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中国西北地区南华纪—古生代构造重建及关键问题讨论

计文化 李荣社 陈奋宁 杨博

计文化, 李荣社, 陈奋宁, 等, 2020. 中国西北地区南华纪—古生代构造重建及关键问题讨论. 地质力学学报, 26 (5): 634-655. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.055
引用本文: 计文化, 李荣社, 陈奋宁, 等, 2020. 中国西北地区南华纪—古生代构造重建及关键问题讨论. 地质力学学报, 26 (5): 634-655. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.055
JI Wenhua, LI Rongshe, CHEN Fenning, et al., 2020. Tectonic reconstruction of northwest China in the Nanhua-Paleozoic and discussions on key issues. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (5): 634-655. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.055
Citation: JI Wenhua, LI Rongshe, CHEN Fenning, et al., 2020. Tectonic reconstruction of northwest China in the Nanhua-Paleozoic and discussions on key issues. Journal of Geomechanics, 26 (5): 634-655. DOI: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.055

中国西北地区南华纪—古生代构造重建及关键问题讨论

doi: 10.12090/j.issn.1006-6616.2020.26.05.055
基金项目: 

中国地质调查局基础性公益性地质矿产调查项目 DD20160009

中国地质调查局基础性公益性项目 DD20190364

详细信息
    作者简介:

    计文化(1968-), 男, 研究员, 区域构造专业。E-mail:jiwenhua1968@126.com

    通讯作者:

    李荣社(1959-), 男, 教授级高级工程师, 区域构造专业。E-mail:lrongshe@gov.cgs.cn

  • 中图分类号: P544

Tectonic reconstruction of northwest China in the Nanhua-Paleozoic and discussions on key issues

  • 摘要: 中国西北是古亚洲构造域和特提斯构造域共同作用的地区,南华纪—古生代时期经历了复杂的洋-陆演化过程,诸陆(地)块于三叠纪基本拼贴就位,奠定了中生代以来陆内盆山演化的基础。但对于西北地区南华纪—古生代时期古亚洲洋盆最终关闭的时限、位置,以及秦祁昆古生代造山带属于特提斯构造域还是古亚洲构造域等重大区域地质问题目前仍存在较大争议。文章在最新地质填图的基础上,通过对沉积建造、岩浆建造、变质变形等的综合分析,将西北地区南华纪—古生代的构造单元厘定为3个洋板块、4个弧盆系和2个陆(地)块群等9个二级、46个三级和112个四级构造单元,力图刻画消失的大洋盆地的残留组成和诸陆(地)块的边缘增生结构。结合古地磁、生物古地理研究成果,恢复了古生代不同时期西北洋-陆系统在全球的位置,讨论了洋盆消减、诸陆(地)块拼贴的过程。

     

