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青海省河湟谷地地质灾害易发性评价

赵东亮 兰措卓玛 侯光良 许长军 李万志

赵东亮, 兰措卓玛, 侯光良, 等, 2021. 青海省河湟谷地地质灾害易发性评价. 地质力学学报, 27 (1): 83-95. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.01.009
引用本文: 赵东亮, 兰措卓玛, 侯光良, 等, 2021. 青海省河湟谷地地质灾害易发性评价. 地质力学学报, 27 (1): 83-95. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.01.009
ZHAO Dongliang, LANCUO Zhuoma, HOU Guangliang, et al., 2021. Assessment of geological disaster susceptibility in the Hehuang Valley of Qinghai Province. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (1): 83-95. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.01.009
Citation: ZHAO Dongliang, LANCUO Zhuoma, HOU Guangliang, et al., 2021. Assessment of geological disaster susceptibility in the Hehuang Valley of Qinghai Province. Journal of Geomechanics, 27 (1): 83-95. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.01.009

青海省河湟谷地地质灾害易发性评价

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2021.27.01.009
基金项目: 

青海省地理空间信息技术与应用重点实验室基金 2019-002

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵东亮(1995-), 男, 在读硕士, 主要从事灾害风险评价研究。E-mail: zdl19950604@163.com

    通讯作者:

    兰措卓玛(1980-), 女, 博士, 主要从事环境变化与人类活动、灾害风险评价研究。E-mail: lczm1980@163.com

  • 中图分类号: X43;P694

Assessment of geological disaster susceptibility in the Hehuang Valley of Qinghai Province

  • 摘要: 地处青藏高原东北缘的黄河与湟水谷地,由于剧烈的地质活动、较大高差与强烈水力作用等,使得地质灾害非常频繁,为明确该区域的地灾易发性区划,选取地貌、坡度、坡高、植被、岩性、降雨量和距断层、距河流、距道路等因子构建评价指标体系,采用信息量模型计算崩塌、滑坡、泥石流及其综合地质灾害易发性指数,将研究区地质灾害易发性划分为极高、高、中、低、极低五级易发区。结果表明:极高易发区主要位于河谷地区,占2.03%,包括贵德县、湟中县、乐都县的黄河及湟水等河流中下游地区;高易发区主要位于中小起伏山间盆地地区,占21.2%;中易发区主要位于中起伏山地地区,占23.45%,属于高、低易发区的过渡区域;低易发区主要位于大中起伏山地地区,占42.1%;极低易发区主要位于冷龙岭、拉脊山、西倾山等山地,占11.23%。研究结果对河湟谷地的防灾减灾及社会可持续发展意义重大。

     

  • 图  1  研究区灾害分布图

    1—乐都县;2—民和县;3—平安县;4—化隆县;5—循化县;6—同仁县;7—尖扎县;8—贵德县;9—湟中县;10—湟源县;11—海晏县;12—大通县;13—门源县;14—互助县

    Figure  1.  Disaster distribution map of the study area

    图  2  河湟谷地地质灾害易发性评价因子图

    Figure  2.  Maps showing the factors in geological disaster susceptibility assessment in the Hehuang Valley

    图  3  河湟谷地不同类型灾害易发性评价结果

    1—乐都县;2—民和县;3—平安县;4—化隆县;5—循化县;6—同仁县;7—尖扎县;8—贵德县;9—湟中县;10—湟源县;11—海晏县;12—大通县;13—门源县;14—互助县
    a—崩塌易发性区划;b—滑坡易发性区划;c—泥石流易发性区划;d—地质灾害易发性综合区划

    Figure  3.  Assessment results of susceptibility to different types of disasters in the Hehuang Valley

    表  1  河湟谷地地质灾害类型统计

    Table  1.   Statistics of geological disaster types in the Hehuang Valley

    类别 灾害点/处 百分比/% 隐患点/处 百分比/%
    崩塌 153 12.2 4 4.1
    滑坡 569 45.3 61 62.2
    泥石流 535 42.6 33 33.7
    合计 1257 100.0 98 100.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2017年河湟谷地各县(市、区)地质灾害点、隐患点及威胁人数统计

    Table  2.   Statistics on the number of geological disaster sites, hidden dangers and people at risk in the Hehuang Valley(2017)

    县(市) 崩塌隐患点/处 滑坡隐患点/处 泥石流隐患点/处 崩塌灾害点/处 滑坡灾害点/处 泥石流灾害点/处 崩塌威胁人数/人 滑坡威胁人数/人 泥石流威胁人数/人
    西宁市 1 1 2 0 0 0 0 915 13322
    大通县 0 14 6 14 31 50 0 3797 1079
    湟中县 0 2 0 8 42 2 0 340 0
    湟源县 1 0 5 15 2 7 103 0 1177
    平安区 0 0 1 1 35 23 0 0 150
    民和县 0 7 4 18 70 14 0 1504 3364
    乐都县 0 8 7 31 142 176 0 1152 1260
    互助县 0 0 0 24 53 21 0 0 0
    化隆县 0 12 0 18 80 20 0 2491 0
    循化县 0 4 9 0 44 5 0 1017 4550
    门源县 0 0 0 11 4 71 0 0 0
    海晏县 0 0 0 1 0 12 0 0 0
    同仁县 1 5 2 1 27 11 100 3570 1173
    尖扎县 0 8 0 8 15 25 0 2023 0
    贵德县 1 0 1 3 24 98 2000 0 130
    合计 4 61 37 153 569 535 2203 16809 26205
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  崩塌、滑坡、泥石流各影响因子权重及加权信息量

    Table  3.   Weight and weighted information of each influencing factor in collapse, landslide and debris flow

