胡军亮,2020
    青海茶卡北山 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石 U−Pb 217 王秉璋等,2020
    青海草陇 花岗伟晶岩型 独居石U−Pb 200~204 李五福等,2021
    新疆大红柳滩102号伟晶岩 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母 Ar−Ar 187.0 ± 1.1 Li et al., 2019
    新疆大红柳滩90号伟晶岩 花岗伟晶岩型 铌钽铁矿 U−Pb 211.9 ± 2.4 闫庆贺等,2017Yan et al., 2018
    新疆大红柳滩90号伟晶岩 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母 Ar−Ar 189.4 ± 1.1 Li et al., 2019
    新疆大红柳滩 二云母花岗岩 锆石 U−Pb 217~220 乔耿彪等,2020
    新疆大喀拉苏 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 248 王登红等,2002
    新疆镜儿泉 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 243 陈郑辉等,2006
    新疆柯鲁木特 花岗伟晶岩型 K−Ar 198~220 邹天人等,1980
    新疆可可托海 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 178~182 王登红等,2002
    新疆塔拉提 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 385.9 ± 3.5 Lv et al.,2018
    新疆阿木拉宫 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 358.3 ±4.6 Lv et al.,2018
    新疆拜城 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 275.5 ± 4.2 任宝琴等,2011; 张辉等,2019
    新疆小喀拉苏 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 241.5+3.1 张辉等,2019
    新疆磨什尕 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 249+2.9 张辉等,2019
    新疆萨尔加克 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 252.7 ± 2.1 张辉等,2019
    新疆切木尔切克 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 253.5 ± 3.2 张辉等,2019
    新疆库儒尔特 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 180.7±0.5 任宝琴等,2011; 张辉等,2019
    新疆小虎斯特 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 190.6±1.2 任宝琴等,2011; 张辉等,2019
    新疆佳木开 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 199.1±1.0 任宝琴等,2011; 张辉等,2019
    新疆卡鲁安 花岗伟晶岩型 铌铁矿、锆石U−Pb 198~223 马占龙等,2015; Feng et al.,2019
    新疆库卡拉盖 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 211.3 ± 2.4 马占龙等,2015
    新疆别也萨麻斯 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 157.2±0.5 吕正航等,2015
    新疆蒙库喀拉苏 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 252~268 邹天人和李庆昌,2006
    新疆阿克塔斯 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 144 ± 4.3 乔耿彪等,2020
    新疆505锂矿 花岗伟晶岩型 锡石U−Pb 223.5 ±7.9 彭海练等,2018李侃等,2019
    新疆白龙山 花岗伟晶岩型 钽铁矿U−Pb 208 Wang et al.,2020
    新疆砂锂沟 花岗伟晶岩型 白云母Ar−Ar 402~405 研究中资料
    新疆吐格曼 花岗伟晶岩型 锆石U−Pb 459.9 ± 3.7 徐兴旺等,2019
    新疆吐格曼北 花岗伟晶岩型 锡石、锆石U−Pb 454~468 李杭等,2020
    西藏琼嘉岗 花岗伟晶岩型 独居石、铌钽铁矿U−Pb 24~25 赵俊兴等,2021
    西藏普士拉 花岗伟晶岩型 锡石、铌钽铁矿U−Pb 23~25 Liu et al., 2020
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  中国主要省(自治区)查明锂矿资源储量、消耗资源储量和保有资源储量一览表(陈毓川等,2015

    Table  3.   List of the identified, consumed and retained lithium mineral resources in China (Chen et al., 2015)