  • 图  1  西北地区构造单元划分图

    I—阿尔泰-准噶尔-南蒙古多岛弧盆系:I-1—阿尔泰地块及其南部边缘(I-1-1—红石山弧后盆地(D3C1),I-1-2—喀纳斯-青河被动陆缘(Z )+弧后盆地(OS),I-1-3—阿尔泰地块南缘陆缘弧(D));I-2—富蕴-清河弧-弧碰撞带(DC);I-3—准噶尔地块及其边缘(I-3-1—北准噶尔岛弧(D1-2)+滞后弧(D3C1),I-3-2—北塔山岛弧(D1-2)+洋内弧(D2),I-3-3—阿尔曼泰弧-弧碰撞带( O),I-3-4—库兰喀孜干-三塘湖岛弧及弧后盆地(D)+滞后弧(D3C1),I-3-5—卡拉麦里弧-陆碰撞带(DC1),I-3-6—将军庙被动陆缘(S-C1),I-3-7—准噶尔压陷盆地(PQ));I-4—吐哈地块及其边缘(I-4-1—七角井陆缘裂谷(CP1),I-4-2—博格达弧后裂谷(CP1),I-4-3—哈尔里克山复合岛弧(O3, D1-2, C),I-4-4—吐哈压陷盆地(P2-Q),I-4-5—卡拉塔格复合岛弧(O3, D1-2),I-4-6—小热圈子-梧桐窝子岛弧(C));I-5杭乌拉地块及其边缘(I-5-1—雀儿山复合岛弧(D, C),I-5-2—杭乌拉复合岛弧(D, C),I-5-3—额济纳内陆盆地(JQ)) II北天山-西拉木伦洋板块系统:II-1—额尔齐斯-斋桑弧-弧碰撞带(DC);II-2—巴音沟弧-陆碰撞带(D2, C);II-3—依连哈比尔尕岛弧(D2);II-4—冰大坂-米什沟弧-陆碰撞带(O3);II-5—康古尔塔格弧-弧碰撞带(C);II-6—雅满苏增生弧(C);II-7—红石山弧-弧碰撞带(C);II-8—白山泉-黑鹰山增生弧(C);II-9—恩格尔乌苏缝合带(O, C);II-10—索伦山缝合带(O1-2, DP1);II-11—查干诺尔岛弧(C2P)+残留海盆(P2-3)(扎兰屯-多宝山复合岛弧西端)
    III—西准噶尔-中天山多岛弧盆系:III-1—西准噶尔地块及其边缘(III-1-1—布尔津岛弧(D1-2)+滞后弧(D3C1),III-1-2—塔尔巴哈台-洪古勒楞弧-弧碰撞带( O),III-1-3—谢米斯台岛弧(S1-2, D2-3),III-1-4—克拉玛依陆缘弧(C),III-1-5—克拉玛依陆缘弧(C));III-2—塔城地块及其边缘(III-2-1—塔城弧后盆地(DC1),III-2-2—巴尔鲁克山岛弧(DC1),III-2-3—西准噶尔弧-弧碰撞带( S, DC1));III-3—伊犁-中天山地块及其边缘(III-3-1—博罗科努被动陆缘(NhO)+弧后盆地(C),III-3-2—大哈拉军山陆缘弧(C),III-3-3—中天山复合岩浆弧(Pt3-C));III-4—明水-旱山地块及其边缘(III-4-1—明水-旱山复合岩浆弧(Pt3, C),III-4-2—马鬃山-公婆泉岛弧(OS),III-4-3—小黄山弧后裂谷(O3));III-5—南天山-洗肠井缝合带(III-5-1—南天山北缘缝合带(Pt3-C),III-5-2—红柳河-洗肠井缝合带(Pt3-S))
    IV—塔里木-敦煌-阿拉善陆(地)块区:IV-1—塔里木陆块(IV-1-1—吉根陆缘小洋盆(S3D2),IV-1-2—阔克萨勒岭陆缘小洋盆(D1-2),IV-1-3—南天山被动陆缘(O3, S2D)+后造山伸展盆地(CP2),IV-1-4—铁力买提陆缘小洋盆(S3D1),IV-1-5—柯坪大陆裂谷(NhZ)+陆棚海盆地( P2),IV-1-6—库鲁克塔格大陆裂谷(NhZ)+陆棚海盆地( D),IV-1-7—塔里木压陷盆地(P3Q),IV-1-8—奥依塔格-库尔良弧后盆地(D3P2),IV-1-9—铁克里克大陆裂谷(Nh),IV-1-10—卡拉塔什-库雅克弧后盆地(CP1-2),IV-1-11—库地-其曼于特弧-弧碰撞带(ZO),IV-1-12—西昆仑东段分水岭岛弧(C));IV-2—敦煌地块(IV-2-1—罗雅楚山被动陆缘(NhO)+前陆盆地(SD2),IV-2-2—辉铜山陆缘裂谷(O),IV-2-3—笔架山-红柳园后造山裂谷(CP),IV-2-4敦煌走滑拉分盆地(N2Q),IV-2-5阿克塞-玉门基底变质隆起带(Ar3Pt1));IV-3阿拉善陆块(IV-3-1巴丹吉林弧后盆地(C2P),IV-3-2阿右旗-杭乌拉山复合岩浆岩带(Pt2, S, DP, TJ),IV-3-3—龙首山基底隆起带(Ar3Pt1)+陆棚海(NhZ),IV-3-4—走廊弧后盆地( O)+前陆盆地(S),IV-3-5—香山深海斜坡( O));IV-4—鄂尔多斯陆块(IV-4-1—巴音敖包-达尔汗复合弧后盆地(O1-2, D1, C2P1),IV-4-2—阴山-白云鄂博裂谷(ChQb)+复合岩浆弧(Pz1, Pz2),IV-4-3—河套断陷盆地(E3Q),IV-4-4—大青山基底隆起(Ar3Pt1),IV-4-5—贺兰山陆棚海盆地(ZO)+陆表海盆地(C2P1),IV-4-6—鄂尔多斯内陆盆地(PT2)+压陷盆地(T3Q),IV-4-7—渭北陆棚海盆地( O),IV-4-8—渭河断陷盆地(E2Q),IV-4-9—太华基底隆起(Ar),IV-4-10—洛南-栾川陆缘裂谷(Ch)+陆棚海盆地(ZO))
