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内蒙古北山老硐沟金矿石榴子石地球化学特征

唐卫东 何佳乐 刘天航 魏立勇 范堡程 赵福东 何毅 郭永超 杨冰

唐卫东,何佳乐,刘天航,等,2023. 内蒙古北山老硐沟金矿石榴子石地球化学特征[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):60−75 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022098
引用本文: 唐卫东,何佳乐,刘天航,等,2023. 内蒙古北山老硐沟金矿石榴子石地球化学特征[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):60−75 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022098
TANG W D,HE J L,LIU T H,et al.,2023. Geochemical characteristics of the garnets from the Laodonggou gold deposit, Beishan, Inner Mongolia[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):60−75 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022098
Citation: TANG W D,HE J L,LIU T H,et al.,2023. Geochemical characteristics of the garnets from the Laodonggou gold deposit, Beishan, Inner Mongolia[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):60−75 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022098

内蒙古北山老硐沟金矿石榴子石地球化学特征

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022098
基金项目: 中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20211552,DD20208009,DD030301)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    唐卫东(1990—),男,硕士,工程师,主要从事矿产资源调查评价工作。E-mail: 1009321162@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P618.51

Geochemical characteristics of the garnets from the Laodonggou gold deposit, Beishan, Inner Mongolia

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Geological Survey Programs of the China Geological Survey (Grants DD20211552, DD20208009, DD030301).
  • 摘要: 老硐沟金矿是北山成矿带东段发现的中型金矿床,是多期次多阶段成矿作用叠加的产物,矿床成因类型复杂。矿床共分为5个矿段,其中Ⅲ矿段以矽卡岩矿体为主。矽卡岩矿物以石榴子石为主,可分为早、晚两期,早期石榴子石更具震荡环带。通过详细的镜下观察和电子探针对两期石榴子石进行了系统研究,早期石榴子石核部以钙铝榴石组分为主,向边部为钙铁−钙铝过渡组分;晚期石榴子石以钙铁榴石为主。石榴子石化学成分特征表明,早期矽卡岩化阶段,热液环境为中酸性、弱氧化—弱还原环境;后期铁质含量增多,氧逸度增加,热液环境碱性、氧化性增强。老硐沟金矿Ⅲ矿段石榴子石为钙铁−钙铝榴石系列,属热液交代成因,早期多形成钙铝−钙铁榴石,伴随铜矿化,晚期热液环境变化,钙铁榴石增多,黄铁矿化、毒砂矿化增多,造成金富集成矿。

     

  • 图  1  北山造山带老洞沟地区区域地质简图(据张国震等,2021修改)

    1—第四系;2—下白垩统赤金堡组;3—下二叠统双堡堂组;4—青白口系大豁落山组;5—蓟县系平头山组上岩段;6—蓟县系平头山组下岩段;7—长城系古硐井群;8—三叠纪斑状黑云母花岗岩;9—二叠纪花岗岩;10—志留纪黑云母二长花岗岩;11—蛇绿岩;12—逆断层;13—地质界线;14—角度不整合;15—矿床;16—省界a—北山造山带地质简图;b—老硐沟地区地质简图

    Figure  1.  Geological sketch of Laodonggou area in the Beishan orogenic belt (modified from Zhang et al., 2021)

    (a) Geological sketch of the Beishan orogenic belt; (b) Geological sketch of the Laodonggou area 1–Quaternary; 2–Chijinbao Formation of the lower Cretaceous; 3–Shuangbaotang Formation of the lower Permian; 4–Dahuoluoshan Formation of the Qingbaikouan System; 5–Upper member of the Pingtoushan Formation; 6–Lower member of the Pingtoushan Formation; 7–Gudongjing Group of the Changchengian System; 8–Triassic porphyritic biotite granite; 9–Permian granite; 10–Silurian biotite monzogranite; 11–Ophiolite; 12–Reversed fault; 13–Geological boundary; 14–Angular unconformity; 15–Deposit; 16–Provincial boundary

    图  2  老硐沟金矿矿区地质简图(据钱建平等,2018修改)

    Figure  2.  Geological sketch of the Laodonggou gold mine (modified from Qian et al., 2018)

