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黔西南架底金矿床流体包裹体研究

闵壮 陈正乐 潘家永 周振菊 张文高 吴玉 张涛

闵壮, 陈正乐, 潘家永, 等, 2022. 黔西南架底金矿床流体包裹体研究. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 448-463. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021170
引用本文: 闵壮, 陈正乐, 潘家永, 等, 2022. 黔西南架底金矿床流体包裹体研究. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 448-463. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021170
MIN Zhuang, CHEN Zhengle, PAN Jiayong, et al., 2022. Research on fluid inclusions of the Jiadi gold deposit in southwestern Guizhou. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 448-463. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021170
Citation: MIN Zhuang, CHEN Zhengle, PAN Jiayong, et al., 2022. Research on fluid inclusions of the Jiadi gold deposit in southwestern Guizhou. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 448-463. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021170

黔西南架底金矿床流体包裹体研究

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021170
基金项目: 

贵州省科技计划项目 2021-408

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20190161

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 DD20221660-3

贵州省卡林型金矿成矿与找矿科技创新人才团队建设项目 CXTD2021-007

中国铀业有限公司-东华理工大学核资源与环境国家重点实验室联合创新基金项目 NRE2021-01

东华理工大学核资源与环境国家重点实验室开放基金项目 2020NRE04

详细信息
    作者简介:

    闵壮(1995—), 男, 在读博士, 地质资源与地质工程专业。E-mail: MinZ@ecut.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    陈正乐(1967—), 男, 博士, 研究员, 构造地质与矿田构造方向。E-mail: Chenzhengle@263.net

  • 中图分类号: P599;P611

Research on fluid inclusions of the Jiadi gold deposit in southwestern Guizhou

Funds: 

the Science and Technology Project of Guizhou Province 2021-408

Geological Survey Projects of the China Geological Survey DD20190161

Geological Survey Projects of the China Geological Survey DD20221660-3

Guizhou Carlin-type Gold Deposit Metallogenic and Prospecting Scientific and Technological Innovation Talent Team Construction Project CXTD2021-007

China Uranium Industry Corporation-East China University of Technology Joint Innovation Fund Project NRE2021-01

Open Fund Project of State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Resources and Environment of East China University of Technology 2020NRE04

  • 摘要: 架底金矿是近年来在黔西南新发现的主要赋存于玄武岩中的大型微细粒浸染型金矿床。为查明其成矿流体特征,探讨流体成矿机制,针对矿床不同成矿阶段采取流体包裹体样品开展工作。根据野外观察和室内分析,架底金矿热液成矿期可分为3个阶段:黄铁矿阶段、烟灰色石英阶段和硫化物阶段,其中烟灰色石英阶段为主要成矿阶段。流体包裹体以NaCl-H2O和CO2-NaCl-H2O型为主,黄铁矿阶段富CO2包裹体,均一温度(Th)为211~231℃,盐度(wt)为2.10~7.60(% NaCl equiv);烟灰色石英阶段见大量NaCl-H2O和CO2-NaCl-H2O型包裹体,均一温度(Th)为182~218℃,盐度(wt)为1.40~5.90(% NaCl equiv);硫化物阶段包裹体均一温度(Th)普遍小于183℃,盐度(wt)为0.90~5.30(% NaCl equiv)。激光拉曼光谱分析显示包裹体中含CO2、CH4、N2、SO2等气相组分,随着成矿流体均一温度、盐度和密度的不断下降,包裹体中气相组分种类也趋于简单。通过计算成矿流体的ρ、P、pH、Eh和fO2等物理化学参数,表明成矿环境具有中低温、低盐度、低密度、近中性、相对还原及低氧逸度的特征。流体包裹体组合变化表明成矿作用发生在流体CO2含量不断降低的过程,主成矿阶段流体混合和区域伸展构造引起流体沸腾作用强烈,大量金属成分(黄铁矿、自然金等)快速沉淀形成金矿体。

     

  • 图  1  莲花山背斜地质构造及微细浸染型金矿产地分布示意图(据何金坪等,2018修改)

    a—右江盆地构造简图;b—架底金矿床构造地质简图;c—莲花山背斜地质构造及微细浸染型金矿产地分布示意图
    1—下三叠统永宁镇组一段;2—下三叠统飞仙关组二段;3—下三叠统飞仙关组一段;4—上二叠统大隆组;5—上二叠统长兴组;6—上二叠统龙潭组;7—上二叠统峨眉山玄武岩组;8—中二叠统茅口组;9—中二叠统栖霞组;10—中二叠统梁山组;11—上石炭统马平组;12—上石炭统黄龙组;13—下石炭统摆佐组;14—下石炭统大塘组;15—下石炭统岩关组;16—上泥盆统代化组;17—构造蚀变体(SBT);18—背斜轴;19—向斜轴;20—逆断层及编号;21—正断层及编号;22—性质不明断层;23—地质界限;24—勘探线位置及编号;25—大型金矿床;26—中型金矿床;27—小型金矿床;28—金矿点;29—地理位置及名称

