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2021年5月21日漾濞MS6.4地震的发震断层及其破裂特征: 地震序列的重定位分析结果

王光明 吴中海 彭关灵 刘自凤 罗睿洁 黄小龙 陈浩朋

王光明, 吴中海, 彭关灵, 等, 2021. 2021年5月21日漾濞MS6.4地震的发震断层及其破裂特征: 地震序列的重定位分析结果. 地质力学学报, 27 (4): 662-678. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.055
引用本文: 王光明, 吴中海, 彭关灵, 等, 2021. 2021年5月21日漾濞MS6.4地震的发震断层及其破裂特征: 地震序列的重定位分析结果. 地质力学学报, 27 (4): 662-678. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.055
WANG Guangming, WU Zhonghai, PENG Guanling, et al., 2021. Seismogenic fault and it's rupture characteristics of the 21 May, 2021 Yangbi MS 6.4 earthquake: Analysis results from the relocation of the earthquake sequence. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (4): 662-678. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.055
Citation: WANG Guangming, WU Zhonghai, PENG Guanling, et al., 2021. Seismogenic fault and it's rupture characteristics of the 21 May, 2021 Yangbi MS 6.4 earthquake: Analysis results from the relocation of the earthquake sequence. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (4): 662-678. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.055

2021年5月21日漾濞MS6.4地震的发震断层及其破裂特征: 地震序列的重定位分析结果

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.04.055
基金项目: 

地震科技星火计划项目 XH20054Y

国家自然科学基金 U2002211

国家基金委青年基金项目 41804061

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王光明(1990-), 硕士, 工程师, 主要从事地震活动性、地震精定位研究。E-mail: gmwang@whu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    吴中海(1974-), 博士, 研究员, 主要从事新构造、活动构造与地震地质研究。E-mail: wuzhonghai8848@foxmail.com

  • 中图分类号: P315

Seismogenic fault and it's rupture characteristics of the 21 May, 2021 Yangbi MS 6.4 earthquake: Analysis results from the relocation of the earthquake sequence

Funds: 

the Science for Earthquake Resilience XH20054Y

the National Nature Science Foundation of China U2002211

the Youth Project of National Nature Science Foundation of China 41804061

  • 摘要: 据中国地震台网测定,2021年5月21日21时48分在云南省大理州漾濞县发生MS6.4地震,及时查明此次地震的发震构造及震源破裂特征,可为认识该区孕震条件和判别未来强震危险性提供关键依据。采用双差定位方法对漾濞地震序列进行重新定位,得到3863次地震事件的精确震源位置。结果显示:漾濞地震序列整体呈北西—南东向分布,长约25 km;整体走向135°;MS6.4主震震中位置为25.688°N,99.877°E;震源深度约9.6 km。综合地震序列深度剖面和震源机制解结果可知,发震断层应为北西走向、整体向西南方向陡倾的右旋走滑断层,倾角具有自北西向南东逐渐变缓的趋势。进一步分析地震序列的时空演化过程发现,该地震具有典型的"前震-主震-余震型"地震序列活动特点,其破裂过程主要包括3个阶段。破裂成核阶段:首先在发震断层10~12 km深度处相对脆弱部位产生小尺度破裂,之后失稳加速破裂,发生MS5.6地震;主震破裂阶段:在构造应力场持续加载和周围小尺度破裂的共同影响下,促使浅部较高强度断层闭锁区破裂,形成MS6.4主震;尾端拉张破裂阶段:主震破裂向东南扩展过程中,在东南端形成与之呈马尾状斜交的、具有正断性质的次级破裂,并产生MS5.2余震。而且此次地震还在源区北东侧触发了北北东向的左旋走滑破裂。综合分析认为,漾濞地震是兰坪-思茅地块内部北西向草坪断裂在近南北向区域应力挤压作用下发生右旋走滑运动的结果,具有明显的新生断裂特征。近年来兰坪-思茅地块内部一系列中强地震的发生表明,青藏高原物质向东南持续挤出的过程中,遇到该地块的阻挡,正在导致地块内部早期断层贯通形成新的活动断裂。因此,川滇地块西南边界带上或相邻地块内部老断层的复活和新生断裂的产生是区域中强地震危险性分析评价中值得关注的重要课题,同时建议需重视未来该区中强地震进一步向东南和向北的迁移或扩展的可能性。