    图  3  老硐沟金矿Ⅱ段P12勘探线地质剖面图

    Figure  3.  Geological profile of Exploration Line P12 in Section II of the Laodonggou gold deposit

    图  4  老硐沟金矿不同类型矿石矿物特征图

    Qtz—石英;Grt—石榴子石;Ep—绿帘石;Py—黄铁矿;Apy—毒砂;Ccp—黄铜矿;Gn—方铅矿;Mag—磁铁矿;Au—自然金;Lm—褐铁矿a—氧化矿石;b—原生矿石;c—Ⅲ矿段矽卡岩带;d—氧化矿石中的裂隙金;e—方铅矿交代黄铁矿;f—两期毒砂;g—碎裂石英脉;h—方铅矿交代黄铜矿;i—矽卡岩型矿石中沿裂隙充填的石英−黄铁矿脉;j—毒砂褐铁矿化;k—黄铜矿交代毒砂;l—矽卡岩矿石中沿裂隙发育的浸染状黄铁矿、磁铁矿

    Figure  4.  Mineral characteristics of different ores in the Laodonggou gold deposit

    (a) Oxidized ore; (b) Primary ore; (c) Skarn belt in Section Ⅲ; (d) Au-grains along the fissures in oxidized ore; (e) Pyrite replaced by galena ; (f) Two phases of arsenopyrite; (g) Tractured quartz vein; (h) Chalcopyrite replaced by galena; (i) Quartz–pyrite vein filled along the fissures in skarn ore; (j) Limonitized arsenopyrite; (k) Arsenopyrite replaced by chalcopyrite; (l) Disseminated pyrite and magnetite developed along the fractures in skarn ore Qtz–quartz; Grt–garnet; Ep–epidote; Py–pyrite; Apy–arsenopyrite; Ccp–chalcopyrite; Gn–galena; Mag–magnetite; Au–natural gold; Lm–limonite

    图  5  老洞沟金矿矿物生成顺序表

    Figure  5.  Mineral generation sequence of the Laodonggou gold deposit

    图  6  Ⅲ矿段石榴子石镜下特征

    GrtⅠ—早期石榴子石;GrtⅡ—晚期石榴子石;Qtz—石英;Ep—绿帘石;Py—黄铁矿;Ccp—黄铜矿a—早期石榴子石对称消光(+);b—早期石榴子石核部全消光(+);c—早期碎裂石榴子石(+);d—早期石榴子石环带发育(+);e—晚期石榴子石充填于早期石榴子石裂隙中(+);f—晚期石榴子石充填在早期石榴子石颗粒之间(+);g—晚期石榴子石与方解石脉充填于早期石榴子石裂隙中(−);h—晚期石榴子石多不发育环带(+);i—碎裂的早期石榴子石与晚期石榴子石、方解石脉充填于裂隙中;j—l—黄铁矿、黄铜矿呈浸染状充填在早期石榴子石裂隙中(反射光)

    Figure  6.  Microscopic characteristics of garnet in Section III

    (a) Symmetrical extinction of the early garnet (+); (b) Total extinction of the early garnet core(+); (c) Early cataclastic garnet (+); (d) Ring band development of the early garnet (+); (e) Late garnet filled in the fissures of the early garnet (+); (f) Late garnet filled in early garnet grains (+); (g) Late garnet and calcite veins filled in the fissures of early garnet (−); (h) Ring band rarelty occurs in late garnet (+); (i) Early cataclastic garnet, late garnet and calcite veins filled in the fractures; (j–l) Pyrite and chalcopyrite are disseminated and filled in the fissure of early garnet (reflected light) GrtⅠ–early garnet; GrtⅡ–late garnet; Qtz–quartz; Ep–epidote; Py–pyrite; Ccp–chalcopyrite

    图  7  老硐沟金矿Ⅲ矿段石榴子石端元组分图解

    Figure  7.  Diagram of garnet end group in Section III of the Laodonggou gold deposit

    图  8  老硐沟金矿Ⅲ矿段早期石榴子石环带成分变化示意图

    Figure  8.  Schematic diagram of composition change of the ring belt of early garnet in Section III of the Laodonggou gold deposit

