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南秦岭烂木沟金矿床地球化学特征与矿床成因研究

王晓虎 郭涛 李效壮 廖华 张文高 赵新科 贾凤仪 曹林杰

王晓虎, 郭涛, 李效壮, 等, 2022. 南秦岭烂木沟金矿床地球化学特征与矿床成因研究. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 464-479. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021002
引用本文: 王晓虎, 郭涛, 李效壮, 等, 2022. 南秦岭烂木沟金矿床地球化学特征与矿床成因研究. 地质力学学报, 28 (3): 464-479. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021002
WANG Xiaohu, GUO Tao, LI Xiaozhuang, et al., 2022. A study on the geochemical characteristics and metallogenesis of the Lanmugou gold deposit in the South Qinling Belt, Shaanxi, China. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 464-479. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021002
Citation: WANG Xiaohu, GUO Tao, LI Xiaozhuang, et al., 2022. A study on the geochemical characteristics and metallogenesis of the Lanmugou gold deposit in the South Qinling Belt, Shaanxi, China. Journal of Geomechanics, 28 (3): 464-479. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021002

南秦岭烂木沟金矿床地球化学特征与矿床成因研究

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021002
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2021YFC2901805

中国地质调查局地质调查项目 12120114014201

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王晓虎(1983—), 男, 博士, 副研究员, 主要从事构造与成矿研究。E-mail: wangzykc@yeah.net

    通讯作者:

    郭涛(1972—), 男, 博士, 副研究员, 主要从事矿田构造研究。E-mail: gtaot@sohu.com

  • 中图分类号: P611;P59

A study on the geochemical characteristics and metallogenesis of the Lanmugou gold deposit in the South Qinling Belt, Shaanxi, China

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2021YFC2901805

the Geological Survey Project of China Geological Survey 12120114014201

  • 摘要: 烂木沟金矿位于陕西省旬阳县境内,产于南秦岭石泉-神河构造岩片中,受黑虎庙脆-韧性剪切带控制。文章通过烂木沟金矿区域成矿背景、地质特征及矿床地球化学分析,初步探讨了烂木沟金矿床成因。烂木沟地区地层中黄铁矿微量元素Co含量为67.60×10-6~208.00×10-6,Ni含量108.00×10-6~585.00×10-6,稀土元素总量2.16×10-6~22.90×10-6,矿石黄铁矿中Co含量为317.00×10-6~751.00×10-6,Ni含量82.80×10-6~304.00×10-6,稀土元素总量4.04×10-6~51.74×10-6,矿石黄铁矿中δ34S值为9.9‰~12.9‰,均值11.27‰,矿石黄铁矿中铅同位素206Pb/204Pb值为18.560~20.206,207Pb/204Pb值为15.668~15.708,208Pb/204Pb值为38.257~38.860,地层黄铁矿中铅同位素206Pb/204Pb值为18.502~20.086,207Pb/204Pb值为15.644~15.788,208Pb/204Pb值为38.475~38.907,矿石中石英的δ18OV-SMOW值为13.5‰~15.9‰,均值为14.7‰,δDV-SMOW值为-77.8‰~-71.3‰,均值为-74.55‰,矿石中黄铁矿Re-Os等时线年龄202±12 Ma。结论认为烂木沟金矿成矿物质来源于地层中火山岩夹层,成矿流体为多来源,主体为建造水改造后的变质水。烂木沟金矿形成于晚三叠世末期—早侏罗世早期秦岭造山带碰撞后的伸展阶段,成矿流体充填于脆-韧性剪切带片理中,矿物沉淀富集,为造山型金矿。

     

  • 图  1  南秦岭石泉—旬阳一带地质构造略图(据冯明伸和杨建东,1994张国伟等,2001杨兴科等,2016韩珂等,2020修改)

    1—新生界;2—泥盆系;3—志留系;4—寒武—奥陶系;5—中—新元古界(武当群和耀岭河群);6—花岗岩;7—花岗闪长岩;8—闪长岩;9—宁陕断裂;10—双河-白河断裂(南羊山断裂);11—石泉-安康(月河)断裂;12—脆性走滑正断层;13—脆性高角度正断层;14—韧性剥离断层;15—早期韧性推覆断层;16—韧性滑脱断层;17—晚期韧性推覆断层;18—韧性斜推断层;19—韧性剪切带;20—金矿床/矿点;Ⅰ—太山庙-麻坪推覆体岩片;Ⅱ—银杏坝-吕河推覆体岩片;Ⅲ—石泉-神河滑覆体岩片;Ⅳ—牛山-凤凰山基底岩块;SF1—商丹缝合带;SF2—勉略缝合带