     

  • 图  1  漾濞地震周边的主要活动断裂、历史地震与台站分布

    F1—实皆断裂;F2—红河断裂;F3—鲜水河-小江断裂;F4—龙门山断裂;F5—东昆仑断裂;F6—阿尔金断裂;F7—海原断裂
    a—活动断裂与历史地震分布;b—研究区构造环境;c—测震台站分布图

    Figure  1.  Distribution of active faults, historical earthquakes and seismic stations around the Yangbi earthquake. (a) Distribution of active faults and historical earthquakes. (b)Tectonic setting of the study area. (c) Station distribution around the Yangbi earthquake

    F1-the Sagaing fault; F2-the Honghe fault; F3-the Xianshuihe-Xiaojiang fault; F4-the Longmenshan fault; F5-the East Kunlun fault; F6-the Altyn Tagh fault; F7-the Haiyuan fault

    图  2  漾濞地震走时曲线

    Figure  2.  Travel time curves of Pg and Sg phases

    图  3  漾濞地震序列重定位误差

    Figure  3.  Location error of the Yangbi earthquake sequence

    图  4  漾濞地震序列重定位后的震中分布图

    蓝色虚线—深度剖面的位置(辅助线);AA*—平行地震序列长轴的剖面位置;BB*、CC*、DD*—不同段落上垂直于地震序列长轴的剖面位置,EE*—垂直于东南端马尾状分布的地震序列

    Figure  4.  Epicenter distribution of the relocated Yangbi earthquake sequence

    Blue dash lines represent the depth profile locations in Fig. 5; AA* represents the profile parallel to the major axis of the Yangbi earthquake sequence; BB*, CC*, DD* are profiles located at different section perpendicular to AA*, and EE* is the profile perpendicular to earthquakes distributed like a horsetail splay

    图  5  漾濞地震序列不同方向的深度剖面(剖面位置见图 4)

    图中的红色虚线为推测的发震断层及产状;黑色虚线为余震密集区
    a—e—不同方向深度剖面;f—基于InSAR得到的漾濞地震断层滑动分布特征(应急管理部国家自然灾害研究院http://www.ninhm.ac.cn/content/details_35_2206.html)

    Figure  5.  Depth profiles of the Yangbi earthquake sequence in different orientations.(a-e) Different depth profiles of the Yangbi earthquake sequence. (f) Distribution characteristics of the fault slip of the Yangbi earthquake based on InSAR.

    Location is shown in Fig. 4; Red dash lines represent the inferred seismogenic faults, black dash line represents the intensive area of aftershocks; Subgraphs are quoted from National Institute of Nature Hazards.

    图  6  漾濞地震序列的时间发展过程

    AA′、BB′表示辅助线;圆圈表示M≤5.0地震,圆圈直径与震级相关;五角星表示M≥5.0地震
    a—5月18日至5月21日MS5.6地震前地震序列; b—MS5.6地震至MS6.4主震前地震序列; c—MS6.4主震至MS5.2余震前地震序列; d—MS5.2余震至5月22日23时59分地震序列; e—5月23日地震序列; f—5月23日至6月5日地震序列

    Figure  6.  Temporal development process of the Yangbi earthquake sequence

    (a) Foreshock sequence of the MS 5.6 earthquake between May 18 and May 21. (b) Earthquake sequence after the MS 5.6 earthquake and before the MS 6.4 earthquake. (c) Earthquake sequence after the MS 6.4 earthquake and before MS 5.2 aftershock. (d) Earthquake sequence after the MS 5.2 aftershock until May 22 at 23:59 (Beijing Time). (e) Aftershock sequence through May 23. (f) Aftershock sequence between May 23 and June 5.