    图  9  老硐沟金矿Ⅲ矿段晚期石榴子石成分变化示意图

    Figure  9.  Schematic diagram of composition change of the late garnet in Section III of the Laodonggou gold deposit

    表  1  老硐沟金矿Ⅲ矿段石榴子石电子探针分析结果(w/%)

    Table  1.   Electron probe analysis results of garnets in Section III of the Laodonggou gold deposit(w/%)

    样品号LDG11核部→边部LDG12核部→边部LDG21
    SiO2 38.26 38.01 36.87 34.97 35.19 35.07 36.54 36.54 37.48 37.53 36.37 37.82 37.08 35.22 34.91 36.04 37.48 38.72 38.38 37.70
    TiO2 0.30 0.08 0.11 0 0.06 0 0.11 0 0 0.27 0.24 0.11 0.09 0 0 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.02
    Al2O3 14.13 12.68 7.59 0 0.03 0.03 6.84 5.26 3.90 8.40 5.84 10.59 8.17 0.04 0.11 3.72 8.03 14.59 14.16 10.34
    FeO 10.48 12.58 19.04 29.06 28.07 27.98 19.73 21.60 24.00 18.08 21.05 15.17 18.53 26.71 27.27 22.62 18.63 10.48 11.22 15.89
    MnO 0.55 0.49 0.28 0.19 0.08 0.37 0.33 0.36 0.51 0.30 0.45 0.58 0.31 0.26 0.39 0.34 0.41 0.48 0.53 0.31
    MgO 0.08 0.03 0.04 0.13 0.16 0.20 0.09 0.01 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0 0.13 0.27 0.07 0.11 0.04 0.01 0.01
    CaO 35.95 35.67 35.16 33.74 33.65 33.67 34.49 34.90 33.41 35.47 34.79 35.61 35.20 33.67 33.77 34.40 34.77 36.07 35.78 35.61
    Na2O 0.05 0.01 0.07 0.03 0 0 0 0 0.02 0 0 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.01 0 0.01 0 0 0.03
    K2O 0 0.01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01 0.01 0 0
    以12个氧原子计算的阳离子数
    Si 2.99 3.00 3.00 2.99 3.02 3.01 3.01 3.01 3.08 3.00 2.99 3.00 3.00 3.05 3.01 3.03 3.02 3.00 2.99 3.00
    Al 1.33 1.21 0.76 0 0 0 0.69 0.54 0.40 0.83 0.59 1.03 0.81 0 0.01 0.39 0.80 1.36 1.33 1.01
    Ti 0.02 0 0.01 0 0 0 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0
    Fe3+ 0.57 0.67 1.05 1.67 1.63 1.65 1.10 1.22 1.28 0.98 1.18 0.83 1.01 1.61 1.64 1.32 1.00 0.54 0.58 0.85
    Fe2+ 0.12 0.16 0.24 0.41 0.38 0.36 0.26 0.27 0.37 0.23 0.26 0.18 0.24 0.32 0.33 0.27 0.26 0.13 0.15 0.21
    Mn 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02
    Mg 0.01 0 0 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.01 0 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.01 0 0 0
    Ca 3.01 3.02 3.06 3.09 3.09 3.09 3.04 3.08 2.94 3.04 3.06 3.03 3.05 3.12 3.12 3.10 3.00 3.00 2.99 3.04
    And 30.42 36.39 59.12 100.00 99.82 99.82 62.32 70.50 77.15 55.36 67.67 45.53 56.45 99.75 99.32 78.23 56.73 29.01 30.75 46.73
    Gro 67.96 62.30 40.00 0 0 0 36.37 28.47 21.09 43.57 30.85 52.77 42.76 0 0 20.46 41.72 69.72 67.97 52.48
    Pyr 0.32 0.13 0.17 0 0.18 0.18 0.44 0.06 0.33 0.32 0.28 0.26 0.01 0.25 0.68 0.35 0.48 0.15 0.04 0.03
    Spe 1.30 1.18 0.71 0 0 0 0.88 0.97 1.43 0.75 1.20 1.44 0.78 0 0 0.96 1.06 1.13 1.24 0.76
    下载: 导出CSV
    续表 1