    V—秦祁昆多岛弧盆系:V-1—阿中地块及其边缘(V-1-1—红柳沟-拉配泉弧-陆碰撞带( O),V-1-2—阿中地块北部裂谷(Ch, Qb),V-1-3—江嘎孜莎依超高压变质岩带(Pt3Pz1),V-1-4—阿帕-茫崖弧-弧碰撞带(Pz1));V-2—北祁连结合带(V-2-1—乌鞘岭-老虎山弧后洋盆(O2-3),V-2-2—走廊南山东段清水岛弧(ZO),V-2-3—昌马-九个泉-寺大隆岛弧(O)+洋内弧(O1-2)+弧后(间)洋盆(O1-2),V-2-4—北祁连弧-陆碰撞带(Pz1));V-3—中祁连地块及其边缘(V-3-1—冰沟-达坂山北坡陆缘弧( 2O)+陆缘小洋盆(O),V-3-2—中祁连陆表海(D3T2),V-3-3—党河南山-拉脊山-雾宿山弧间小洋盆(Pz1));V-4—南祁连地块(V-4-1—南祁连前陆盆地(S)+陆表海盆地(PT2),V-4-2—化隆基底隆起带(Ar3Pt1));V-5—柴达木陆块及其边缘(V-5-1—宗务隆山弧后小洋盆(CP2),V-5-2—欧龙布鲁克微地块(Pt1基底+NhO盖层),V-5-3—柴北缘弧陆碰撞带( S),V-5-4—柴达木压陷盆地(E3Q),V-5-5—祁漫塔格岛弧及弧后盆地(OS),V-5-6—东昆中复合岩浆弧(Pt3,Pz1,CT));V-6—西秦岭联合地块(V-6-1—贵德-礼县一带弧后伸展盆地(D2T2),V-6-2—青海湖南山-甘加弧后洋盆(CP2),V-6-3—鄂拉山弧后裂谷(CP2),V-6-4—西秦岭前陆盆地(T1-2),V-6-5—白龙江陆缘裂谷(O3S)+弧后伸展盆地(DT1));V-7—秦岭地块及其南北两侧陆缘(V-7-1—斜峪关-二郎坪弧后盆地(Pt2-3)+弧-陆碰撞带(Pz1),V-7-2—秦岭地块(Pt1),V-7-3—商丹弧-陆碰撞带(Pt3O));V-8—中南秦岭陆缘(上扬子北部陆缘)(V-8-1—中南秦岭被动陆缘(NhS)+弧后伸展盆地(DT2),V-8-2—留凤关前陆盆地(T1-2),V-8-3—白水江镇-窑坪陆缘裂谷(OS),V-8-4—北大巴山裂谷(Pt2-3)+陆缘裂谷(S))
    VI—南昆仑-巴颜喀拉洋板块系统:VI-1—纳赤台-布尔汗布达山弧-陆碰撞带(OS);VI-2—东昆仑西段阿克塔格-落雁山弧后盆地(CP2);VI-3—温泉水库-醉马滩弧后盆地(CP2)+弧背盆地(P3);VI-4—木孜塔格-阿尼玛卿弧-陆碰撞带(CP);VI-5—勉略弧-陆碰撞带(DC);VI-6—康西瓦-苏巴什弧-陆碰撞带(CP);VI-7—黄羊岭-巴颜喀拉残留洋盆(CT)+前陆盆地(T);VI-8—西金乌兰-玉树弧-陆碰撞带(D2T)
    VII北羌塘多岛弧盆系:VII-1甜水海地块(VII-1-1大红柳滩-胜利达坂弧后盆地(P),VII-1-2泉水沟前陆盆地(T),VII-1-3达布达尔-麻扎前陆盆地(S1),VII-1-4阿格勒达坂-神仙湾-岔路口陆棚海盆地( O, D2P)+陆缘裂谷(P1-2));VII-2碧口地块(VII-2-1秧田坝弧后盆地(Qb),VII-2-2碧口岛弧(Qb),VII-2-3桅杆梁弧-陆碰撞带(Qb));VII-3北羌塘地块(VII-3-1明镜湖-下拉秀陆缘弧(T3),VII-3-2八五道班弧后洋盆(CP2),VII-3-3北羌塘双向弧后盆地(CP)+前陆盆地(J),VII-3-4格拉丹东岩浆弧(TJ))
    VIII扬子陆块区:VIII-1上扬子陆块(汉南部分)(VIII-1-1汉南岩浆弧+岛弧(Pt3),VIII-1-2上扬子陆棚海盆地(NhS1, PT2),VIII-1-3高川上陆棚斜坡(D3T2))
    IX双湖-班公湖洋板块系统:IX-1日土地块(IX-1-1喀喇昆仑山前陆盆地(T1-2))

    Figure  1.  Division of tectonic units in northwest China

    图  2  中奥陶世、早二叠世构造古地理复原图(据Scotese,www.scotese.com; Mc Elhinny,1973; Van der Voo,1990程鑫等,2013修改)

    Figure  2.  Tectonic paleogeography restoration map of the Middle Ordovician and Early Permian(modified after Scotese, www.scotese.com; Mc Elhinny, 1973; Van der Voo, 1990; Cheng et al., 2013)

    图  3  天山-北山及邻区古生代演化模式图

    Figure  3.  Paleozoic evolution model of Tianshan-Beishan and its adjacent areas

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  • 收稿日期:  2020-08-11
  • 修回日期:  2020-09-14
  • 刊出日期:  2020-10-28

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