    Figure  1.  Geologic sketch of the Shiquan-Xunyang area in the South Qinling Belt (modified from Feng and Yang, 1994; Zhang et al., 2001; Yang et al., 2016; Han et al., 2020)

    1-Cainozoic; 2-Devonian; 3-Silurian; 4-Cambrian-Ordovician; 5-Meso-Neoproterozoic (Wudang group and Yaolinghe group); 6-Granite; 7-Granodiorite; 8-Diorite; 9-Ningshan fault; 10-Shuanghe-Baihe fault (Nanyangshan fault); 11-Shiquan-Ankang(Yuehe) fault; 12-Brittle strike-slip normal fault; 13-Brittle high-angle normal fault; 14-Ductile denudation fault; 15-Early ductile nappe fault; 16-Ductile detachment fault; 17-Late ductile nappe fault; 18-Ductile inclined layer; 19-Ductile shear zone; 20-Gold deposits (occurences); Ⅰ-Taishanmiao-Maping nappe sheet; Ⅱ-Yinxingba-Lvhe nappe sheet; Ⅲ-Shiquan-Shenhe sliding nappe sheet; Ⅳ-Niushan-Fenghuangshan basement rock; SF1-Shangdan suture zone; SF2-Mianlve suture zone

    图  2  烂木沟金矿地质图(据杨增济等,1990修改)

    1—泥盆系大枫沟组;2—志留系梅子垭组上段;3—志留系梅子垭组下段;4—志留系大贵坪组;5—奥陶系二道桥组;6—火山岩;7—地层界线;8—正断层及其产状;9—逆断层及其产状;10—闪长玢岩脉;11—含炭云母石英片岩;12—脆-韧性剪切带;13—金矿化带;14—剖面线;15—片理产状;16—钻孔位置及编号
    a—烂木沟金矿邻区地质图;b—烂木沟金矿区地质图

    Figure  2.  Geologic map of the Lanmugou gold deposit (modified from Yang et al., 1990)

    (a)Geologic map of adjacent areas; (b) Geologic map of the mining area
    1-The Dafenggou Formation; 2-Upper member of the Meiziya Formation; 3-Lower member of the Meiziya Formation; 4-The Daping Formation; 5-The Erdaoqiao Formation; 6-Volcanics; 7-Stratigraphic boundary; 8-Normal faults and their occurrence; 9-Reverse faults and their occurrence; 10-Diorite porphyrite dikes; 11-Carbonaceous mica quartz schist; 12-Brittle-ductile shear zone; 13-Gold mineralized belt; 14-Section line; 15-Foliation occurrence; 16-Boreholes and their numbers

    图  3  旬阳县烂木沟实测构造剖面图(剖面位置见图 2

    1—剪切带及矿体;2—石英砂岩;3—含碳质砂岩;4—砂质板岩;5—粉砂质板岩;6—绢云板岩;7—粉砂质千枚岩;8—绢云千枚岩;9—石英片岩;10—粉砂质片岩;11—黑云片岩;12—薄层砂岩;13—绢云片岩;14—绢云石英片岩;15—绿泥片岩;16—石英绿泥片岩;17—绢云绿泥片岩;18—绿泥石化;19—黄铁矿化;20—褐铁矿化;21—石英透镜体;22—断裂破碎带;23—断层;24—产状;25—样点

    Figure  3.  Structural profile of the Lanmugou mining area in Xunyang County (The location is shown in Fig. 2)

    1-Shear zone and ore body; 2-Quartz sandstone; 3-Carbonaceous sandstone; 4-Sandy slate; 5-Silty slate; 6-Sericite slate; 7-Silty phyllite; 8-Sericite phyllite; 9-Quartz schist; 10-Silty schist; 11-Biotite schist; 12-Thin-layered sandstone; 13-Sericite schist; 14-Sericite quartz schist; 15-Chlorite schist; 16-Quartz chlorite schist; 17-Sericite chlorite schist; 18-Chloritization; 19-Pyritization; 20-Limonalization; 21-Quartz Lens; 22-Fracture zone; 23-Fault; 24-Occurrence; 25-Sampling point

    图  4  烂木沟金矿31号勘探线剖面图

    Figure  4.  Profile of No.31 exploration line in the Lanmugou gold deposit

    图  5  烂木沟矿区地层中黄铁矿及矿石中黄铁矿和石英

    Figure  5.  Pyrite and quartz in the ores and pyrites from the strata in the Lanmugou mining area

