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河流功率梯度在泥石流空间易发程度调查中的应用:以金沙江流域为例

顾畛逵 姚鑫 李凌婧 陶涛

顾畛逵,姚鑫,李凌婧,等,2023. 河流功率梯度在泥石流空间易发程度调查中的应用:以金沙江流域为例[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):87−98 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022022
引用本文: 顾畛逵,姚鑫,李凌婧,等,2023. 河流功率梯度在泥石流空间易发程度调查中的应用:以金沙江流域为例[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):87−98 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022022
GU Z K,YAO X,LI L J,et al.,2023. Applying stream power gradient in the investigation on spatial susceptibility of debris flow: A case of the Jinsha River Basin, China[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):87−98 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022022
Citation: GU Z K,YAO X,LI L J,et al.,2023. Applying stream power gradient in the investigation on spatial susceptibility of debris flow: A case of the Jinsha River Basin, China[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):87−98 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022022

河流功率梯度在泥石流空间易发程度调查中的应用:以金沙江流域为例

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2022022
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(42107218);中国地质调查局地质调查项目(DD20221738-2);中国长江三峡集团有限公司项目(YMJ(XLD)(19)110)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    顾畛逵(1987—),男,博士,副研究员,从事地貌发育与地质灾害研究工作。E-mail: bygzk853@126.com

    通讯作者:

    姚鑫(1978—),男,博士,研 究 员,从事InSAR观测与地质灾害研究工作。E-mail: yaoxinphd@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P694;P642.23

Applying stream power gradient in the investigation on spatial susceptibility of debris flow: A case of the Jinsha River Basin, China

Funds: This research is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant 42107218), the Geological Survey Program of China Geological Survey (Grant DD20221738-2), and the Project of Three Gorges Corporation (Grant YMJ(XLD)(19)110).
  • 摘要: 泥石流空间易发程度调查是开展地质灾害防范和制定生态修复计划的基础之一。目前单纯依靠野外调查并结合遥感观测,或以小流域为单元的泥石流模拟,均难以在大空间范围内高效、准确地识别潜在泥石流沟。鉴于泥石流是一种高能重力流,此次研究以金沙江流域为例,在假定物源供给无差异条件下,提出通过求算河流功率梯度(ω)来实现地表外动力活动强度定量刻画和泥石流空间易发程度调查的新方案,并将泥石流沟验证点数与ω值关系曲线的比降趋势突变位置作为阈值(1×10−4 W/m²),提取出大约3.2万条长度超过200 m的高能河谷或泥石流易发沟谷。这些沟谷基本位于金沙江和雅砻江干流中下游,在大约30 km距离的缓冲区范围内密集分布,其数量与缓冲区宽度存在乘幂函数关系。在全球变暖背景下,未来发生极端气象事件可能性趋于增加,这些地带,尤其是梯级库区河段应做为泥石流灾害的重点防范区。研究的最终结果提供了金沙江流域泥石流易发沟谷的空间位置及ω值的点阵数据集,可供检索高能河谷的准确位置,也可作为相关地质灾害与地表过程研究的基础数据和资料。

     

  • 图  1  金沙江流域地形与周围主要大河分布

    Figure  1.  Topography of the Jinsha River Basin and the distribution of major rivers around it

    图  2  研究技术路线

    Figure  2.  Implementation roadmap of the study

    图  3  沟谷比降及其线性拟合度的空间分布特征

    a—沟谷比降的空间插值;b—沟谷比降线性拟合度空间插值(R2

    Figure  3.  Spatial distribution characteristics of the gradient and its linear fitting degree

    (a) Spatial interpolation of the gradients; (b) Spatial interpolation of the linear fit degrees (R²)

    图  4  汇流面积与流量关系

    流量数据为攀枝花、直门达、甘孜、小得石、屏山水文站多年记录的平均值(卓嘎等, 2011赵文焕和高袁,2011

    Figure  4.  Relation between catchment area and discharge

    Note: The discharge values are the mean values of the years recorded at Panzhihua, Zhimenda, Ganzi, Xiaodeshi and Pingshan hydrology stations (Zhuo et al., 2011Zhao and Gao, 2011)

    图  5  河流功率与河流功率梯度值的空间分布

    a—河流功率(Ω);b—河流功率梯度(ω);c—图b中的局部ω特征示例;d—金沙江干流侵蚀与淤积河段栅格数;e—金沙江高程剖面及侵蚀−淤积沿程变化

    Figure  5.  Spatial distribution of stream power and stream power gradient

    (a) Stream powe(Ω); (b) Stream power gradient (ω); (c) ω values in the local regions of the valleys shown in Fig.5b; (d) Frequencies of sedimentation and runoff incision; (e) Jinsha River profile and distribution of areas of sedimentation and erosion

    图  6  不同河流功率梯度值区间内的泥石流调查点数

    Figure  6.  Debris flow investigation points in various stream power gradient intervals

    图  7  金沙江流域潜在泥石流沟

    a—河流功率梯度值(ω)及潜在泥石流沟;b—泥石流沟局部特征;c—典型泥石流沟;d—泥石流沟发育动力;e—流量、ω在该泥石流沟纵剖面上的分布

    Figure  7.  Debris flow valleys in the Jinsha River Basin

    (a) Distribution of debris flow valleys and their stream power gradients; (b) Debris flow valleys shown in detail; (c) A typical debris flow valley; (d) Spatial variation of erosion dynamics in a typical debris flow valley corresponding to (c); (e) Variation of discharge and stream power gradient in a valley profile

    图  8  不同距离的缓冲区范围内潜在泥石流沟数量

    Figure  8.  Number of potential debris flow gullies within the buffer zone at different distances

    图  9  金沙江流域降水量变化

    a—降水变化趋势;b—通过了显著性检验的降水变化趋势(空值表示未通过显著性检验); c—降水量的月均变化注:降水数据为日分辨率TRMM(Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov),空间分辨率为0.25°;趋势分析方法采用曼−肯德尔法(Mann-Kendall),负值表示降低,正值表示增加。

    Figure  9.  Precipitation trend in the Jinsha River Basin

    (a) Precipitation trend; (b) Precipitation trend that has passed the significance test (A null value indicates that the significance test was not passed); (c) Monthly mean of precipitation Note: The precipitation data is the 0.25° resolution TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, http://mirador.gsfc.nasa.gov); The trend analysis adopts the Mann-Kendall method, where negative value means decrease and positive value means increase.

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-02-24
  • 修回日期:  2022-08-12
  • 录用日期:  2022-08-24
  • 预出版日期:  2022-08-31

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