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川西南大梁子铅锌矿床矿化蚀变分带规律与元素组合分带模型

袁航 韩润生 冯志兴 吴鹏 管申进 丁天柱 李凌杰 杨博

袁航, 韩润生, 冯志兴, 等, 2022. 川西南大梁子铅锌矿床矿化蚀变分带规律与元素组合分带模型. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 432-447. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021016
引用本文: 袁航, 韩润生, 冯志兴, 等, 2022. 川西南大梁子铅锌矿床矿化蚀变分带规律与元素组合分带模型. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 432-447. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021016
YUAN Hang, HAN Runsheng, FENG Zhixing, et al., 2022. Mineralization-alteration zoning law and element compositional zoning pattern in mineralized altered rocks from the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit, southwestern Sichuan. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 432-447. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021016
Citation: YUAN Hang, HAN Runsheng, FENG Zhixing, et al., 2022. Mineralization-alteration zoning law and element compositional zoning pattern in mineralized altered rocks from the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit, southwestern Sichuan. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 432-447. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021016

川西南大梁子铅锌矿床矿化蚀变分带规律与元素组合分带模型

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021016
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金 42172086

"云岭学者"人才计划项目 2014

云南省矿产资源预测评价工程实验室项目 2010

云南省地质过程与矿产资源创新团队项目 2012

详细信息
    作者简介:

    袁航(1994—), 男, 工程师, 从事构造地质学和矿床学等科研工作。E-mail: 381681581@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    韩润生(1964—), 男, 研究员, 博士生导师, 从事构造成矿动力学及隐伏矿床预测、矿床学研究和教学工作。E-mail: 554670042@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: P575

Mineralization-alteration zoning law and element compositional zoning pattern in mineralized altered rocks from the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit, southwestern Sichuan

Funds: 

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 42172086

the "Yunling scholars" Talent Plan 2014

the program of Yunnan Mineral Resources Prediction and Evaluation Engineering Laboratory 2010

the program of Yunnan Geological Process and Mineral Resources Innovation Team 2012

  • 摘要: 川西南大梁子铅锌矿床是川滇黔地区震旦系灯影组碳酸盐岩赋矿的后生热液型铅锌矿床的代表之一。针对该矿床矿化蚀变分带规律不清的现状,基于矿区内1884 m、1944 m、2004 m、2064 m中段1∶200矿化-蚀变岩相学填图,精细解剖了蚀变类型、强度及蚀变岩组构,总结了矿化蚀变的强弱变化、矿物共生组合、元素组合及其空间分带特征,揭示了不同矿化蚀变带特征元素含量的变化规律,构建了从铅锌矿体中心向赋矿围岩的矿化蚀变空间分带模式:中等硅化+白云石化角砾状铅锌矿石相带(Ⅰ带)→中等硅化+白云石化网脉状铅锌矿化相带(Ⅱ带)→强硅化+白云石化+方解石化+细脉至星点状黄铁矿化相带(Ⅲ带)→方解石化+炭质+黄铁矿化相带(Ⅳ带)。基于成矿元素、特征元素组合及其元素比值的变化特征研究,矿化指示元素在不同蚀变带中依次具有Pb-Zn-Cd→Pb-Zn-Ag-Cu(Sb)→Ag-Cu-As-Sb→As-Sb的水平分带规律,总结了矿化指示元素的变化趋势。该研究对该矿床深部找矿勘查和同类矿床矿化蚀变分带研究具有启示意义。

     

  • 图  1  大梁子矿区区域构造简图(图 1a据王宝碌等,2004修改;图 1b据张长青等,2014修改)

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram showing the regional tectonics of the Daliangzi mining area (Fig. 1a is modified from Wang et al., 2004; Fig. 1b modified is from Zhang et al., 2014)

    图  2  大梁子铅锌矿床7号和19号勘探线剖面

    Figure  2.  Sections of No.7 and No.19 exploration lines in the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    图  3  大梁子矿区矿石典型构造

    Sph—闪锌矿;Gn—方铅矿;Py—黄铁矿;Dol—白云岩
    a—致密块状的铅锌矿;b—方铅矿和闪锌矿以胶结物的形式分布于白云岩周围;c—黄铁矿呈稠密浸染状,细脉状方铅矿、闪锌矿

    Figure  3.  Typical ore structures in the Daliangzi mining area

    (a) Dense massive Pb-Zn ore; (b) Galena and sphalerite distributed around dolomite in the form of cement; (c) Densely disseminated pyrite, fine veined galena and sphalerite
    Sph-Sphalerite; Gn-Galena; Py-Pyrite; Dol-Dolomite