    省(自治区)查明资源储量消耗资源储量保有资源储量查明资源储量所占比例/%
    Li2O/tLiCl/×104 t折合金属锂/tLi2O/tLiCl/×104 tLi2O/tLiCl/×104 t折合金属锂/t
    新疆 138006 64114 63368 74638 34675 1.07
    西藏 822.0 1346341 1 821.0 1344703 22.39
    青海 2135.0 3496209 19 2115.0 3464686 58.15
    陕西 121 56 121 56 0.00
    四川 1259386 2.4 589022 1259386 2.4 589021 9.80
    河南 18455 8574 18455 8573 0.14
    湖南 350806 162976 350806 162976 2.71
    江西 737059 342420 149695 587364 272875 5.70
    福建 5004 2325 5004 2324 0.04
    合计 2508837 2960.0 6012037 213083 20 2296595 2939.0 5879892 100.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  中国主要锂矿床资源信息

    Table  4.   Resources of the main lithium deposits in China

    矿产地名称储量规模平均品位/%利用情况
    Li2OBeONb2O5Ta2O5
    江西宜春钽铌锂矿 超大 超大 0.389 0.010 0.010 在用
    河南卢氏铌钽矿床 0.650 待用
    湖北潜江凹陷卤水矿 超大 待用
    湖南临武香花铺尖峰山铌钽矿床 0.299 0.012 0.013 未用
    湖南道县湘源正冲锂铷多金属矿床 0.557 未用
    湖南平江传梓源铍钽铌矿床 0.022 0.010 0.007 曾用
    云南龙陵黄莲沟铍矿床 0.049 曾用
    四川金川–马尔康可尔因锂铍矿床 1.200~1.271 0.040~0.045 在用
    四川康定甲基卡锂铍矿床 超大 1.203 0.040 在用
    四川石渠扎乌龙锂矿 1.109 未用
    四川金川县李家沟 超大型 1.300 在用
    青海柴达木一里坪盐湖锂矿 LiCl,2.20 g/L 在用
    青海柴达木东台吉乃盐湖锂矿床 超大 LiCl,2.57 g/L 在用
    青海柴达木西台吉乃盐湖锂矿床 LiCl,3.12 g/L 在用
    西藏扎布耶盐湖锂矿 超大 在用
    新疆富蕴可可托海锂铍铌钽矿床 超大 0.982 0.051 0.006 0.024 已用
    新疆富蕴柯鲁木特锂铍铌钽矿床 0.987 0.049 0.026 0.011 停用
    新疆福海库卡拉盖锂矿床 1.100 未用
    注:据陈毓川等(2015)补充;其中,四川金川县李家沟经四川省地质矿产勘查开发局化探队补充勘探后,由四川省矿产资源储量评审中心评审认定新增Li2O资源储量为51.22×104 t
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  中国锂矿主要预测类型

    Table  5.   Main predicted lithium resource types in China

    预测类型矿床式大地构造分区成矿区带含矿岩系矿床成因矿床规模成矿时代共生矿产预测要素
    伟晶岩型 可可托海式 哈龙早古生代岩浆弧 北阿尔泰成矿带 花岗伟晶岩脉 花岗伟晶岩型 中型 C—T Be、Nb、Ta 中生代花岗岩,
    伟晶岩脉
    伟晶岩型 甲基卡式 巴颜喀拉–
    松潘造山带
    北巴颜喀拉−
    马尔康成矿带
    花岗伟晶岩脉 花岗伟晶岩型 超大型 印支晚期 Be、Nb、Ta 印支晚期花岗岩,
    伟晶岩脉
    花岗岩型 宜春式 武功山–
    玉华山隆起
    武功山−
    杭州湾成矿带
    燕山期雅山花岗岩体 花岗岩型 超大型 K1 Nb、Ta 燕山期花岗岩,
    蚀变
    沉积型 柴达木式 柴达木地块 柴达木盆地成矿区 第四纪湖相沉积 盐湖沉积型 超大型 Q K、B 第四纪盐湖
    沉积型 扎布耶式 拉萨地块 拉萨地块成矿带 第四纪湖相沉积 盐湖沉积型 大型 Q K、B 第四纪盐湖
    沉积型 自贡式 四川盆地 四川盆地成矿区 三叠纪沉积 沉积型 小型 T K、石盐 地下卤水
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-05-14
  • 修回日期:  2022-06-28
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