    样品号LDG22LDG13核部→边部LDG14核部→边部
    SiO2 38.11 38.02 37.23 36.76 36.24 35.24 35.58 35.52 35.21 35.08 35.42 37.00 37.07 35.37 35.18 35.42 35.53 36.05 35.37
    TiO2 0.08 0.04 0 0.02 0 0 0 0.04 0.09 0.04 0 0.24 0.06 0.09 0 0 0 0.20 0
    Al2O3 13.55 11.87 9.91 6.68 3.05 0.06 0.07 0.15 0.12 0 0.02 8.53 7.13 0.11 0.07 0.17 0.32 3.65 0
    FeO 11.47 13.42 16.24 20.02 24.50 28.18 28.07 27.40 28.26 27.46 27.79 17.83 20.36 27.91 28.38 27.72 26.90 23.81 28.47
    MnO 0.49 0.39 0.30 0.35 0.31 0.09 0.22 0.26 0.24 0.16 0.16 0.60 0.41 0.08 0.16 0.28 0.20 0.27 0.25
    MgO 0.05 0 0.02 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.10 0.07 0.09 0.04 0.07 0.11 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.07 0.10 0.07 0.02
    CaO 36.02 35.36 35.54 34.75 33.95 33.57 33.60 33.54 33.67 33.81 33.72 34.33 34.72 33.50 33.73 33.64 33.74 33.93 33.31
    Na2O 0.03 0 0.02 0 0 0.01 0 0 0.06 0.01 0 0 0.03 0.05 0.01 0 0.01 0.01 0.01
    K2O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.02 0
    以12个氧原子计算的阳离子数
    Si 2.99 3.02 2.99 3.01 3.03 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.01 3.03 3.04 3.01 3.00 3.03 3.01 3.03 3.05 3.02 3.03
    Al 1.29 1.15 0.97 0.68 0.32 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0 0 0.85 0.71 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.38 0
    Ti 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01 0 0 0.01 0 0.01 0 0 0 0.01 0
    Fe3+ 0.62 0.72 0.89 1.11 1.38 1.63 1.62 1.60 1.63 1.63 1.62 0.96 1.09 1.61 1.64 1.61 1.59 1.33 1.63
    Fe2+ 0.13 0.18 0.20 0.26 0.34 0.39 0.39 0.36 0.39 0.35 0.37 0.25 0.29 0.39 0.39 0.37 0.34 0.33 0.41
    Mn 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02
    Mg 0.01 0 0 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0
    Ca 3.03 3.01 3.06 3.05 3.05 3.09 3.07 3.08 3.08 3.13 3.10 2.99 3.01 3.08 3.09 3.09 3.10 3.04 3.06
    And 33.17 39.18 48.64 63.29 82.06 99.60 99.59 99.06 99.28 100.00 99.89 54.08 61.56 99.29 99.56 98.94 98.01 78.72 100.00
    Gro 65.49 59.84 50.53 35.43 16.77 0 0 0 0 0 0 43.89 36.93 0 0 0 0.89 20.21 0
    Pyr 0.19 0.02 0.08 0.35 0.29 0.30 0.41 0.38 0.45 0 0.11 0.48 0.45 0.53 0.23 0.37 0.50 0.32 0
    Spe 1.15 0.96 0.74 0.92 0.87 0.09 0 0.56 0.26 0 0 1.55 1.06 0.18 0.20 0.69 0.60 0.75 0
    下载: 导出CSV
    样品号LDG23LDG15核部→边部
    SiO2 35.19 35.50 35.87 37.75 37.46 37.06 37.71 38.45 37.31 37.95 37.77 36.85
    TiO2 0 0.06 0 0.07 0.54 0.15 0 0.34 0.13 0.06 0 0
    Al2O3 0.12 0.17 0.12 13.09 11.54 8.60 12.13 15.00 9.80 12.31 10.87 7.59
    FeO 28.06 27.86 28.50 12.29 13.85 17.33 13.50 8.84 15.26 12.79 15.37 19.05
    MnO 0.09 0.25 0.19 0.42 0.33 0.20 0.35 0.39 0.28 0.35 0.41 0.34
    MgO 0.04 0.03 0.09 0.09 0.13 0.05 0.08 0.17 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.12