    图  4  不同阶段矿石组构照片

    a—闪锌矿(S1和S2)胶结白云岩角砾和斑点状白云石(D1),旁侧见细脉状白云石(D2);b—浅黄褐色细脉状闪锌矿(S3);c—星点状方铅矿(G1),呈半自形—他形粒状结构,旁侧见星点状黄铁矿(P3)沿石英脉(Q1)发育;d—浅黄褐色—橘红色闪锌矿(S2)与方铅矿(G2)呈共边结构;e—浅黄褐色—橘红色闪锌矿(S2)与方铅矿(G2)呈共边结构;f—方铅矿和黄铁矿共生并溶蚀交代硅质白云岩;g—黄铁矿(P1)呈星点状分布;h—黄铁矿与方铅矿共生,胶结白云岩角砾;i—黄铁矿(P3)溶蚀白云岩呈港湾状结构;j—石英脉(Q2)切穿硅质白云岩;k—石英(Q2)交代白云石(D3)边部;l—棕黑色闪锌矿(S1)和网脉状白云石(D2);m—细脉状、脉状白云石(D3);n—方解石(Cc)溶蚀交代白云岩(D4);o—方解石(Cc)呈脉状穿切白云石(D4)

    Figure  4.  Photos showing ore fabric at different stages

    (a) Sphalerite (S1 and S2) cemented dolomite breccia and spotted dolomite (D1), with fine veined dolomite (D2) on the side; (b) Light yellowish brown fine veined sphalerite (S3); (c) Star shaped galena (G1) in a semi automorphic-allomorphic granular structure, with star shaped pyrite (P3) developed along quartz vein (Q1) on the side; (d) Light yellowish brown-orange sphalerite (S2) and galena (G2) have a coplanar structure; (e) Light yellowish brown orange sphalerite (S2) and galena (G2) have a coplanar structure; (f) Galena and pyrite coexist, and they dissolve and metasomatize siliceous dolomite; (g) Pyrite (P1) is distributed in a star shape; (h) Pyrite and galena coexist and cement dolomite breccia; (i) Pyrite (P3) dissolved dolomite with a harbor-like structure; (j) Quartz vein (Q2) cuts through siliceous dolomite; (k) Quartz (Q2) metasomatizes dolomite (D3) edge; (l) Brownish black sphalerite (S1) and stockwork dolomite (D2); (m) Fine veined and veined dolomite (D3); (n) Calcite (Cc) dissolves and metasomatizes dolomite (D4); (o) Calcite (Cc) is vein shaped cutting through dolomite (D4)

    图  5  大梁子铅锌矿床各矿化蚀变分带典型特征照片

    Sph—闪锌矿;Gn—方铅矿;Py—黄铁矿;Ccp—黄铜矿;Dol—白云石;Qtz—石英; Cc—方解石
    a—白云石重结晶,黄铁矿呈自形粒状结构;b—白云石溶蚀交代黄铁矿,黄铁矿呈半自形结构;c—白云石与浅黄褐色—橘红色闪锌矿呈共边结构;d—石英重结晶,黄铁矿被石英溶蚀成不规则粒状;e—白云石包裹闪锌矿与黄铁矿;f—白云岩被黄铁矿、闪锌矿溶蚀交代,呈交代残余结构,偶见黄铜矿呈星点状分布;g—红棕色—黄色闪锌矿交代溶蚀白云石;h—闪锌矿交代石英呈港湾状结构;i—闪锌矿交代白云石呈交错结构,方铅矿呈星点状,黄铁矿呈半自形—他形粒状结构;j—黄铁矿溶蚀交代硅质白云岩,石英呈粒状;k—脉状石英;l—白云石重结晶,石英溶蚀交代棕黑色闪锌矿呈港湾状结构,方解石具自形—半自形结构;m—方解石呈脉状分布;n—黄铁矿呈星点状他形粒状结构分布;o—方解石呈脉状

    Figure  5.  Typical photos showing mineralization-alteration zoning characteristics in the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    (a) Dolomite recrystallizes and pyrite is in a euhedral granular structure; (b) Dolomite dissolves and metasomatizes pyrite, and pyrite has a subhedral structure; (c) Dolomite and light yellowish-brown orange sphalerite have a coplanar structure; (d) Quartz recrystallizes and pyrite is dissolved into irregular granules by quartz; (e) Dolomite wraps sphalerite and pyrite; (f) Dolomite is eroded and metasomatized by pyrite, sphalerite is in a metasomatic residual structure, and chalcopyrite is occasionally distributed in a star shape; (g) Reddish brown-yellow sphalerite metasomatizes and dissolves dolomite; (h) Sphalerite metasomatizes quartz, showing a harbor-like structure; (i) Sphalerite metasomatize dolomite, showing a staggered structure, galena is in a star shape, and pyrite is in a subhedral allomorphic granular structure; (j) Pyrite dissolves and metasomatizes siliceous dolomite, and quartz is in a granular structure; (k) Veined quartz; (l) Dolomite recrystallizes, quartz dissolves and metasomatizes brownish black sphalerite and shows a harbor-like structure, and calcite has a euhedral-semi euhedral structure; (m) Calcite is vein distributed in black argillaceous dolomite; (n) Pyrite is distributed in star shaped granular structure; (o) Calcite is vein shaped
    Sph-Sphalerite; Gn-Galena; Py-Pyrite; Ccp-Chalcopyrite; Qtz-Quartz; Cc-Calcite