    图  6  烂木沟金矿矿石中的黄铁矿Re-Os等时线年龄

    a—5点等时线年龄;b—4点等时线年龄

    Figure  6.  Re-Os isochron ages for pyrites from the Lanmugou gold deposit

    (a)Isochron age of 5 pieces of data; (b) Isochron age of 4 pieces of data

    图  7  烂木沟金矿床矿石和地层中黄铁矿稀土元素配分图

    a—矿石样品;b—地层样品

    Figure  7.  REE distribution of pyrite in ores and strata from the Lanmugou gold deposit

    (a)Samples from ore; (b)Samples from strata

    图  8  石泉-旬阳金矿带硫同位素分布图(据韩吟文等,2003修)

    Figure  8.  Sulfur isotopic distribution in the Shiquan-Xunyang gold deposit belt (modified from Han et al., 2003)

    图  9  烂木沟金矿黄铁矿铅同位素构造模式图(据Zartman and Doe, 1981修改)

    a—206Pb/204Pb-207Pb/204Pb模式图;b—206Pb/204Pb-208Pb/204Pb模式图

    Figure  9.  Lead isotopic diagram of pyrites from the Lanmugou gold deposit (modified from Zartman and Doe, 1981)

    (a) Pattern diagram of 206Pb/204Pb-207Pb/204Pb; (b)Pattern diagram of 206Pb/204Pb-208Pb/204Pb

    图  10  烂木沟金矿铅同位素Δβγ成因分类图解(据朱炳泉等,1998修改)

    1—地幔源铅;2—上地壳铅;3—上地壳与地幔混合的俯冲带铅(3a岩浆作用,3b沉积作用);4—化学沉积型铅;5—海底热水作用铅;6—中深变质作用铅;7—深变质下地壳铅;8—造山带铅;9—古老页岩上地壳铅;10—退变质铅

    Figure  10.  Δβγ genetic classification diagram of lead isotope in the Lanmugou gold deposit (modified from Zhu et al., 1998)

    The sources of Pb: 1-Mantle; 2-Upper crust; 3-Subduction zone of mantle mixed with upper crust (3a-magmatism; 3b-sedimentation); 4-Chemical sediment; 5-Seafloor hydrothermal solution; 6-Mesometamorphism; 7-Hypometamorphism of lower crustal; 8-Orogen; 9-Ancient shale of upper crustal; 10-Retrogressive metamorphism

    图  11  石泉-旬阳金矿带成矿流体及旬阳地区地层流体δ18O-δD图解(据Taylor, 1997陈岳龙等,2005修改)

    Figure  11.  δ18O-δD diagram of ore-forming fluids in the Shiquan-Xunyang gold belt and fluids of strata in the Xunyang area(modified from Taylor, 1997 and Chen et al., 2005)

    表  1  烂木沟金矿岩(矿)石黄铁矿微量、稀土元素含量及特征值(WB/×10-6)

    Table  1.   Contents and characteristic values of the trace and rare earth elements of pyrite in the rocks(ores) from the Lanmugou gold deposit(WB/×10-6)

