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元古代华南洋的轮廓

杨明桂 姚悦 熊燃 王光辉 胡青华 徐梅桂

杨明桂,姚悦,熊燃,等,2023. 元古代华南洋的轮廓[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):1−20 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021051
引用本文: 杨明桂,姚悦,熊燃,等,2023. 元古代华南洋的轮廓[J]. 地质力学学报,29(1):1−20 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021051
YANG M G,YAO Y,XIONG R,et al.,2023. The outline of the Proterozoic South China Ocean[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):1−20 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021051
Citation: YANG M G,YAO Y,XIONG R,et al.,2023. The outline of the Proterozoic South China Ocean[J]. Journal of Geomechanics,29(1):1−20 doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021051

元古代华南洋的轮廓

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021051
基金项目: 中国地质科学院“中国矿产地质志”系列研究项目(2015117,2016185)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨明桂(1933—),男,教授级高级工程师,从事区域地质调查、矿产勘查和地质科学研究工作。E-mail: jxjudkc@126.com

  • 中图分类号: P547;P617

The outline of the Proterozoic South China Ocean

Funds: This research is financially supported by the Research Programs of the “Chinese Mineral Geology” Series of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (Grants No.2015117, 2016185).
  • 摘要: 地质界追寻华南洋的研究已有40年历史,在已有研究基础上,通过《中国区域地质志·江西志》《中国矿产地质志·江西卷》及《华南洋−滨太平洋构造演化与成矿》专题对中新元古代华南洋的地质特征与相关地质构造及成矿问题有了进一步的认识:凭祥−歙县−苏州结合带与金沙江−红河结合带在河内市北面相连,为中新元古代华南洋的消亡潜没地带,构成了扬子板块与新厘定的华夏−东南亚板块分界(简称金沙江−红河−歙县−苏州结合带),现今是一条向南弯曲的纬向构造带;华南洋是扬子古板块与华夏−东南亚古板块间的中新元古代大洋,约闭合于820± Ma,板块碰撞发生了晋宁运动,扬子陆块与华夏−东南亚陆块基本固结,并连为一体;该区印支期以来为欧亚板块重要组成部分,新元古代晚期815± Ma至早古生代形成华南裂谷系,晚古生代以来先后受特提斯构造域、古太平洋构造域复合形成了中国南部及邻区高原、大陆、海域、岛弧的地质构造格局;在华南洋潜没地带的基础上经不断发展演化形成了以S、I型两大岩浆成矿系列为特色的钨锡铜金多金属贵稀金属“金沙江−红河−钦州湾−杭州湾”巨型成矿带。

     

  • 图  1  浏阳−德兴−歙县一带蛇绿岩片与构造岩片分布略图(据杨明桂等,2015修改)

    a—下南华统漫田岩片;b—南华系—寒武系广寒寨岩片;c—下南华统—青白口系上统白土混杂岩块;d—下南华统乌石岩片;e—震旦系黄马岩片;f—何坊−杨溪登山群混杂岩片;g—中元古界铁沙街岩片;①—凭祥−歙县−苏州结合带;②—赣东北深断裂带;③—上饶−萧山深断裂带;④—北海−萍乡−绍兴深断裂带;⑤—石耳山走滑断裂带

    Figure  1.  Distribution of ophiolite and tectonic slices in the Liuyang–Dexing–Shexian area (modified from Yang et al., 2015)

    (a) Mantian sheet rocks of the lower Nanhua System; (b) Guanghanzhai sheet rocks of the Nanhua System; (c) Baitu mélange rock blocks of the lower Nanhua System–upper Qingbaikou system; (d) Wushi sheet rocks of the lower Nanhua System; (e) Huangma sheet rocks of the Sinian system; (f) Mélange sheet rocks of the Hefang–Yangxidengshan Group ; (g) Mesoproterozoic Tieshajie sheet rocks; ①–Pingxiang–Shexian–Suzhou junction zone; ②–Deep fault belt in the northeast of Jiangxi; ③–Shangrao–Xiaoshan deep fault belt; ④–Beihai–Pingxiang–Shaoxing deep fault belt; ⑤–Shiershan strike-slip fault belt

