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大洋地幔橄榄岩-铬铁矿中的金刚石和深地幔再循环

杨经绥

杨经绥, 2020. 大洋地幔橄榄岩-铬铁矿中的金刚石和深地幔再循环. 地质力学学报, 26 (5): 731-741. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.060
引用本文: 杨经绥, 2020. 大洋地幔橄榄岩-铬铁矿中的金刚石和深地幔再循环. 地质力学学报, 26 (5): 731-741. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.060
YANG Jingsui, 2020. Diamond in oceanic peridotites-chromitites and recycled in deep mantle. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (5): 731-741. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.060
Citation: YANG Jingsui, 2020. Diamond in oceanic peridotites-chromitites and recycled in deep mantle. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (5): 731-741. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.060

大洋地幔橄榄岩-铬铁矿中的金刚石和深地幔再循环

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.060
基金项目: 

国家自然基金项目 41720104009

详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨经绥(1950-), 男, 研究员、中国科学院院士, 主要从事蛇绿岩及板块构造研究。E-mail:yangjsui@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P588.3;P542.5

Diamond in oceanic peridotites-chromitites and recycled in deep mantle

  • 摘要: 全球多地蛇绿岩型地幔橄榄岩和铬铁矿中发现微粒金刚石,并在中国西藏南部和俄罗斯乌拉尔北部的蛇绿岩铬铁矿中发现原位产出的金刚石,认为是地球上金刚石的一种新的产出类型,不同于金伯利岩型金刚石和超高压变质型金刚石。它们与呈斯石英假象的柯石英、高压相的铬铁矿和青松矿等高压矿物以及碳硅石和单质矿物等强还原矿物伴生,指示蛇绿岩中的这些矿物组合形成于深度150~300 km或者更深的地幔。金刚石具有很轻的C同位素组成(δ13C-18‰~-28‰),并出现多种含Mn矿物和壳源成分包裹体。研究认为它们曾是早期深俯冲的地壳物质,达到>300 km深部地幔或地幔过渡带后,经历了熔融并产生新的流体,后者在上升过程中结晶成新的超高压、强还原矿物组合,通过地幔对流或地幔柱作用被带回到浅部地幔,由此建立了一个俯冲物质深地幔再循环的新模式。蛇绿岩型地幔橄榄岩和铬铁矿中发现金刚石等深部矿物,质疑了蛇绿岩铬铁矿形成于浅部地幔的已有认识,引发了一系列新的科学问题,提出了新的研究方向。

     

  • 图  1  发现金刚石等深部矿物的蛇绿岩分布图(连东洋等,2019)

    Figure  1.  Locations of microdiamonds-bearing ophiolites on Earth (Lian et al., 2019)

    图  2  西藏罗布莎康金拉块状铬铁矿中发现的微粒金刚石(杨经绥等, 2014b)

    Figure  2.  Microdiamonds discovered from the chromitites in the Luobusa ophiolite, Tibet(Yang et al., 2014b)

    图  3  铬铁矿中原位金刚石的发现

    Figure  3.  Discovery of in-suit diamonds from chromite

    图  4  显微镜下铬铁矿中原位金刚石和C元素成分面扫描图像(Yang et al., 2014a, 2015a)

    Dia—金刚石;Chr—铬铁矿;Oli—橄榄石;红色为金刚石,黄色为非晶质碳
    a、b—乌拉尔,Ray-Iz铬铁矿床;c、d—中国西藏,罗布莎铬铁矿床

    Figure  4.  Microphotos showing in-situ diamonds and carbon composition mapping (Yang et al., 2014a, 2015a)

    图  5  西藏和俄罗斯极地乌拉尔蛇绿岩铬铁矿中不同产出类型金刚石的C同位素特征(数据引自Yang et al., 2015aCartigny, 2005)

    Figure  5.  Characteristics of carbon isotopes for different types of diamonds in ophiolitic chromite from Tibet and Ural. (Data are cited from Yang et al., 2015a; Cartigny, 2005)

    图  6  蛇绿岩铬铁矿金刚石中的矿物包裹体

    Mn-ga—锰石榴石;diamond—金刚石;Mn-ol—锰橄榄石;MnO—氧化锰;NiMnCo—锰金属合金
    a—罗布莎铬铁矿中金刚石中的高Mn矿物包裹体;b—俄罗斯乌拉尔铬铁矿中金刚石中的柯石英(coesite)包裹体

    Figure  6.  Mineral inclusions in diamonds from ophiolitic chromitites

    图  7  西藏罗布莎铬铁矿中的TiFe合金显微图像

    Coes—柯石英;Ky—蓝晶石;BN—青松矿;TiN—氮化钛;Fe—单质铁;cBN—立方晶系青松矿
    a—西藏罗布莎铬铁矿中的TiFe合金;b—TiFe合金边部的呈斯石英假象的柯石英与蓝晶石交生;c—柯石英颗粒TEM图像,纳米级的立方晶系青松矿呈包裹体产在柯石英中,指示形成压力>10GPa (Yang et al., 2007; Dobrzhinetskaya et al., 2014);d—纳米级青松矿呈包裹体产于柯石英的氮化钛中

    Figure  7.  Microscopic images of TiFe alloy in the Luobusa chromitite

    图  8  地幔对流和地幔柱上涌将深部形成的超高压和强还原矿物带回浅部地幔,其中包括早期深俯冲的壳源物质形成的矿物组合(Yang et al., 2015b)

    Figure  8.  A model to explain the presence of ophiolite-hosted diamonds in chromitites and mantle peridotites in MOR and BAB environments (Yang et al., 2015b)

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  • 收稿日期:  2020-08-10
  • 修回日期:  2020-09-07
  • 刊出日期:  2020-10-28

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