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中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏形成分布的基本特征与动力机制及发展方向

庞雄奇 林会喜 郑定业 李慧莉 邹华耀 庞宏 胡涛 国芳馨 李宏雨

庞雄奇, 林会喜, 郑定业, 等, 2020. 中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏形成分布的基本特征与动力机制及发展方向. 地质力学学报, 26 (5): 673-695. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.057
引用本文: 庞雄奇, 林会喜, 郑定业, 等, 2020. 中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏形成分布的基本特征与动力机制及发展方向. 地质力学学报, 26 (5): 673-695. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.057
PANG Xiongqi, LIN Huixi, ZHENG Dingye, et al., 2020. Basic characteristics, dynamic mechanism and development direction of the formation and distribution of deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in China. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (5): 673-695. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.057
Citation: PANG Xiongqi, LIN Huixi, ZHENG Dingye, et al., 2020. Basic characteristics, dynamic mechanism and development direction of the formation and distribution of deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in China. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (5): 673-695. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.057

中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏形成分布的基本特征与动力机制及发展方向

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.057
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金联合基金项目 U19B6003

详细信息
    作者简介:

    庞雄奇(1961-), 男, 教授, 主要从事油气藏形成与分布预测的教学与科研工作。E-mail:pangxq@cup.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: P618.13

Basic characteristics, dynamic mechanism and development direction of the formation and distribution of deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in China

  • 摘要: 随着油气资源对外依赖度加大,中国的油气勘探已经拓展到深层和超深层领域,并相继在中西部盆地发现了塔河、普光、安岳、靖边、顺北等一批大型油气田,展示出广阔的勘探前景。中国已探明的深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏特征与全球的有很大差异,经典的油气地质理论指导这类油气田勘探遇到了前所未有的重大挑战,需要完善和发展。通过调研和比较全球已探明的碳酸盐岩和砂岩油气藏地质特征,发现它们的油气来源条件、油气藏形成条件、成藏动力、演化过程特征等类同;同时,发现碳酸盐岩和砂岩油气藏的矿物组成、孔隙度和渗透率随埋深变化特征、孔渗结构特征、储层物性下限、油气藏类型等有着很大不同。中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏与全球的相比较具有五方面差异:地层年代更老、埋藏深度更大、白云岩储层比率更大、天然气资源比率更高、储层孔渗关系更乱。中国已经发现的深层碳酸盐岩油气藏成因类型可以归为五种:沉积型高孔高渗油气藏、压实成岩型低孔低渗油气藏、结晶成岩型低孔低渗油气藏、流体改造型高孔低渗油气藏、应力改造型低孔高渗油气藏;它们形成的动力学机制分别与地层沉积和浮力主导的油气运移作用、地层压实和非浮力主导的油气运移作用、成岩结晶和非浮力主导的油气运移作用、流体改造介质和浮力主导的油气运移作用、应力改造和浮力主导的油气运移作用等密切相关。中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏勘探发展的有利领域和油气藏类型主要有三个:一是低热流盆地浮力成藏下限之上自由动力场形成的高孔高渗常规油气藏;二是构造变动频繁的叠合盆地内外应力和内部流体活动改造而形成的缝洞复合型油气藏;三是构造稳定盆地内局限动力场形成的广泛致密连续型非常规油气藏。改造类非常规致密碳酸盐岩油气藏是中国含油气盆地深层和超深层油气资源的主要类型:它们叠加了早期形成的常规油气藏特征,又具有自身广泛连续分布的非常规特征,还经受了后期构造变动的改造;复杂的分布特征,致密的介质条件和高温高压环境使得这类油气资源勘探开发难度大、成本高。

     

  • 图  1  中国塔里木盆地和全球含油气盆地中浅层和深层已经发现的油气藏储层孔隙度和渗透率结构特征差异性比较

    a—中国塔里木盆地油气藏(a-1—储层埋深<4500 m,a-2—储层埋深>4500 m);b—世界含油气盆地油气藏(b-1—储层埋深<4500 m,b-2—储层埋深>4500 m)

    Figure  1.  Comparison of the structural characteristics of porosity and permeability of oil and gas reservoirs that have been discovered in the middle-shallow and deep layers of the Tarim Basin in China and the global petroliferous basins