    图  2  万载兴源冲矿区推覆构造剖面图

    C2h—上石炭统黄龙组;Pt3 1 y2-1—新元古代宜丰蛇绿混杂岩片;Qb1 2S—青白口系上统下部双桥山群1—逆冲断裂;2—铜矿体;3—钻孔位置及编号

    Figure  2.  Profile of the nappe structure in the Xingyuanchong mining area, Wanzai

    C2h–Upper Carboniferous Huanglong formation; Pt1 3 y2-1–New Proterozoic ophiolitic mélange sheet rock ; Qb1 2S–Shuangqiaoshan Group in the bottom of the upper Qingbaikou system 1reverse faults; 2–copper ore body; 3–borehole locations and their numbers

    图  3  钦杭华南洋潜没带与邻区构造分区略图(杨明桂等,2015

    蛇绿岩带:①歙县伏川;②德兴−弋阳;③浏阳文家市A—凭祥−歙县−苏州结合带;B—北海−萍乡−绍兴断裂带;Ⅰ—扬子板块;Ⅰ1—中下扬子地块;Ⅰ2—南华造山系湘桂造山带;Ⅱ—华夏−东南亚板块;Ⅱ1—华南洋潜没带;Ⅱ1 1—信江−钱塘地块;Ⅱ2 1—广丰地块;Ⅱ3 1—万年推覆地体上叠萍乡−乐平坳陷带;Ⅱ4 1—湘东坳陷带;Ⅱ5 1—钦州华力西−印支造山带;Ⅱ2—华南造山系东南造山带

    Figure  3.  Structural zoning of the Qinhang South China Ocean subduction zone and adjacent areas (Yang et al., 2015)

    Ophiolite belts: ① Fuchuan, Shexian County; ② Dexing–Yiyang; ③ Wenjia, Liuyang City A–Pingxiang–Shexian–Suzhou juction zone; B–Beihai–Pingxiang–Shaoxing fault belt; Ⅰ–Yangtze plate; Ⅰ1–Middle-lower Yangtze Block; Ⅰ2– Xianggui orogenic belt of the Nanhua orogenic system; Ⅱ–Cathaysia–Southeast Asia plate; Ⅱ1–South China Ocean subduction zone; Ⅱ1 1-Xinjiang–Qiantang plot; Ⅱ2 1–Guangfeng plot; Ⅱ3 1–Wannian nappe (bottom) and Pingxiang–Leping depression zone (upper); Ⅱ4 1-Xiangdong depression zone; Ⅱ5 1–Qinzhou Variscan–Indochina orogenic belt; Ⅱ2– Southeast orogenic belt of South China orogenic system

    图  4  浙皖赣青白口纪晚世晚期华南裂谷系示意图(据杨明桂等,2015修改)

    ①—陆相火山盆地;②—枕状玄武岩;③—次深海含火山沉积浊积岩;④—浅海双峰式火山岩;⑤—水下裂陷华夏陆块;Cu—含铜火山沉积

    Figure  4.  Schematic sketch for the late South China Rift Valley of the late Qingbaikou in Zhejiang–Anhui–Jiangxi (modified from Yang et al., 2015)

    ①–continental volcanic basin; ②–pillow basalt; ③–bathyal turbidite with volcanic deposition; ④– bimodal volcanic rocks of shallow sea; ⑤– Cathaysia block rifted under water; Cu–copper-bearing volcanic deposits

    图  5  加里东造山期江西中部对冲构造示意图(据江西省地质矿产勘查开发局,2017修改)

    1—蛇绿岩;2—不整合面;3—正断裂;4—逆冲推覆断裂带Nh−Pz1—南华系—下古生界;Qb2 2—青白口系上部;Qb2 2−Pz1—青白口系上部—下古生界;Qb1 2S—青白口系下部双桥山群;Qb1 2W—青白口系下部万年群;Pt2ts—中元古界铁沙街岩片;Pt2-3—推测的叠覆扬子陆缘中新元古界岛弧沉积;Pt2-3ψ—中新元古界张村蛇绿混杂岩;Pt2t—中元古界田里岩组;F1—凭祥−歙县−苏州板块结合带;F2—德兴−弋阳(赣东北)深断裂带;F3—萍乡−绍兴深断裂带