    样号 地层中黄铁矿 矿石中黄铁矿
    ZX14125-1 ZX14125-2 ZX14126-2 ZX14129-1 ZX14131-1 ZX14132-1 ZX14073-1 ZX14073-2 ZX14073-3 ZX14073-6 ZX14070-11 ZX14070-12
    Co 208.00 73.10 206.00 67.60 112.00 201.00 526.00 389.00 751.00 317.00 338.00 535.00
    Ni 491.00 108.00 249.00 390.00 585.00 530.00 82.80 104.00 304.00 158.00 100.00 98.30
    As 18.90 416.00 625.00 266.00 271.00 1048.00 174.00 160.00 103.00 101.00 102.00 66.20
    Th 1.35 0.24 0.47 0.70 0.26 1.30 0.35 0.22 0.11 0.19 0.86 0.61
    Y 0.53 2.97 0.50 1.48 0.44 4.53 1.50 3.15 1.62 4.40 8.54 4.19
    Zr 44.50 10.80 7.82 8.60 10.50 14.10 35.50 34.90 43.50 27.00 76.00 116.00
    Hf 1.46 0.25 0.21 0.27 0.22 0.40 1.02 1.00 1.14 0.82 2.03 3.11
    Nb 5.83 0.38 0.61 0.50 0.33 2.95 0.81 1.61 2.62 3.00 4.85 2.49
    Ta 0.39 <0.05 <0.05 0.05 <0.05 0.29 0.06 0.10 0.17 0.17 0.35 0.18
    La 0.43 4.53 1.26 4.94 0.72 1.32 2.41 2.64 0.58 2.30 9.81 8.07
    Ce 0.66 9.10 1.55 7.09 0.72 2.25 5.00 5.39 1.13 5.04 20.70 15.90
    Pr 0.08 1.24 0.13 0.78 0.08 0.24 0.58 0.70 0.18 0.68 2.44 2.04
    Nd 0.27 4.69 0.44 2.45 0.26 0.83 2.26 2.84 0.70 3.04 10.10 7.92
    Sm 0.21 0.84 0.67 1.78 1.30 0.31 0.46 0.63 0.27 0.63 1.91 1.34
    Eu 0.05 0.14 0.06 0.13 0.12 0.05 0.14 0.28 0.05 0.27 0.68 0.42
    Gd 0.07 0.85 0.07 0.30 0.06 0.26 0.45 0.67 0.21 0.84 2.03 1.33
    Tb 0.05 0.09 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.11 0.05 0.15 0.30 0.18
    Dy 0.08 0.53 0.07 0.25 0.05 0.47 0.33 0.65 0.29 0.82 1.69 0.93
    Ho 0.05 0.10 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.11 0.06 0.11 0.05 0.15 0.30 0.14
    Er 0.06 0.32 0.05 0.17 <0.05 0.41 0.14 0.31 0.19 0.48 0.80 0.44
    Tm 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 <0.05 0.05 0.06 0.10 0.06
    Yb 0.05 0.37 0.06 0.19 0.07 0.44 0.17 0.30 0.24 0.41 0.77 0.45
    Lu 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.07 0.05 <0.05 0.05 0.05 0.11 0.08
    ΣREE 2.16 22.90 4.56 18.28 3.58 6.87 12.16 14.73 4.04 14.92 51.74 39.30
    LREE 1.70 20.54 4.11 17.17 3.20 5.00 10.85 12.48 2.91 11.96 45.64 35.69
    HREE 0.46 2.36 0.45 1.11 0.38 1.87 1.31 2.25 1.13 2.96 6.10 3.61
    LREE/HREE 3.70 8.70 9.13 15.47 8.42 2.67 8.28 5.55 2.58 4.04 7.48 9.89
    LaN/YbN 6.17 8.78 15.06 18.65 7.38 2.15 10.17 6.31 1.73 4.02 9.14 12.86
    δEu 1.26 0.51 0.85 0.54 1.31 0.54 0.94 1.32 0.64 1.13 1.06 0.96
    δCe 0.87 0.94 0.94 0.89 0.74 0.98 1.04 0.97 0.86 0.99 1.04 0.96
    Co/Ni 0.42 0.68 0.83 0.17 0.19 0.38 6.35 3.74 2.47 2.01 3.38 5.44
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  石泉—旬阳金矿带中矿床矿石及地层中黄铁矿硫同位素组成

    Table  2.   Sulfur isotopic compositions of pyrites and pyrrhotite in the ores, deposits and strata from the Shiquan-Xunyang gold ore belt

    矿床名称 样品号 矿物 δ34SV-CDT 样品描述 资料来源
    烂木沟 ZX14070-11 黄铁矿 12.1 矿石 文中
    烂木沟 ZX14070-12 黄铁矿 12.9 矿石
    烂木沟 ZX14073-1 黄铁矿 10.7 矿石
    烂木沟 ZX14073-2 黄铁矿 10.8 矿石
    烂木沟 ZX14073-3 黄铁矿 9.9 矿石
    烂木沟 ZX14073-6 黄铁矿 11.2 矿石
    烂木沟 ZX14125-1 黄铁矿 16.1 炭质片岩 文中
    烂木沟 ZX14125-2 黄铁矿 18.5 炭质片岩
    烂木沟 ZX14125-3 黄铁矿 16.3 炭质粉砂质片岩
    烂木沟 ZX14126-2 黄铁矿 20.7 变质石英砂岩
    烂木沟 ZX14129-1 黄铁矿 18.4 粉砂质千枚岩
    烂木沟 ZX14129-2 黄铁矿 14.4 含炭质千枚岩
    烂木沟 ZX14131-1 黄铁矿 16.6 粉砂质板岩
    烂木沟 ZX14132-1 黄铁矿 16.0 粉砂质板岩
    烂木沟 ZX14135-1 黄铁矿 15.7 炭质板岩
    羊坪湾 S-48 磁黄铁矿 7.5 磁黄铁矿沿岩石片理穿入 李福让等,2009
    羊坪湾 S-48 黄铁矿 8.9 黄铁矿沿岩石片理穿入
    羊坪湾 2076 磁黄铁矿 11.7 磁黄铁矿沿岩石片理穿入
    羊坪湾 2053 黄铁矿 11.3 黄铁矿沿岩石片理穿入
    羊坪湾 2102 黄铁矿 9.4 磁黄铁矿沿岩石片理及裂隙穿入
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  烂木沟金矿床黄铁矿中铅同位素组成及特征