    图  2  中国含油气盆地海相碳酸盐岩储层与不同条件下形成的砂岩储层的孔隙度随埋深增大的变化特征

    a—海相碳酸盐岩储层;b—不同条件下形成的砂岩储层

    Figure  2.  Variation characteristics of the porosity of marine carbonate reservoirs and sandstone reservoirs formed under different conditions in China's petroliferous basins with increasing burial depth

    图  3  中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气成藏研究科学问题、主要内容、目标及关联性

    Figure  3.  Scientific issues, main contents, objectives and relevance of China's deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoir formation research

    图  4  含油气盆地碳酸盐岩地层沉积环境与碎屑岩地层沉积环境及矿物组成比较

    a—中国南海现今南沙区内盆地两种岩类沉积环境平面分布特征(吴冬等,2014);b—准噶尔盆地芦草沟组不同岩性储层矿物含量比例(邱振等,2016)

    Figure  4.  Comparison of sedimentary environment and mineral composition of carbonate strata and clastic strata in petroliferous basins

    图  5  全球碳酸盐岩和砂岩油气藏储层孔隙度随埋深变化特征

    a、b—砂岩和碳酸盐岩储层孔隙度随埋深变化特征统计趋势对比图;c—砂岩和碳酸盐组成的全球石油储集层顶深与平均孔隙度对比图

    Figure  5.  Variation characteristics of global carbonate and sandstone reservoir porosity with burial depth

    图  6  碳酸盐岩油气藏与砂岩油气藏的孔隙度和渗透率结构特征差异性比较

    a—塔中地区两种储层物性参数关系图(a-1—碎屑岩储层渗透率与孔喉半径关系,a-2—碎屑岩储层孔隙度与孔喉半径关系,a-3—碎屑岩储层孔隙度与渗透率关系,a-4—碳酸盐岩储层渗透率与孔喉半径关系,a-5—碳酸盐岩储层孔隙度与孔喉半径关系,a-6—碳酸盐岩储层孔隙度与渗透率关系);b—苏里格气田低渗透致密砂岩和靖边气田致密白云岩储层孔-渗关系(b-1—致密砂岩孔隙度—渗透率关系,b-2—低渗透致密白云岩孔隙度-渗透率关系)

    Figure  6.  Comparison of the structural characteristics of porosity and permeability between carbonate reservoirs and sandstone reservoirs

    图  7  碳酸盐岩油气藏与砂岩油气藏有效储层物性范围比较

    a—塔中地区碎屑岩储层孔渗关系;b—四川盆地龙王庙组碳酸盐岩储层孔渗关系;c—普光气田碳酸盐岩油气藏储层孔渗关系;d—顺北油气田碳酸盐岩油气藏储层孔渗关系

    Figure  7.  Comparison of effective reservoir physical property ranges between carbonate reservoirs and sandstone reservoirs

    图  8  四川盆地普光沉积型礁滩体高孔高渗油气藏地质特征

    a-普光气田在四川盆地的地理位置; b-普光油气田分布平面特征及边界范围:c-普光油气藏东西向剖面特征:d-普光油气田南北向剖面特征; e-普光油气田储层孔隙度和渗透率

    Figure  8.  Geological characteristics of high-porosity and high-permeability oil and gas reservoirs in the Puguang sedimentary reef-bank in the Sichuan Basin

    图  9  四川盆地安岳压实成岩型低孔低渗白云岩油气藏地质特征

    a—安岳气田在四川盆地的地理位置;b—安岳气田龙王庙组优质储层孔渗特征关系图;c—安岳气田剖面特征图

    Figure  9.  Geological characteristics of compacted diagenetic low porosity and low permeability dolomite reservoirs in Anyue, Sichuan Basin

    图  10  鄂尔多斯盆地靖边低孔低渗白云岩油气藏分布发育地质特征

    a—靖边气田奥陶系碳酸盐岩油气藏平面分布特征;b—靖边气田奥陶系碳酸盐岩油气藏剖面分布特征;c—苏里格气田低渗透致密砂岩和靖边气田致密白云岩储层孔-渗关系(c-1—孔隙度分布特征,c-2—渗透率分布特征)

    Figure  10.  Geological characteristics of the distribution and development of low-porosity and low-permeability dolomite reservoirs in Jingbian, Ordos Basin