    Figure  1.  Sketch map of the geologic structure and distribution of disseminated gold deposits and occurrences in the Lianhuashan anticline area(modified from He et al., 2018)

    (a)Simplified tectonic map of the Youjiang basin; (b)Structural geologic sketch map of the Jiadi gold deposit; (c)Sketch map of the geologic structure and distribution of disseminated gold deposits in the Lianhuashan anticline area
    1-First section of the Yongningzhen Formation; 2-Second section of the Feixianguan Formation; 3-First section of Feixianguan Formation; 4-Dalong Formation; 5-Changxing Formation; 6-Longtan Formation; 7-Emeishan Basalt Formation; 8-Maokou Formation; 9-Qixia Formation; 10-Liangshan Formation; 11-Maping Formation; 12-Huanglong Formation; 13-Baizuo Formation; 14-Datang Formation; 15-Yanguan Formation; 16-Daihua Formation; 17-Structural alteration body(SBT); 18-Synclinal axis; 19-Anticlinal axis; 20-Reverse faults and their numbers; 21-Normal faults and their numbers; 22-Ill-defined fault; 23-Geologic boundary; 24-Exploration line and its number; 25-Large gold deposits; 26-Medium gold deposits; 27-Small gold deposits; 28-Gold occurrence; 29-Geolocation

    图  2  架底金矿床7号勘探线剖面图(位置见图 1b;据何金坪等,2018修改)

    Figure  2.  Cross-section of the No.7 exploration line of the Jiadi gold deposit (shown in fig. 1b; modified from He et al., 2018)

    图  3  架底金矿床3个成矿阶段矿石手标本及显微镜下照片

    a—架底金矿上层矿体露头;b—架底金矿下层矿体(SBT)钻孔岩心松散矿石;c—烟灰色石英阶段石英+黄铁矿细脉;d—蚀变火山角砾岩型矿石中3个阶段热液矿物的分布情况;e—烟灰色石英阶段细脉状黄铁矿;f—烟灰色石英阶段烟灰色含金石英脉;g—显微镜下黄铁矿阶段半自形—他形浸染状黄铁矿;h—显微镜下烟灰色石英阶段团块状黄铁矿;i—显微镜下烟灰色石英阶段细脉状黄铁矿;j—显微镜下硫化物阶段自形黄铁矿;①-、②-、③-分别表示黄铁矿、烟灰色石英和硫化物成矿阶段;Py表示黄铁矿;Q表示石英

    Figure  3.  Hand specimens and microscopic photographs showing the three ore-forming stages of the Jiadi gold deposit

    (a) Photo showing upper ore-body outcrops of the Jiadi gold deposit; (b) Photo showing loose ores in drill core, lower orebody (SBT) of the Jiadi gold deposit; (c) Specimen of Quartz+pyrite vein of the smoky gray quartz stage; (d) Specimen showing the distribution of hydrothermal minerals of the three stages in altered volcanic breccia type ore; (e) Specimen of veined pyrite of the smoky gray quartz stage; (f) Specimen of smoky gray gold-bearing quartz vein of the smoky gray quartz stage; (g) Microscopic photo of subhedral-euhedral disseminated pyrite of the pyrite stage; (h) Microscopic photo of massive pyrite of the smoky gray quartz stage; (i) Microscopic photo of veined pyrite of the smoky gray quartz stage; (j) Microscopic photo of euhedral pyrite of sulfide stage; ①, ②, ③ represent the pyrite, smoky gray quartz and sulfide mineralization stage respectively; Py stands for pyrite; Q stands for quartz

    图  4  架底金矿床矿物生成顺序图

    Figure  4.  Diagram of mineral formation sequence in the Jiadi gold deposit

    图  5  架底金矿床流体包裹体岩相学特征

    FIA表示流体包裹体组合;LH2O表示液相H2O;VH2O表示气相H2O;LCO2表示液相CO2;VCO2表示气相CO2
    a—相互穿切的石英脉,脉内可见大量细小金属矿物产出;b—发育良好环带的石英晶体;c—沿石英晶体裂隙分布的次生包裹体;d—红色虚线之间流体包裹体条带为流体包裹体组合(FIA);e—硫化物阶段纯液相包裹体;f—黄铁矿阶段富液相流体包裹体;g—可见硫化物阶段包裹体“卡脖子”现象;h—烟灰色石英阶段含CO2两相包裹体;i—烟灰色石英阶段含CO2三相包裹体

    Figure  5.  Petrographic characteristics of fluid inclusions in the Jiadi gold deposit

