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黄土高原滑坡灾害形成动力学机制

彭建兵 王启耀 庄建琦 冷艳秋 范仲杰 王少凯

彭建兵, 王启耀, 庄建琦, 等, 2020. 黄土高原滑坡灾害形成动力学机制. 地质力学学报, 26 (5): 714-730. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.059
引用本文: 彭建兵, 王启耀, 庄建琦, 等, 2020. 黄土高原滑坡灾害形成动力学机制. 地质力学学报, 26 (5): 714-730. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.059
PENG Jianbing, WANG Qiyao, ZHUANG Jianqi, et al., 2020. Dynamic formation mechanism of landslide disaster on the Loess Plateau. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (5): 714-730. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.059
Citation: PENG Jianbing, WANG Qiyao, ZHUANG Jianqi, et al., 2020. Dynamic formation mechanism of landslide disaster on the Loess Plateau. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (5): 714-730. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.059

黄土高原滑坡灾害形成动力学机制

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.059
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金重大项目 41790441

详细信息
    作者简介:

    彭建兵(1953-), 男, 教授, 中国科学院院士, 主要从事工程地质与灾害地质方面的科研与教学工作。E-mail:dicexy_1@chd.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P642.22

Dynamic formation mechanism of landslide disaster on the Loess Plateau

  • 摘要: 滑坡灾害是威胁黄土高原人民生命和财产安全、城镇与重大工程建设与运营的重大地质问题。针对黄土高原滑坡灾害形成的动力学机制问题,在大量的调查统计、试验与理论分析基础上,总结得出区域构造应力是黄土高原滑坡高发的主要驱动力,它是滑坡分区分带群发的控制因素,是黄土滑坡的"第一元凶";边坡构造应力既造就了结构面,又不断地改造和松动着结构面,持续地肢解着边坡的完整性,它是单体滑坡形成的主要驱动力,是黄土滑坡的"第二元凶";黄土是一种特殊的结构土,具有极强的水敏性,在土体应力驱动下极易灾变,黄土的这种易灾特性是土体灾变的内在原因,是黄土滑坡的"第三元凶";大量的滑坡发生都与水有关,地表水大量渗入黄土浅表部,会引起浅表崩塌和溜滑灾害,而当水沿着微、细、宏观优势通道进入黄土深部后,就可能引起深层滑坡,因此,动水渗透作用是黄土滑坡的"主凶";工程扰动既会改变边坡原有的应力状态,进而扩展和松动已有的结构面,现今,工程扰动已经成为一种诱发地质灾害的重要地质营力,是黄土滑坡的"帮凶"。

     

  • 图  1  黄土高原地质构造略图

    ①—西秦岭北缘断裂;②—拉脊山断裂;③—日月山断裂;④—海原断裂带;⑤—六盘山断裂带;⑥—北山断裂带;⑦—吕梁山断裂带;⑧—太行山断裂带;⑨—秦岭北缘断裂带

    Figure  1.  Sketch of the geological structure of the Loess Plateau

    图  2  西秦岭北缘断裂带及天水刘家堡滑坡

    a—西秦岭北缘断裂带影响区的小断层带;b—2013年12月16日天水刘家堡滑坡

    Figure  2.  Fault zone at the northern margin of the Western Qinling Mountains and the Liujiapu Landslide

    图  3  六盘山构造带及由其控制发育的滑坡

    a—六盘山东缘构造带伴生的张性断裂带所发育的河流及沿河黄土滑坡;b—泾河北岸所触发的平凉市大路村滑坡群

    Figure  3.  Liupanshan tectonic belt and the landslides controlled by it

    图  4  秦安盆地边缘滑坡

    a—秦安盆地构造及黄土滑坡;b—位于白驼河南岸的林屲村滑坡

    Figure  4.  Landslides at the edge of the Qin′an Basin

    图  5  陕北滑坡分布及杨山输油站滑坡

    a—鄂尔多斯台地隆起影响下的滑坡分布图;b—位于延河北岸的延安市杨山输油站滑坡

    Figure  5.  Distribution of landslides in Northern Shannxi and the landslide in the Yangshan Oil Transfer Station

    图  6  渭河西段断裂及沿线滑坡

    a—汾渭盆地构造带西段伴生次级断层;b—宝鸡塬边滑坡群

    Figure  6.  Faults and landslides on the west section of Weihe

    图  7  蒋刘村新老滑坡平硐

    Figure  7.  Adits of landslides in Jiangliu Village

    图  8  西庙店村平硐

    a—平硐位置图;b—平硐裂隙分布图

    Figure  8.  Adits in Ximiaodian Village

    图  9  白鹿原滑坡及平硐

    Figure  9.  Bailuyuan Landslide and the adit

    图  10  黑方台的断层和构造节理

    a—黑方台航拍影像;b—基岩中的断层破碎带上穿黄土层中;c—黄土层中断层破碎带通达地表

    Figure  10.  Faults and structural joints in Heifangtai

    图  11  黄土边坡典型地质结构

    Figure  11.  Typical geological structures of loess slope

    图  12  黄土边坡结构体孕滑模式

    Figure  12.  Formation and sliding mode of loess slope structure

    图  13  典型黄土孔径分布曲线

    Figure  13.  Distribution curve of typical loess pore diameter

    图  14  水敏性黄土结构及强度软化线

    a—黄土结构屈服应力随含水量变化图;b—黄土强度参数随含水量变化图

    Figure  14.  Structure and yield line of water-sensitive loess

    图  15  CTC不排水有效应力路径及不稳定区

    Figure  15.  CTC undrained effective stress path and the unstable region

    图  16  边坡静动水压变化模型图

    Figure  16.  Model diagram showing static and dynamic water pressure changes of the slope

    图  17  黄土滑坡双液化模型

    Figure  17.  Double liquefaction model of loess landslide

    图  18  边坡开挖离心机试验结果

    Figure  18.  Results of the centrifuge test in the slope excavation

    图  19  堆载作用下边坡土体的应力变化

    Figure  19.  Stress variation of the slope soil under loading

    图  20  堆载型滑坡的双滑带特征

    Figure  20.  Characteristics of double slide zones of load-induced landslide

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