    图  11  a-塔河油田在塔里木盆地平面上分布特征; b-塔河油田在纵向剖面上的分布特征; c-岩心溶蚀孔洞发育特征; d-岩心测试(基质)孔渗特征(d-1—间房组,d-2—鹰山组)

    a-塔河油田在塔里木盆地平面上分布特征; b-塔河油田在纵向剖面上的分布特征; c-岩心溶蚀孔洞发育特征; d-岩心测试(基质)孔渗特征(d-1—间房组,d-2—鹰山组)

    Figure  11.  Geological characteristics of fluid modified high-porosity and low-permeability carbonate reservoirs in Tahe, Tarim Basin

    图  12  塔里木盆地顺北应力改造型低孔高渗碳酸盐岩油气藏地质特征

    a—顺北裂缝油气藏断裂带在剖面上发育模式;b—断裂带内储层孔隙度-渗透率相关性;c—断裂带内岩心产状特征与微观特征

    Figure  12.  Geological characteristics of stress reformed low-porosity and high-permeability carbonate reservoirs with northward stress in the Tarim Basin

    图  13  中国含油气盆地砂岩储层与碳酸盐岩储层中浮力成藏下限对应临界条件差异性比较

    a—含油气盆地浮力成藏下限概念模型与控藏特征;b—依据钻探结果确定的砂岩介质中油气浮力成藏下限(b-1—鄂尔多斯盆地苏里格庙石炭系砂岩含气层孔渗特征,b-2—准噶尔盆地二叠系砂岩含油层孔渗特征);c—碳酸盐岩储层介质中的浮力成藏下限(K=1.0 mD, Φ=5±2%;c-1—安岳气田白云岩储层孔渗特征,c-2—普光气田飞仙关组白云岩储层孔渗特征,c-3—塔中油气田砂岩储层孔渗特征)

    Figure  13.  Comparison of the differences between the lower limits of buoyancy accumulation in sandstone reservoirs and carbonate reservoirs in China's petroliferous basins corresponding to critical conditions

    图  14  中国含油气盆地砂岩油气藏和碳酸盐岩油气藏成藏底限研究与对比分析

    a—塔里木盆地砂岩油气藏形成底限预测结果(a-1—为砂岩孔隙度随埋深变化及油气水钻探结果,a-2—为油气水钻探结果随埋深的变化,a-3—为油气成藏底限最大埋深判别结果及对应的临界条件;Z=6250 m,K=0.01 mD, Φ=2%±1%,干层比率=100%);b—砂岩和碳酸盐岩储层孔渗关联特征及油气成藏底限对应临界条件(b-1—四川盆地安岳大气田白云岩储层,b-2—塔里木盆地塔中油气田砂岩储层,b-3—四川盆地普光大气田白云岩储层)

    Figure  14.  Research and comparative analysis of low limits of sandstone reservoirs and carbonate reservoirs in China's petroliferous basins

    图  15  含油气盆地油气动力场划分及其控油气藏分布规律

    a-含油气盆地浮力成藏下限、油气成藏底限与油气动力场分布及其随地温梯度变化特征; b-四川盆地安岳气田和威远气剖面分布特征

    Figure  15.  Division of hydrocarbon dynamic fields in petroliferous basins and the distribution of controlled hydrocarbon reservoirs

    图  16  深层和超深层常规油气藏形成分布领域(据Pang et al., 2012a, 2020修改)

    Figure  16.  Formation and distribution fields of deep and ultra-deep conventional oil and gas reservoirs (modified after Pang et al., 2012a, 2020)

    图  17  局限动力场内非浮力主导油气运移形成致密非常规碳酸盐岩油气藏

    a—非浮力主导油气运移形成三类源外致密非常规油气藏,包括致密非常规常规油气藏、致密非常规深盆油气藏、致密非常规叠复连续油气藏; b—中国深层非浮力主导形成非常规碳酸盐岩油气藏一四川盆地安岳气田周边有利成藏区预测结果(b-1—灯影组灯二段有利勘探区,b-2—灯影组灯四段有利勘探区,b-3—寒武系龙王庙组有利勘探区: Wang et al, 2019a) c—定量预测评价结果与钻探结果吻合度检验(c-1—灯影组成功井吻合率超过88.9%,失利井吻合率超过73.7%,c-2—龙王庙组成功井吻合率超过88.9%,失利井吻合率超过84.2%)