    (a)Interpenetrating quartz veins with large amounts of fine metallic minerals; (b)Quartz crystal with well zonal texture; (c)Secondary inclusions distributed along the fractures of quartz crystals; (d)The fluid inclusion band between red dotted lines is a fluid inclusion assembly (FIA); (e)Pure liquid inclusions of the sulfide stage; (f)Liquid-rich fluid inclusions of the pyrite stage; (g)"Neck-locked" phenomenon of inclusion in sulfide stage; (h)Two-phase inclusions containing CO2 of smoky gray quartz stage; (i)Three-phase inclusions containing CO2 of smoky gray quartz stage
    FIA stands for fluid inclusion assembly; LH2O represents liquid phase H2O; VH2O represents gaseous phase H2O; LCO2 represents liquid phase CO2; VCO2 represents gaseous phase CO2

    图  6  架底金矿床热液成矿期流体包裹体均一温度和流体盐度值频数直方图

    Figure  6.  Frequency histogram of fluid inclusions in the Jiadi gold deposit

    图  7  架底金矿床流体包裹体激光拉曼光谱特征

    a—黄铁矿阶段NaCl-H2O型气液两相包裹体;b—烟灰色石英阶段含少量气相组分的NaCl-H2O型气液两相包裹体;c—烟灰色石英阶段含少量CO2三相包裹体;d—硫化物阶段含CO2、CH4、N2两相包裹体

    Figure  7.  Laser Raman spectroscopy characteristics of fluid inclusions in the Jiadi gold deposit

    (a)NaCl-H2O type gas-liquid two-phase inclusions of the pyrite stage; (b)NaCl-H2O type gas-liquid two-phase inclusions containing a small amount of gas-phase components of the smoky gray quartz stage; (c)Three-phase inclusions containing a small amount of CO2 of the smoky gray quartz phase; (d)Two-phase inclusions containing CO2, CH4 and N2 of the sulfide stage

    图  8  黔西南主要微细浸染型金矿床与架底金矿成矿流体物理参数图(泥堡数据郑禄林,2017;戈塘数据杜放,2017;烂泥沟数据韩雪,2012)

    a—黔西南主要微细浸染型金矿床成矿流体物理参数图;b—架底金矿成矿流体均一温度和盐度散点图

    Figure  8.  Physical parameters of ore-forming fluids of main fine disseminated gold deposits and the Jiadi gold deposit in Southwestern Guizhou(The data of Nibao from Zheng, 2017; The data of Getang from Du, 2017; The data of Lannigou from Han, 2012)

    (a)Map of physical parameters of ore-forming fluids of main fine disseminated gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou; (b)Scatter diagram of homogenization temperature and salinity of ore-forming fluid from the Jiadi gold deposit

    表  1  两相NaCl-H2O型流体包裹体参数

    Table  1.   Parameters of two-phase NaCl-H2O fluid inclusions

    样品编号 采样层位及测试矿物 包裹体类型 测温数量 初熔温度/℃ 均一温度/℃ 冰点温度/℃ 盐度/(%NaCl equiv) 密度/(g/cm3) 备注
    范围 平均值 范围 平均值 范围 平均值 范围 平均值 范围 平均值
    ZK3109-1 SBT(Cal) A2 10 -23.8~-20.3 -22.05 231~206 215.0 -2.3~-4.8 -3.8 7.6~3.9 6.1 0.883~0.903 0.893 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK3109-2 P3β2(Cal) A2 7 -24.0~-21.1 -22.55 218~199 208.3 -1.2~-4.7 -3.1 7.4~2.1 5.0 0.878~0.909 0.894 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK3109-4 P3β2(Q) A2 7 -21.6~-20.4 -21.00 225~199 209.7 -1.7~-4.5 -3.3 7.2~2.9 5.4 0.877~0.915 0.896 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK3109-5 P3β2(Q) A2 7 -24.6~-21.4 -23.00 235~198 213.1 -1.5~-4.0 -2.9 6.4~2.6 4.8 0.867~0.907 0.887 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK3109-7 P3β2(Q) A2 7 -22.8~-21.1 -21.95 225~198 209.1 -1.9~-4.2 -2.9 6.7~3.2 4.8 0.868~0.907 0.888 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK3109-8 P3β2(Q) A2 9 -23.2~-20.7 -21.95 223~195 212.4 -1.8~-4.3 -3.0 6.9~3.1 5.0 0.871~0.908 0.890 黄铁矿阶段
    8 -21.8~-20.5 -21.15 196~177 187.0 -0.8~-3.0 -1.9 5.0~1.4 3.2 0.882~0.926 0.904 烟灰色石英阶段
    ZK3109-10 P3β2(Q) A2 9 -24.3~-21.4 -22.85 223~198 211.9 -1.7~-4.7 -2.9 7.4~2.9 4.7 0.872~0.909 0.891 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK2725-4 P3β2(Q) A2 9 -22.7~-20.4 -21.55 222~188 205.7 -1.5~-3.5 -2.5 5.7~2.6 4.2 0.860~0.919 0.890 烟灰色石英阶段
    ZK2725-5 P3β2(Q) A2 5 -21.9~-20.6 -21.25 218~195 207.0 -1.8~-3.6 -2.6 5.9~3.1 4.4 0.882~0.897 0.890 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK2725-9 P3β2(Q) A2 7 -23.1~-21.6 -22.35 215~193 206.9 -1.9~-3.2 -2.7 5.3~3.2 4.4 0.875~0.912 0.894 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK2725-12 P3β2(Q) A2 9 -23.7~-21.1 -22.40 217~185 20.1 -2.1~-3.6 -2.9 5.9~3.5 4.6 0.872~0.910 0.891 烟灰色石英阶段
    ZK2725-13 P3β2(Q) A2 7 -26.6~-21.0 -23.80 213~195 204.8 -2.2~-3.6 -2.8 5.9~3.7 4.6 0.884~0.970 0.896 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK2725-15 P3β2(Q) A2 8 -24.2~-21.9 -23.05 215~196 205.5 -1.7~-3.7 -2.6 6.0~2.9 4.3 0.870~0.908 0.889 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK3125-1 P3β2(Q) A2 9 -23.6~-21.7 -22.65 180~162 170.8 -0.5~-1.6 -1.0 2.7~0.9 1.8 0.905~0.930 0.918 硫化物阶段
    ZK4204-1 P3β2(Q) A2 7 -24.4~-21.8 -23.10 213~176 197.3 -1.5~-3.2 -2.3 5.3~2.6 3.8 0.871~0.931 0.901 硫化物阶段
    ZK4204-2 P3β2(Q) A2 7 -25.1~-20.8 -22.95 223~198 208.1 -2.5~-4.7 -3.7 7.4~4.2 5.9 0.882~0.913 0.898 黄铁矿阶段
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  两相CO2-NaCl-H2O型流体包裹体参数