    图  7  漾濞地震序列的震源深度及震源机制解随时间变化

    震源机制解详细结果见表 2;图中地震按照发震时刻先后进行编号

    Figure  7.  Temporal changes of focal depth and mechanism of the Yangbi earthquake sequence

    The detailed results of focal mechanism solution are shown in Table 2; The earthquakes in the figure are numbered according to the time of occurrence

    图  8  漾濞地震序列发震构造及动力学模式分析

    a—发震构造;b—破裂模式;c—区域动力学机制

    Figure  8.  Seismogenic structure and dynamic mechanism of the Yangbi earthquake sequence. (a) Seismogenic structure. (b) Rupture model. (c) Regional dynamic mechanism

    表  1  漾濞地区一维速度模型

    Table  1.   Velocity model of the Yangbi focal area

    地壳厚度/km VP/(km·s-1) VS/(km·s-1)
    1.25 4.30 2.10
    16.75 5.92 3.43
    18.00 6.49 3.60
    9.00 6.93 3.74
    50.00 7.96 4.35
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  漾濞地震序列中MS≥3.0地震的震源机制解一览表

    Table  2.   Focal mechanism solutions of the Yangbi earthquake sequence

    发震时刻 拟合深度/km 矩震级/MW 节面Ⅰ 节面Ⅱ 数据来源
    走向/(°) 倾角/(°) 滑动角/(°) 走向/(°) 倾角/(°) 滑动角/(°)
    5-18T18:49 5.0 3.8 50 75 0 320 90 165 earthX
    5-18T20:20 6.0 3.5 30 75 0 300 90 165 earthX
    5-18T20:56 6.0 3.7 50 75 0 320 90 165 earthX
    5-18T21:39 5.0 4.3 30 85 20 298 70 175 earthX
    5-19T03:27 3.0 3.8 50 75 20 315 71 164 earthX
    5-19T20:05 4.0 4.7 50 85 20 318 70 175 earthX
    5-20T01:58 4.0 3.9 50 85 -20 142 70 5 earthX
    5-21T20:55 10.0 4.3 210 65 -40 320 54 31 earthX
    5-21T21:21 6.0 5.2 122 70 5 30 85 -20 earthX
    5-21T21:48 17.0 6.1 135 82 -165 43 75 -9 USGS1
    5-21T22:31 11.5 5.1 151 72 -132 43 46 -26 USGS2
    5-21T22:52 4.0 3.9 10 45 -60 151 52 63 earthX
    5-21T22:59 5.0 4.0 210 55 20 108 74 143 earthX
    5-21T23:08 5.0 3.8 210 65 -20 309 72 26 earthX
    5-21T23:13 5.0 4.0 30 85 0 300 90 175 earthX
    5-21T23:18 3.0 3.8 30 75 -20 125 71 164 earthX
    5-21T23:33 9.0 3.7 50 85 -40 144 50 7 earthX
    5-22T00:56 5.0 3.9 190 25 -40 317 74 70 earthX
    5-22T01:36 3.0 4.0 190 65 -20 289 72 26 earthX
    5-22T01:50 3.0 3.8 30 85 20 298 70 175 earthX
    5-22T08:36 4.0 3.9 10 55 -40 126 58 42 earthX
    5-22T09:48 3.0 4.2 30 65 -20 129 72 26 earthX
    5-22T11:17 6.0 3.4 30 65 -60 156 38 43 earthX
    5-22T12:40 4.0 3.6 10 65 -20 109 72 26 earthX
    5-22T17:24 3.0 4.0 50 85 0 320 90 175 earthX
    5-22T20:14 6.0 4.6 210 85 -40 304 50 7 earthX
    5-22T22:30 6.0 3.8 210 75 -20 305 71 16 earthX
    5-22T23:30 6.0 3.6 350 45 -80 156 46 80 earthX
    5-23T00:17 4.0 3.6 230 45 -40 351 63 53 earthX
    5-23T17:26 8.0 3.5 230 85 60 131 30 170 earthX
    5-24T08:10 7.0 3.6 230 75 0 140 90 165 earthX
    5-24T08:43 8.0 3.6 250 75 20 155 71 164 earthX
    5-26T06:37 6.0 3.8 30 85 -20 122 70 5 earthX
    5-26T14:20 3.0 3.6 10 75 20 275 71 164 earthX
    5-27T19:52 3.0 4.3 190 85 0 100 90 175 earthX
    5-27T23:03 6.0 3.9 30 45 -40 151 63 53 earthX
    5-28T00:03 3.0 3.5 30 85 20 298 70 175 earthX
    5-28T20:43 8.0 3.4 172 60 -89 350 30 -92 earthX
    注:USGS1数据来源:https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us7000-e532/moment-tensor;USGS2数据来源:https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us7000e53a/moment-tensor
    下载: 导出CSV
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