    图  6  大梁子铅锌矿床1884 m中段和1944 m中段矿化-蚀变剖面填图

    a—1884 m中段3号勘探线;b—1944 m中段3号勘探线;c—1944 m中段17号勘探线

    Figure  6.  Geochemical mapping showing the mineralization-alteration profiles at the middle sections of 1884 m and 1944 m in the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    (a) No.3 surveyline at the middle section of 1884 m; (b) No.3 surveyline at the middle section of 1944 m; (c) No.17 surveyline at the middle section of 1944 m

    图  7  大梁子铅锌矿床2004 m中段和2064 m中段矿化-蚀变剖面填图

    a—2004 m中段南部运输巷;b—2064 m中段29号勘探线

    Figure  7.  Geochemical mapping showing the mineralization-alteration profiles at the middle sections of 2004 m and 2064 m in the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    (a) The South haulage roadway at the middle section of 2004 m; (b) No.29 surveyline at the middle section of 2064 m

    图  8  大梁子铅锌矿床矿化-蚀变垂向分带示意图

    Figure  8.  Schematic diagram showing the mineralization-alteration vertical zoning of the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    图  9  大梁子铅锌矿床流体包裹体采样位置图

    Figure  9.  Sampling location map of the fluid inclusions in the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    图  10  大梁子铅锌矿床流体包裹体显微照片

    a—闪锌矿气(V)液(L)两相包裹体;b—方解石气(V)液(L)两相包裹体;c—方解石气(V)液(L)两相包裹体

    Figure  10.  Micrographs of the fluid inclusions in the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    (a) Sphalerite gas(V)-liquid(L) two-phase inclusion; (b) Calcite gas(V)-liquid(L) two-phase inclusion; (c) Calcite gas(V)-liquid(L) two-phase inclusion

    图  11  大梁子铅锌矿床矿化-蚀变分带模式图

    a—元素及比值横向变化图;b—元素及比值垂向变化图;c—矿化-蚀变分带模式图

    Figure  11.  Diagram showing the mineralization-alteration zoning pattern of the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    (a) Horizontal variation diagram of elements and ratios; (b) Vertical variation diagram of elements and ratios; (c) Mineralization-alteration zoning pattern

    表  1  大梁子铅锌矿床成矿阶段划分及矿物生成顺序

    Table  1.   Paragenetic sequence of the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    表  2  大梁子铅锌矿床矿化元素测试结果(×10-6)

    Table  2.   Mineralization element contents in the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit (×10-6)