    Table  2.   Parameters of two-phase CO2-NaCl-H2O fluid inclusions

    样品编号 采样层位及测试矿物 包裹体类型 测温数量 初熔温度/℃ 笼形物熔化温度/℃ 均一温度/℃ 冰点温度/℃ 盐度/(%NaCl equiv) 密度/(g/cm3) 备注
    范围 均值 范围 均值 范围 均值 范围 均值 范围 均值 范围 均值
    ZK3109-3 P3β2(Q) B1 7 -59.0~-56.0 57.5 4.0~9.8 6.9 229~197 209.8 -1.0~-4.7 -3.3 6.4~1.7 4.7 0.875~0.961 0.918 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK3109-6 P3β2(Q) B1 7 -58.1~57.0 57.6 6.8~8.1 7.5 224~198 210.7 -1.7~-4.5 -3.2 7.2~2.9 5.2 0.845~0.958 0.902 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK3109-9 P3β2(Q) B1 10 -58.3~-56.7 57.5 5.3~8.7 7.0 227~197 211.3 -1.5~-4.0 -3.0 6.4~2.6 4.9 0.852~0.928 0.890 黄铁矿阶段
    P3β2(Q) B1 8 -57.2~-56.7 57.0 5.3~8.4 6.9 201~179 188.1 -0.7~-3.0 -1.7 5.0~1.2 2.9 0.831~0.930 0.881 烟灰色石英阶段
    ZK3109-12 P3β2(Q) B1 9 -58.6~-57.3 58.0 7.4~9.3 6.9 220~179 198.6 -1.8~-4.1 -2.9 6.6~3.1 4.8 0.862~0.918 0.890 黄铁矿阶段
    ZK2725-14 P3β2(Q) B1 7 -58.8~-57.1 58.0 7.0~9.4 8.2 224~195 210.3 -2.1~-4.1 -3.2 6.6~3.5 5.2 0.875~0.960 0.918 黄铁矿阶段
    寄主矿物:Q—石英,Cal—方解石;采样层位:P3β2—上二叠统峨眉山玄武岩组二段,SBT—下层构造蚀变岩矿石;包裹体类型:A2—两相NaCl-H2O型,B1—两相CO2-NaCl-H2O型
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  黔西南主要微细浸染状金矿床成矿流体包裹体物理参数表

    Table  3.   Physical parameters of ore-forming fluids of prime fine-disseminated gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou

    矿床名称 均一温度/℃ 盐度/ (%NaCl equiv) 密度/ (g/cm3) 压力/ MPa 数据来源
    架底 198.5 4.25 0.895 45.30 文中
    泥堡 250.0 5.50 0.830 43.00 郑禄林,2017
    戈塘 160.0 2.945 0.910 37.60 杜放,2017
    烂泥沟 197.5 7.395 0.900 18.95 韩雪,2012
    下载: 导出CSV
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