    Figure  17.  Non-buoyancy dominates oil and gas migration in a limited dynamic field to form tight unconventional carbonate reservoirs

    图  18  改造型局限动力场内多动力主导油气运移形成改造类致密非常规碳酸盐岩油气藏

    a—多动力主导油气运移形成五类改选类油藏(a-1—裂缝改造类油气藏,a-2—孔洞改造类致密油气藏,a-3—缝洞复合改造类油气藏,a-4—氧压降解改造类稠油沥青,a-5—高温裂解改造类油气藏);b—塔里木盆地塔中下陶统碳酸盐岩多动力油气成藏与形成特征(b-1—剖面上油气钻探结果与分布特征,b-2—平面上油气钻探结果与分布特征)

    Figure  18.  Multi-power dominates oil and gas migration in a modified limited dynamic field to form reformed tight unconventional carbonate reservoirs

    表  1  中国和海外已经发现的最大的前五个碳酸盐岩油气田地质特征比较

    Table  1.   Comparison of the geological characteristics of the top five largest carbonate oil and gas fields discovered in China and overseas

    国家 盆地名称 油气田名称 储量/亿吨 层位 岩性 孔隙度/%/渗透率/mD 埋深/m
    中国 四川盆地 普光气田 3.5 二叠系 白云岩 8.1~12/3.24~479.3 >5000
    四川盆地 安岳气田 8.4 震旦系 白云岩 3.22/0.5 >5500
    塔里木盆地 塔河油田 13.5 奥陶系 灰岩+白云岩 1.15/1.54 >5000
    塔里木盆地 顺北油气田 17 奥陶系 灰岩+白云岩 1.96/7.50 >7000
    鄂尔多斯盆地 靖边气田 6.9 奥陶系 白云岩 6/2.63 >2500
    海外 伊朗扎格罗斯盆地 Gachsaran油田 34.6 中新统 石灰岩 9/15 < 3500
    阿联酋波斯湾盆地 Zakum油田 32.1 下白垩统 石灰岩 20/3 < 2500
    卡塔尔波斯湾盆地 North Field气田 263 二叠/三叠 白云岩 9.5/300 < 3500
    伊朗波斯湾盆地 Pars South气田 130 二叠/三叠 白云岩 20.25/0.94 < 3000
    俄罗斯滨里海盆地 Astrak han气田 27.7 上石炭统 灰岩 11/2.3 < 4500
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  中国深层和超深层碳酸盐岩油气藏成因特征与动力学分类

    Table  2.   Genetic characteristics and dynamic classification of deep and ultra-deep carbonate reservoirs in China

    碳酸盐岩油气成因分类 形成条件 基本特征 主控因素 动力机制 典型实例
    I常规类油气藏 I-1浮力主导常规圈闭油气藏 礁滩沉积鲕粒滩沉积 埋深相对较浅,高孔高渗 沉积作用 沉积成岩+浮力主导(先成岩后成藏) 普光气田威远气田
    I-2浮力主导裂缝改造油气藏 构造变动断裂作用 构造变动强,低孔高渗 断裂作用 应力改造+浮力主导(先裂缝后成藏) 顺北油气田
    I-3浮力主导孔洞改造油气藏 流体改造次生溶蚀 孔洞发育,高孔低渗 不整合作用 流体改造+浮力主导(先孔洞后成藏) 塔河油田
    II非常规类气藏 II-1非浮力主导致密圈闭油气藏 储层深埋压实 埋深相对较浅,低孔低渗 压实作用 浮力主导+压实致密(先成藏后致密) /
    II-2非浮力主导致密深盆油气藏 深坳区发育储层 埋深相对较大,低孔低渗 源岩排烃 压实+非浮力(先致密后成藏) 安岳气田
    III复合类油气藏 III-1多动力主导叠复连续油气藏 储层广泛连续 油气层广泛连续,不受构造控制 源储组合 浮力+成藏+非浮力(成藏后致密再成藏) /
    III-2多动力主导白云岩化油气藏 灰滩或云滩沉积 埋深较浅,低孔低渗 重结晶作用 结晶+浮力/非浮力(先缝隙后成藏) 靖边气田
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-07-30
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