    CaO 34.02 33.80 33.66 35.94 35.64 35.08 35.64 36.21 35.38 35.24 35.42 34.78
    Na2O 0.01 0.02 0 0.01 0 0.02 0 0.01 0 0.02 0.01 0.02
    K2O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.01 0 0 0 0.01 0
    以12个氧原子计算的阳离子数
    Si 3.01 3.03 3.04 2.98 2.97 3.01 2.99 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.00 3.00
    Al 0.01 0.02 0.01 1.25 1.12 0.86 1.17 1.41 0.97 1.19 1.05 0.76
    Ti 0 0 0 0 0.03 0.01 0 0.02 0.01 0 0 0
    Fe3+ 1.64 1.61 1.61 0.67 0.76 0.96 0.73 0.50 0.86 0.68 0.81 1.05
    Fe2+ 0.37 0.38 0.41 0.14 0.16 0.22 0.17 0.08 0.17 0.17 0.21 0.25
    Mn 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02
    Mg 0.01 0 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01
    Ca 3.12 3.09 3.06 3.04 3.03 3.05 3.03 3.02 3.06 3.00 3.01 3.04
    And 99.27 98.94 99.29 35.37 41.18 53.79 39.00 26.61 48.10 37.22 44.48 59.00
    Gro 0.25 0.17 0 63.28 57.46 45.49 59.81 71.77 50.74 61.47 54.18 39.57
    Pyr 0.22 0.14 0.45 0.35 0.55 0.22 0.35 0.71 0.46 0.45 0.34 0.56
    Spe 0.26 0.75 0.26 1.00 0.81 0.50 0.83 0.91 0.70 0.86 1.00 0.88
    下载: 导出CSV
    续表 1
    样品号LDG16核部→边部LDG24
    SiO2 38.46 38.64 38.04 38.15 36.70 37.69 37.17 37.09 35.25 35.14 35.33
    TiO2 0.26 0.37 0.23 0.42 0.04 0.21 0 0.53 0 0.07 0.09
    Al2O3 13.84 13.59 12.73 14.35 7.35 12.41 11.17 10.93 0.32 0.04 0.06
    FeO 11.02 11.34 12.21 8.63 19.91 12.54 15.09 14.42 27.93 28.27 27.83
    MnO 0.33 0.42 0.51 0.45 0.24 0.56 0.31 0.47 0.21 0.12 0.20
    MgO 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.18 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.11 0.06 0.04 0.07
    CaO 35.95 35.90 35.78 36.50 34.83 34.97 35.23 35.28 33.66 33.81 33.76
    Na2O 0.01 0.02 0.01 0 0 0.01 0 0.02 0 0 0.02
    K2O 0 0.01 0 0 0 0 0.01 0 0 0 0
    以12个氧原子计算的阳离子数
    Si 3.00 3.01 3.00 3.00 2.99 3.01 2.98 2.97 3.02 3.01 3.03
    Al 1.31 1.28 1.22 1.36 0.74 1.20 1.09 1.07 0.03 0 0.01
    Ti 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0 0.01 0 0.03 0 0 0.01
    Fe3+ 0.59 0.60 0.67 0.54 1.08 0.67 0.80 0.80 1.61 1.64 1.62
    Fe2+ 0.13 0.14 0.14 0.03 0.28 0.16 0.21 0.17 0.39 0.39 0.37
    Mn 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.01
    Mg 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.01 0 0.01
    Ca 3.01 2.99 3.02 3.07 3.04 2.99 3.02 3.03 3.09 3.10 3.10
    And 31.52 32.45 36.10 28.74 60.46 36.62 43.23 43.54 98.06 99.74 99.60
    Gro 67.29 66.15 62.24 69.46 38.58 61.59 55.57 54.82 0.99 0 0
    Pyr 0.40 0.41 0.43 0.74 0.34 0.41 0.45 0.48 0.32 0.20 0.35
    Spe 0.79 0.99 1.23 1.07 0.62 1.38 0.75 1.16 0.62 0.06 0.05
    注:本次实验误差范围0.01%
    下载: 导出CSV
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