    Figure  5.  Schematic diagram of the thrust structure in central Jiangxi province during the Caledonian orogeny (modified fromJiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, 2017)

    1–ophiolite; 2–plane of unconformity; 3–positive fracture; 4–thrust-nappe fault zone Nh–Pz1–Nanhuan System–Lower Paleozoic; Qb2 2–upper Qingbaikou System; Qb2 2–Pz1–upper Qingbaikou System–lower Paleozoic; Qb1 2S–Shuangqiaoshan group of the lower Qingbaikou System; Qb1 2W–Wannian group of the lower Qingbaikou System; Pt2ts–Mesoproterozoic Tieshajie sheet rock; Pt2-3–the presumed Meso-Neoproterozoic island arc deposition overlaid on the Yangtze continental margin; Pt2-3ψ–Mes-Neoproterozoic Zhangcun ophiolitic mélange rock; Pt2t–Mesoproterozoic Tianliyan formation; F1–Pingxiang–Shexian–Suzhou junction zone; F2–Dexing–Yiyang (northeastern Jiangxi) deep fault belt; F3–Pingxiang–Shaoxing deep fault belt

    图  6  余干县石口−汪家燕山期逆冲推覆构造岩片堆叠与飞来峰构造略图(据江西省地质矿产勘查开发局,2017修改)

    J—侏罗系;C—石炭系;C—T-石炭系-三叠系;Qb1 2S—青白口系上统下部双桥山群;Qb1 2W—青白口系上统下部万年群;F—逆冲推覆断裂带

    Figure  6.  The stacking of thrust-nappe tectonic sheets and the structure of klippe during the Yanshanian period in the Shikou–Wangjia area, Yugan county (modified from Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, 2017)

    J–Jurassic; C–Carboniferous; C–T–Carboniferous–Triassic; Qb1 2S–Shuangqiaoshan group of the lower Qingbaikou System; Qb1 2W–Wannian group of the lower Qingbaikou System; F–thrust-nappe fault zones

    图  7  江南(雪峰段)隆起-沿海北西向剖面的岩石圈构造略图(据袁学诚,2007修改)

    1—壳内低速带;2—晚白垩世—古近纪红色盆地;3—晚古生代—早中生代坳陷;4—晚中生代火山盆地;5—岩石圈地幔硬块;6—断层

    Figure  7.  Lithospheric structure sketch of the Jiangnan uplift (Xuefeng segment)–coastal NW-section (modified from Yuan, 2007)

    1–low-velocity zone in the shell; 2–red basins of the late Cretaceous Epoch–Paleogene period; 3– depression of the upper Paleozoic–early Mesozoic; 4–late Mesozoic volcanic basins; 5–hard mass in lithospheric mantle; 6–faults

    图  8  中新元古代华南洋发展演化示意图(江西省地质矿产勘查开发局,2017

    ①扬子古元古代克拉通;②华夏古元古代克拉通;Pt3—新元古界下部;Pt2-3—中元古界—新元古界下部;Pt2—中元古界;φ—蛇绿岩套;γ—花岗岩;G—高压变质带;A—宜丰含铜蛇绿岩;B—德兴含金蛇绿岩;C—铁沙街−平水含铜火山建造;D—枕状熔岩细碧岩石英角斑岩建造a—华南洋弧盆结构;b—晋宁期造山构造

    Figure  8.  The development and evolution of the Meso-Neoproterozoic South China Ocean (Jiangxi Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, 2017)

    (a) The structure of the South China Ocean arc basin; (b) The Orogenic structure of the Jinning period①–Palaeoproterozoic Yangtze craton; ②–Palaeoproterozoic Cathaysia craton; Pt3–the lower Neoproterozoic; Pt2-3–the lower Meso-Neoproterozoic; Pt2–the Mesoproterozoic; φ–ophiolite suite; γ–granite; G–metamorphic belt by high pressure; A–Yifeng copper-bearing ophiolite; B–Dexing gold-bearing ophiolite; C–Tieshajie–Pingshui copper-bearing volcanic formation; D–pillow lava–spilite-quartz–keratophyre formation