    一级影响因子 二级影响因子 崩塌 滑坡 泥石流
    权重 加权信息量 权重 加权信息量 权重 加权信息量
    地貌 湖泊 0.072 0 0.105 0 0.169 0
    丘陵 0.0767 0 0
    台地 0.0550 -0.0149 0.2565
    平原 0.0046 -0.0003 0.0988
    山地 -0.0029 0.0015 -0.0552
    高程/m 1658~2000 0.119 -0.1134 0.110 -0.0071 0.112 0.1716
    2000~2400 0.1207 0.1008 0.1568
    2400~2800 0.1170 0.1302 0.0671
    2800~3200 -0.0013 -0.0705 -0.0364
    3200~4200 -0.5145 -0.4425 -0.3032
    4200~5197 0 0 0
    坡度/(°) < 15 0.146 0.0401 0.143 0.0233 0.204 0.0857
    15~30 -0.0625 -0.0191 -0.1992
    30~45 -0.1753 -0.2481 -0.4152
    45~60 0 0 0
    > 60 0 0 0
    坡高/m < 100 0.097 0.0168 0.206 0.0419 0.148 0.0341
    100~200 -0.0843 -0.2268 -0.2242
    200~300 0.0094 0 -0.1845
    300~484 0 0 0
    植被 针叶林 0.089 -0.0269 0.092 -0.0517 0.074 0.0319
    高山植被 0 0 0
    栽培植被 0.0140 -0.0237 0.1032
    阔叶林 0.0232 0.0291 -0.0369
    灌丛 -0.0506 -0.0629 -0.0490
    荒漠 0 0 0.0283
    草原 0.0788 0.0859 0.0415
    草甸 -0.1690 -0.1681 -0.0887
    岩性 A 0.171 0 0.166 0 0.065 0
    B 0.3238 0 0.0358
    C -0.2090 -0.5209 -0.0293
    D 0 -0.2068 0.0011
    E -0.0091 -0.3902 -0.0430
    F -0.2941 -0.4215 -0.0380
    G -0.0176 -0.1529 -0.0678
    H 0 0 0
    I 0.0324 0.0911 0.0242
    距构造断层距离/m < 1000 0.019 -0.0148 0.016 -0.0082 0.011 -0.0063
    1000~2000 -0.0203 -0.0134 -0.0072
    2000~3000 -0.0073 -0.0141 -0.0023
    3000~4000 -0.0014 0.0015 -0.0007
    4000~5000 -0.0038 -0.0011 0.0024
    > 5000 0.0056 0.0043 0.0019
    多年平均降雨量/mm 281~330 0.133 -0.0293 0.113 -0.1560 0.082 0.0085
    330~380 0.0312 -0.0324 0.0142
    380~430 0.0428 0.0939 0.0082
    430~480 -0.3913 0.0114 -0.0391
    480~520 -0.1471 -0.4196 -0.2894
    520~562 0 0 0
    距河流距离/m < 400 0.024 0.0148 0.014 -0.0091 0.023 0.0251
    400~800 0.0302 -0.0047 0.0326
    800~1200 0.0022 -0.0034 0.0323
    1200~1600 0.0157 -0.0045 0.0317
    1600~2000 0.0025 0.0095 0.0251
    2000~2500 -0.0026 0.0012 0.0047
    > 2500 -0.0029 0.0001 -0.0097
    距主线道路距离/m < 500 0.066 0.1161 0.001 0.0001 0.032 0.0448
    500~1000 0.0564 0.0002 0.0384
    1000~1500 0.0486 0 0.0166
    1500~2000 -0.0295 -0.0001 0.0175
    > 2000 -0.0211 0 -0.0095
    距支线道路距离/m < 500 0.063 0.0688 0.033 0.0272 0.081 0.1025
    500~1000 0.0055 0.0239 0.0302
    > 1000 -0.0272 -0.0150 -0.0556
    注:岩性中A—变质砂岩、砾岩岩组;B—松散堆积物岩组;C—中厚层砂岩、板岩、夹砂岩岩组;D—厚层砾岩、砂砾岩岩组;E—千枚岩、板岩、薄层灰岩岩组;F—火山碎屑岩岩组;G—大理岩、石英岩、片麻岩岩组;H—变质安山岩、凝灰岩岩组;I—粉砂岩、泥岩、薄层砂砾岩岩组
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  崩塌、滑坡、泥石流易发性区划统计

    Table  4.   Zoning statistics of susceptibility to collapse, landslide and debris flow

    灾种 极低易发区面积/km2(占比/%) 低易发区面积/km2(占比/%) 中易发区面积/km2(占比/%) 高易发区面积/km2(占比/%) 极高易发区面积/km2(占比/%)
    崩塌 3506.95(8.99) 15927.88(40.85) 8839.18(22.67) 10121.09(25.96) 598.77(1.54)
    滑坡 4339.59(11.13) 13684.30(35.09) 8790.36(22.54) 7089.72(18.18) 5089.87(13.05)
    泥石流 6799.61(17.44) 13963.32(35.81) 13140.59(33.70) 4442.46(11.39) 647.87(1.66)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  河湟谷地地质灾害综合易发性区划统计

    Table  5.   Comprehensive susceptibility zoning statistics of geological disasters in the Hehuang Valley

    易发性区划 灾害点/ 处 灾点占比/% 面积/km2 面积占比/% 灾点密度/处/km2
    极低易发区 0 0.00 4378.83 11.23 0.000
    低易发区 76 4.91 16413.8 42.10 0.005
    中易发区 467 30.17 9144.4 23.45 0.051
    高易发区 888 57.36 8264.61 21.20 0.107
    极高易发区 117 7.56 790.58 2.03 0.148
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-02-22
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