    Table  3.   Lead isotopic compositions in pyrites from the Lanmugou gold deposit

           样品号      矿物 206Pb/204Pb 207Pb/204Pb 208Pb/204Pb Δβ Δγ
    ZX14070-11 矿石黄铁矿 20.206 15.668 38.257 22.63 29.68
    ZX14070-12 矿石黄铁矿 19.345 15.683 38.693 23.61 41.42
    ZX14073-1 矿石黄铁矿 19.066 15.669 38.716 22.70 42.04
    ZX14073-2 矿石黄铁矿 19.581 15.693 38.600 24.27 38.91
    ZX14073-3 矿石黄铁矿 18.927 15.678 38.860 23.29 45.91
    ZX14073-6 矿石黄铁矿 18.560 15.708 38.624 25.24 39.56
    ZX14125-1 地层黄铁矿 18.502 15.645 38.475 21.13 35.55
    ZX14125-2 地层黄铁矿 18.566 15.714 38.649 25.64 40.23
    ZX14125-3 地层黄铁矿 18.566 15.715 38.651 25.70 40.29
    ZX14126-2 地层黄铁矿 18.595 15.644 38.782 21.07 43.81
    ZX14129-1 地层黄铁矿 20.086 15.788 38.907 30.47 47.18
    ZX14129-2 地层黄铁矿 20.083 15.778 38.891 29.81 46.75
    ZX14132-1 地层黄铁矿 18.547 15.691 38.571 24.13 38.13
    ZX14135-1 地层黄铁矿 18.700 15.667 38.720 22.57 42.14
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  石泉—旬阳金矿带金矿床及旬阳地区志留系地层的氢氧同位素组成

    Table  4.   Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions in the Shiquan-Xunyang gold ore belt and the Silurian in the Xunyang area

       矿床名称 样品编号 样品名称 δ18OV-SMOW/‰ δ18O/‰ δDV-SMOW/‰ 资料来源
    烂木沟 ZX14070-3 石英 13.5 1.91 -71.3 文中
    烂木沟 ZX14070-10 石英 15.9 4.31 -77.8
    羊坪湾 S-108 石英 12.5 5.03 -86 李福让等,2009
    羊坪湾 S-118 石英 14.5 4.42 -81
    羊坪湾 S-7 石英 14.6 2.96 -79
    羊坪湾 S-127 石英 18.0 4.37 -66
    羊坪湾 S-29 石英 17.8 4.61 -72
    XGD-13 硅质岩 18.1 2.92 -68 刘淑文,2006
    XG-53 硅质岩 17.8 0.71 -77
    XG-81 硅质岩 18.7 9.61 -79
    XG-82 硅质岩 18.6 7.99 -80
    XN-29 硅质岩 19.9 12.65 -82
    XND-32 硅质岩 18.5 5.33 -79
    XGD-01 地层中脉石英 18.0 10.77 -81
    XGD-03 地层中脉石英 17.8 0.71 -79
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  烂木沟金矿矿石中的黄铁矿Re-Os同位素

    Table  5.   Re-Os isotopic compositions in pyrites from the Lanmugou gold deposit

    序号 样品编号 Re/(ng/g) 普Os/(ng/g) 187Os/(ng/g) 187Re/188Os 187Os/188Os
    测定值 不确定度 测定值 不确定度 测定值 不确定度 测定值 不确定度 测定值 不确定度
    1 ZX14073-1 1.1990 0.0090 0.0024 0.0000 0.0036 0.0000 2465.0 25.0 11.660 0.020
    2 ZX14073-2 0.2137 0.0016 0.0012 0.0000 0.0009 0.0000 857.9 9.5 5.835 0.026
    3 ZX14073-5 6.6310 0.0490 0.0027 0.0000 0.0152 0.0001 11763.0 121.0 42.600 0.130
    4 ZX14070-11 0.8030 0.0059 0.0025 0.0000 0.0027 0.0000 1535.0 16.0 8.200 0.016
    5 ZX14070-12 2.7630 0.0200 0.0047 0.0000 0.0072 0.0001 2842.0 29.0 11.710 0.020
    下载: 导出CSV
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