    采样位置 样品号 岩性 主要矿化元素
    Pb Zn Ag Cu Cd Ge As Sb
    1884平面3线 DLZc417 黄褐色碎粉岩 368.0 1183.0 1.0 13.5 5.4 1.3 137.0 6.8
    DLZc419 米黄色碎粉岩 1525.0 7665.0 2.5 24.3 35.4 1.3 108.0 10.9
    DLZc422 黑色碎粉岩 2193.0 79200.0 21.3 553.0 359.0 9.4 471.0 111.0
    DLZc424 深灰色碎裂白云岩 7913.0 158300.0 1493.0 226.0 1021.0 15.7 166.0 35.7
    DLZc425 米黄色碎粉岩 11370.0 5219.0 6.4 21.7 33.2 2.0 920.0 14.2
    1944平面3线 DLZc258 灰白色碎斑白云岩 231.0 874.0 0.3 5.6 15.4 0.1 16.8 2.1
    DLZc259 黑色炭泥质白云岩 7430.0 119300.0 21.9 168.0 797.0 11.3 160.0 42.3
    DLZc261 灰白色白云岩 802.0 12700.0 3.6 38.4 75.6 1.2 33.0 8.1
    DLZc262 黄褐色片理化带 4181.0 134700.0 30.1 190.0 946.0 16.6 211.0 58.4
    DLZc264 黑色炭泥质白云岩 2303.0 17210.0 3.9 50.1 70.7 3.4 360.0 7.1
    1944平面17线 DLZc15 灰白色细粒白云岩 202.0 479.0 1.6 25.1 6.1 0.2 42.6 3.2
    DLZc16 灰白色硅质白云岩 464.0 520.0 2.7 90.3 12.5 0.3 75.5 6.7
    DLZc17 灰白色细粒白云岩 82.3 333.0 0.2 10.4 5.7 0.1 13.2 1.3
    DLZc19 灰白色细粒白云岩 323.0 34225.0 4.2 435.0 287.0 4.3 86.9 19.7
    DLZc20 泥化白云岩 98800.0 57700.0 83.9 227.0 90.3 4.9 92.1 99.5
    DLZc23 层纹状白云岩 8875.0 104900.0 18.8 113.0 674.0 7.2 35.1 42.6
    DLZc24 泥化白云岩 5036.0 20625.0 6.3 587.0 100.0 2.4 89.4 41.2
    DLZc26 白云质碎裂岩 2509.0 29980.0 3.7 587.0 99.6 1.3 96.0 20.1
    DLZc27 碎裂白云岩 17677.0 77300.0 16.2 3940.0 526.0 4.2 202.0 57.5
    DLZc29 碎裂白云岩 431.0 2664.0 2.9 1526.0 45.3 1.7 176.0 13.4
    DLZc32-3 浅灰色硅质岩 178.0 207600.0 29.4 300.0 1549.0 30.0 63.1 97.9
    DLZc35 角砾岩 8675.0 133700.0 27.4 243.0 1045.0 14.6 71.9 73.3
    DLZc38 浅灰色白云岩 8654.0 129600.0 18.3 297.0 768.0 8.9 71.9 73.3
    DLZc40 灰白色白云岩 438.0 1177.0 1.7 103.0 14.1 0.9 101.0 66.4
    2004平面南部运输巷 DLZc-840 黑色泥质物质 449.0 105.0 1.9 13.5 0.3 1.0 93.7 6.6
    DLZc-841 灰色白云岩 111.0 98.1 0.6 7.0 0.4 0.3 30.8 2.9
    DLZc-842 黑色碎斑岩 68.0 105.0 1.2 23.0 0.2 0.7 57.7 3.7
    DLZc-844 黑色碎裂白云岩 2511.0 326.0 4.7 32.6 1.5 0.6 94.0 13.4
    DLZc-849 灰色硅质白云岩 41.4 51.2 0.1 4.3 0.3 0.1 16.6 0.7
    DLZc-852 灰白色碎斑岩 22.5 212.0 0.1 7.3 0.6 0.2 54.8 1.4
    2064平面29线 DLZc815 黄褐色碎裂岩 73900.0 24979.0 42.0 106.0 80.5 2.0 2989.0 32.4
    DLZc817 褐色碎粉岩 1136.0 409.0 1.6 15.1 2.6 0.3 95.5 4.0
    DLZc819 黑色碎粉岩 213.0 191.0 0.3 27.1 0.7 1.5 147.0 4.1
    DLZc821 黄褐色碎裂岩 37182.0 1367.0 15.7 35.4 4.3 0.8 198.0 34.6
    DLZc823 米黄色碎粉岩 501.0 209.0 1.0 7.6 5.3 0.4 24.8 3.4
    DLZc826 黄褐色碎裂岩 831.0 1550.0 2.2 63.7 4.7 0.6 218.0 11.4
    DLZc827 灰黑色碎裂岩 2287.0 77.2 1.3 15.5 0.5 0.4 63.3 3.1
    DLZc828 黄褐色碎粉岩 1611.0 552.0 3.5 60.1 2.4 0.5 99.5 6.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  大梁子铅锌矿床显微测温结果

    Table  3.   Microscopic temperature measurement results of the Daliangzi Pb-Zn deposit

    样号 寄主矿物 包裹体类型 大小/μm 气液比/% 冰点/℃ 均一温度/℃ 盐度/%NaCleqv pH 成矿阶段
    范围 均值 范围 均值
    DLZ46-1 方解石 L+V 7~13 10~20 -8.50~-6.10 -7.22 186~211.4 200.5 10.73 5.83 1
    DLZ541 闪锌矿 L+V 8~11 15~25 -8.90~-5.50 -7.64 177.5~267.8 221.1 11.21 5.82 1
    DLZ530 方解石 L+V 11~20 10~16 -10.40~-3.70 -6.84 147.6~186.5 170.0 10.11 5.86 2
    DLZ204 方解石 L+V 10~15 10~15 -12.00~-4.10 -8.44 146.3~201.7 175.4 11.95 5.88 2
    DLZ217 方解石 L+V 7~8 15~20 -7.50~-3.80 -5.23 155.2~170.0 163.5 8.09 6.03 2
    DLZ523 方解石 L+V 7~15 10~20 -7.40~-3.20 -8.17 146.5~206.4 171.3 7.47 5.90 2
    注:L为液相包裹体,V为气相包裹体;成矿阶段中1代表多金属硫化物阶段;2代表碳酸盐岩阶段
    下载: 导出CSV
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