    图  9  中新元古代华南洋陆缘地层分布图(杨明桂和王光辉,2020

    Pt3—新元古界(双桥山群、冷家溪群、溪口群上部、四堡群、梵净山群);Pt3W—新元古界万年群;Pt3S—新元古界双溪坞群;Pt3 p—新元古界平水组;Pt2—中元古界;1—新元古界深变质岩出露点;2—蛇绿岩片;3—晋宁期花岗岩;4—扬子东南陆缘枕状熔岩细碧岩石英角斑岩出露点

    Figure  9.  Stratigraphic distribution of the continental margin of the Meso-Neoproterozoic South China Ocean (Yang and Wang, 2020)

    Pt3–the Neoproterozoic (Shuangqiaoshan Group, Lengjiaxi Group, Upper Xikou Group, Sibao Group, Fanjingshan Group); Pt3W–Neoproterozoic Wannian Group; Pt3S–Neoproterozoic Shuangxiwu Group; Pt3p–Neoproterozoic Pingshui Formation; Pt2–the Mesoproterozoic; 1–the outcrops of Neoproterozoic deep metamorphic rocks; 2–ophiote sheet; 3–granite of the Jinningian period; 4–the outcrops of pillow lava–spilite–quartz-keratophyre in the southeast Yangtze continental margin

    图  10  金沙江−红河−歙县−苏州结合带中段相邻地区地质构造图(据任纪舜,2013修改)

    Figure  10.  Geological structural map of the adjacent areas in the middle section of the Jinsha River–Red River–Shexian–Suzhou junction zone (modified from Ren, 2013)

    图  11  华南洋与邻侧构造略图

    Figure  11.  Tectonic sketch of the South China Ocean and its adjacent side

    图  12  中国主要陆块在Rodinia超大陆汇聚过程中可能的位置(据陆松年,1998修改)

    Figure  12.  Possible positions of China’s main continental blocks during the convergence of the Rodinia supercontinent (modified from Lu, 1998)

    图  13  钦杭成矿带及邻侧地质矿产简图(据杨明桂和梅勇文,1997修改)

    1—走滑断裂带;2—逆冲推覆断裂带;3—主要矿田;4—断裂;5—钦杭成矿带南北分界线

    Figure  13.  Geological and mineral map of the Qinhang metallogenic belt and its adjacent areas(modified from Yang and Mei, 1997

    1–strike-slip fault belt; 2–thrust-nappe fault zone; 3–main ore fields; 4–fault; 5–north–south divide of the Qinzhou–Hangzhou metallogenic belt

    图  14  金沙江−红河成矿带主要内生金属矿床矿产分布图

    1—结合带;2—主要矿集区、矿田及编号;3—主要矿床;A—金沙江成矿带;B—红河成矿带矿集区、矿田:1—多彩Cu;2—赵卡隆Fe、Cu;3—俄支Sn、Au、Cu;4—足那−包买Pb、Zn;5—加多岭Fe、Pb、Zn;6—玉龙Cu、Au;7—呷村Ag、Fe、Cu、Au;8—巴塘−义敦Ag、Sn;9—普朗Cu;10—马厂菁铂金;11—个旧Sn、Cu、Pb、Zn、W;12—大坪−长安Au、Ni;13—永安(越南)W、Bi、Sn

    Figure  14.  Mineral distribution map of the main endogenous metal deposits in the Jinsha River–Hong River metallogenic belt

    1–junction zone; 2–main ore concentration areas, ore fields and their numbers; 3–main deposits; A–Jinshajiang metallogenic belt; B–Honghe metallogenic belt Ore concentration areas and ore fields: 1–Duocai (Cu); 2–Zhaokalong (Fe and Cu); 3–Ezhi (Sn, Au, and Cu); 4–Zuna–Baomai (Pb and Zn); 5–Jiaduoling (Fe, Pb, and Zn); 6–Yulong (Cu and Au); 7–Gacun (Ag, Fe, Cu, and Au); 8–Batang–Yidun (Ag and Sn); 9–Pulang (Cu); 10–Machangjing (Pt); 11–Gejiu (Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, and W); 12–Daping–Chang’an (Au and Ni); 13–Yong’an (in Vietnam) (W, Bi, and Sn)

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-24
  • 修回日期:  2022-12-01

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